Augusta Augusta–Richmond County, is a consolidated city-county on the central eastern border of the U. S. state of Georgia. The city lies across the Savannah River from South Carolina at the head of its navigable portion. Georgia's second-largest city after Atlanta, Augusta is located in the Piedmont section of the state. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Augusta–Richmond County had a 2017 estimated population of 197,166, not counting the unconsolidated cities of Blythe and Hephzibah, it is the 122nd largest city in the United States. The process of consolidation between the City of Augusta and Richmond County began with a 1995 referendum in the two jurisdictions; the merger was completed on July 1, 1996. Augusta is the principal city of the Augusta metropolitan area, situated in both Georgia and South Carolina on both sides of the Savannah River. In 2017 it had an estimated population of 600,151, making it the second-largest metro area in the state, it is the 93rd largest metropolitan area in the United States.
Augusta was established in 1736 and is named for Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, the bride of Frederick, Prince of Wales and the mother of the British monarch George III. During the American Civil War, Augusta housed the principal Confederate powder works. Augusta's warm climate made it a major resort town of the Eastern United States in the early and mid-20th century. Internationally, Augusta is best known for hosting The Masters golf tournament each spring; the Masters brings over 200,000 visitors from across the world to the Augusta National Golf Club. Membership at Augusta National is considered to be the most exclusive in the sport of golf across the world. Augusta lies two hours east of downtown Atlanta by car via I-20; the city is home to Fort Gordon, a major U. S. Army base. In 2016, it was announced that the new National Cyber Security Headquarters would be based in Augusta, bringing as many as 10,000 cyber security specialists to the Fort Gordon area; the area along the river was long inhabited by varying cultures of indigenous peoples, who relied on the river for fish and transportation.
The site of Augusta was used by Native Americans as a place to cross the Savannah River, because of its location on the fall line. In 1735, two years after James Oglethorpe founded Savannah, he sent a detachment of troops to explore the upper Savannah River, he gave them an order to build a fort at the head of the navigable part of the river. The expedition was led by Noble Jones, who created a settlement as a first line of defense for coastal areas against potential Spanish or French invasion from the interior. Oglethorpe named the town in honor of Princess Augusta, the mother of King George III and the wife of Frederick, Prince of Wales. Oglethorpe visited Augusta in September 1739 on his return to Savannah from a perilous visit to Coweta Town, near present-day Phenix City, Alabama. There, he had met with a convention of 7,000 Native American warriors and concluded a peace treaty with them in their territories in northern and western Georgia. Augusta was the second state capital of Georgia from 1785 until 1795.
Augusta developed as a market town as the Black Belt in the Piedmont was developed for cotton cultivation. Invention of the cotton gin made processing of short-staple cotton profitable, this type of cotton was well-suited to the upland areas. Cotton plantations were worked by slave labor, with hundreds of thousands of slaves shipped from the Upper South to the Deep South in the domestic slave trade. Many of the slaves were brought from the Lowcountry, where their Gullah culture had developed on the large Sea Island cotton and rice plantations; the city experienced the Augusta Fire of 1916, which damaged 25 blocks of the town and many buildings of historical significance. As a major city in the area, Augusta was a center of activities after. In the mid-20th century, it was a site of civil rights demonstrations. In 1970 Charles Oatman, a mentally disabled teenager, was killed by his cellmates in an Augusta jail. A protest against his death broke out in a riot involving 500 people, after six black men were killed by police, each found to have been shot in the back.
The noted singer and entertainer James Brown was called in to help quell lingering tensions, which he succeeded in doing. Augusta is located on the Georgia/South Carolina border, about 150 miles east of Atlanta and 70 miles west of Columbia; the city is located at 33°28′12″N 81°58′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Augusta–Richmond County balance has a total area of 306.5 square miles, of which 302.1 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water. Augusta is located about halfway up the Savannah River on the fall line, which creates a number of small falls on the river; the city marks the end of a navigable waterway for the river and the entry to the Georgia Piedmont area. The Clarks Hill Dam is built on the fall line near Augusta. Farther downstream, near the border of Columbia County, is the Stevens Creek Dam, which generates hydroelectric power. Farther downstream is the Augusta Diversion Dam, which marks the beginning of the Augusta Canal and channels Savannah River waters into the canal.
As with the rest of the state, Augusta has a humid subtropical climate, with short, mild winters hot, humid summers, a wide diurnal temperature variation throughout much of the year, despite its low elevation and moisture. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 45.4 °F in January to 81.6 °F in July.
In baseball and softball, a relief pitcher or reliever is a pitcher who enters the game after the starting pitcher is removed due to injury, fatigue, ejection, or for other strategic reasons, such as inclement weather delays or pinch hitter substitutions. Relief pitchers are further divided informally into various roles, such as closers, setup men, middle relief pitchers, left/right-handed specialists, long relievers. Whereas starting pitchers rest several days before pitching in a game again due to the number of pitches thrown, relief pitchers are expected to be more flexible and pitch more games but with fewer innings pitched. A team's staff of relievers is referred to metonymically as a team's bullpen, which refers to the area where the relievers sit during games, where they warm-up prior to entering the game. In the early days of Major League Baseball, substituting a player was not allowed except for sickness or injury. An ineffective pitcher would switch positions with another player on the field.
The first relief appearance in the major leagues was in 1876 with Boston Red Caps outfielder Jack Manning switching positions with pitcher Joe Borden. In this early era, relief pitchers changing from a position role to the pitcher's box in this way were called "change" pitchers; this strategy of switching players between the mound and the outfield is still employed in modern baseball, sometimes in long extra inning games where a team is running out of players. In 1889, the first bullpen appearance occurred after rules were changed to allow a player substitution at any time. Early relief pitchers were starting pitchers pitching one or two innings in between starts. In 1903, during the second game of the inaugural World Series, Pittsburgh's Bucky Veil became the first relief pitcher in World Series history. Firpo Marberry is credited with being the first prominent reliever. From 1923 to 1935, he pitched in 551 games. Baseball historian Bill James wrote that Marberry was "a modern reliever—a hard throwing young kid who worked in relief and was used to nail down victories."
Another reliever, Johnny Murphy, became known as "Fireman" for his effectiveness when inserted into difficult situations in relief. Nonetheless, the full-time reliever, entrusted with important situations was more the exception than the rule at this point. A team's ace starting pitcher was used in between his starts to "close" games. Research would reveal that Lefty Grove would have been in his league's top three in saves in four different seasons, had that stat been invented at the time. After World War II, full-time relievers became more acceptable and standard; the relievers were pitchers that were not good enough to be starters. Relievers in the 1950s started to develop oddball pitches to distinguish them from starters. For example, Hoyt Wilhelm threw a knuckleball, Elroy Face threw a forkball. In 1969, the pitcher's mound was lowered and umpires were encouraged to call fewer strikes to give batters an advantage. Relief specialists were used to counter the increase in offense. Relievers became more respected in the 1970s, their pay increased due to free agency.
All teams began having a closer. The 1980s were the first time in MLB. In 1995, there were nearly four saves for every complete game, it is unclear whether the specialization and reliance on relief pitchers led to pitch counts and fewer complete games, or whether pitch counts led to greater use of relievers. As closers were reduced to one-inning specialists, setup men and middle relievers became more prominent. In past decades, the relief pitcher was an ex-starter who came into a game upon the injury, ineffectiveness, or fatigue of the starting pitcher; the bullpen was for old starters. Many of these pitchers would be able to flourish in this diminished role; those such as Dennis Eckersley, as with many others prolonged their tapering careers and sparked them to new life. The added rest to their arms as well as the lessened exposure of their abilities became an advantage many would learn to capitalize on; because these pitchers only faced some batters once a season, the opposing side would have greater difficulty preparing to face relief pitchers.
Being a relief pitcher has become more of a career, rather than a reduced position. Many of today's top prospects are considered for their relief pitching skills. In the quest for a managerial edge, managers as time goes on have carried more pitchers in the bullpen, used them in more specialized situations. Acknowledgment of the platoon edge has prompted managers to ensure that opposing lefty hitters face as many lefty pitchers as possible, that the same occur with respect to righty hitters and pitchers. Tony La Russa was well known for making frequent pitching changes on this basis; when Mike Marshall set the all-time record with 106 games pitched in 1974, he threw 208.1 innings. Although some relievers still do appear in a large number of games per season, the workload for each individual pitcher has been much reduced. Since 2008, Pedro Feliciano has three of the top four seasons in games pitched, with 92, 88 and 86. However, Feliciano only averaged 58 innings pitched during those seasons; the last pitcher to throw 100 or more innings in a season without starting a game was Scott Proctor in 2006.
Pitching staffs on MLB teams have grown from 9 or 10 to as many as 12 or 13 pitchers, due to the increased importance of relief pitching. The staff consists of five starting pitchers, with the remaining pitchers assigned as relievers. A team's re
Major League Baseball draft
The first-year player draft is Major League Baseball's primary mechanism for assigning amateur baseball players from high schools and other amateur baseball clubs to its teams. The draft order is determined based on the previous season's standings, with the team possessing the worst record receiving the first pick; the most recent draft was held on June 4–6, 2018. The first amateur draft was held in 1965. Unlike most sports drafts, the first-year player draft is held mid-season, in June. Another distinguishing feature of this draft in comparison with those of other North American major professional sports leagues is its sheer size: under the current collective bargaining agreement the draft lasts 40 rounds, plus compensatory picks. In contrast, the NFL draft lasts for seven rounds, the NHL entry draft lasts seven rounds and 215 picks, the NBA draft lasts for only two rounds. Major League Baseball has used a draft to assign minor league players to teams since 1921. In 1936, the National Football League held the first amateur draft in professional sports.
A decade the National Basketball Association instituted a similar method of player distribution. However, the player draft was controversial. Congressman Emanuel Celler questioned the legality of drafts during a series of hearings on the business practice of professional sports leagues in the 1950s. Successful clubs saw the draft as anti-competitive. Yankees executive Johnny Johnson equated it with communism. At the same time, Pulitzer Prize-winning sports columnist Arthur Daley compared the system to a "slave market."Prior to the implementation of the first-year player draft, amateurs were free to sign with any Major League team that offered them a contract. As a result, wealthier teams such as the New York Yankees and St. Louis Cardinals were able to stockpile young talent, while poorer clubs were left to sign less desirable prospects. In 1947, Major League Baseball implemented the bonus rule, a restriction aimed at reducing player salaries, as well as keeping wealthier teams from monopolizing the player market.
In its most restrictive form, it forbade any team which gave an amateur a signing bonus of more than $4,000 from assigning that player to a minor league affiliate for two seasons. If the player was removed from the major league roster, he became a free agent; the controversial legislation was repealed only to be re-instituted. The bonus rule was ineffective. There were accusations that teams were signing players to smaller bonuses, only to supplement them with under-the-table payments. In one famous incident, the Kansas City Athletics signed Clete Boyer, kept him on their roster for two years traded him to the Yankees just as he became eligible to be sent to the minor leagues. Other clubs accused the Yankees of using the Athletics as a de facto farm team, the A's admitted to signing Boyer on their behalf, it was the bidding war for Rick Reichardt, who signed with the Los Angeles Angels for the outrageous bonus of $200,000, that led to the implementation of the draft. Major League clubs voted on the draft during the 1964 Winter Meetings.
Four teams—the New York Yankees, St. Louis Cardinals, Los Angeles Dodgers, New York Mets—attempted to defeat the proposal, but they failed to convince a majority of teams, in the end only the Cardinals voted against it. Major League Baseball's first amateur draft was held on June 8 -- 1965, in New York City. Teams chose players in reverse order of the previous season's standings, with picks alternating between the National and American Leagues. With the first pick, the Kansas City Athletics took Rick Monday, an outfielder from Arizona State University. Three separate drafts were held each year; the June draft, by far the largest, involved new high school graduates, as well as college seniors who had just finished their seasons. Another draft was held in January, which involved high school players who graduated in the winter, junior college players, players who had dropped out of four-year colleges. Junior college players were required to wait until their current season was completed before they could sign.
There was a draft in August for players who participated in amateur summer leagues. The August draft was eliminated after only two years, while the January draft lasted until 1986. Early on, the majority of players drafted came directly from high school. Between 1967 and 1971, only seven college players were chosen in the first round of the June draft. However, the college players who were drafted outperformed their high school counterparts by what statistician Bill James called "a laughably huge margin." By 1978, a majority of draftees had played college baseball, by 2002, the number rose above sixty percent. While the number of high school players drafted has dropped, those picked have been more successful than their predecessors. In a study of drafts from 1984 to 1999, Baseball Prospectus writer Rany Jazayerli concluded that, by the 1990s, the gap in production between the two groups had nearly disappeared. In October 2011, Dr. Jazayerli presented another research study which included an analysis of those players drafted since 1965, but instead of breaking them into college or high school draftees, he segregated them by their age on draft day.
In the study published in Baseball Prospectus, which included a follow up article of the financial benefits, Jazayerli concluded that the young players return more value than expected by their draft slots. In Jazayerli’s study he looked at the statistics and broke draftees into 5 distinctive groups based on their age and being drafted in the early rounds. Dr. Jazayerli’s defined a “very young” player as those who are younger than 17 years and 296 days on
In baseball, a setup man is a relief pitcher who pitches before the closer. They pitch the eighth inning, with the closer pitching the ninth; as closers were reduced to one-inning specialists, setup men became more prominent. Setup pitchers come into the game with the team losing or the game tied, they are the second best relief pitcher on a team, behind the closer. After closers became one-inning pitchers in the ninth inning, setup pitchers became more valued. A pitcher who succeeds in this role is promoted to a closer. Setup men are paid less than closers and make less than the average Major League salary; the most common statistic used to evaluate relievers is the save. Due to the definition of the statistic, setup men are in position to record a save if they pitch well, but they can be charged with a blown save if they pitch poorly; the hold statistic was developed to help acknowledge a setup man's effectiveness, but it is not an official Major League Baseball statistic. Setup men were selected to MLB All-Star Games, with the nod going to closers with large save totals.
From 1971 through 2000, only six relievers with fewer than five saves at midseason were selected as All-Stars. There were 10 such players from 2001 through 2009. In 2015, the majority of the American League's All-Star relievers were not closers, outnumbered 4–3. Setup men who have been named All-Stars multiple times include Justin Duchscherer, Tyler Clippard, Dellin Betances, Andrew Miller. Francisco Rodriguez, a setup pitcher for the Anaheim Angels in 2002, tied starting pitcher Randy Johnson's Major League Baseball record for wins in a single postseason after recording his fifth victory in the 2002 World Series. Tim McCarver wrote that the New York Yankees in 1996 "revolutionized baseball" with Mariano Rivera, "a middle reliever who should have been on the All-Star team and, a legitimate MVP candidate." He finished third in the voting for the American League Cy Young Award, the highest a setup man has finished. That season, Rivera served as a setup pitcher for closer John Wetteland pitching in the seventh and eighth inning of games before Wetteland pitched in the ninth.
Their effectiveness gave the Yankees a 70–3 win–loss record that season when leading after six innings. McCarver said the Yankees played "six-inning games" that year, with Rivera dominating for two innings and Wetteland closing out the victory. Illustrating the general trend, both Rivera and Rodriguez were moved to closer soon after excelling as setup men. On January 22, 2019, Rivera became the first unanimously elected baseball hall-of-famer having been inducted his first eligible year on the ballot
José Alberto Pujols Alcántara is a Dominican-American professional baseball first baseman and designated hitter for the Los Angeles Angels of Major League Baseball. He played 11 seasons for the St. Louis Cardinals, with whom he was a three-time National League Most Valuable Player and nine-time All-Star, he made his 10th All-Star appearance with the Angels in 2015. A right-handed batter and thrower, Pujols weighs 235 pounds. Pujols was born in the Dominican Republic and moved to the United States in 1996. After one season of college baseball, he was selected by the Cardinals in the 13th round of the 1999 MLB draft; as a rookie for the Cardinals in 2001, he was unanimously voted the NL Rookie of the Year. Pujols played for the Cardinals, contributing to two World Series championships in 2006 and 2011. After the 2011 season, Pujols signed a 10-year contract with the Angels. Pujols was at the height of his career a regarded hitter who showed a "combination of contact hitting ability and raw power."
He is a six-time Silver Slugger who has twice led the NL in home runs, he has led the NL once each in batting average, doubles and RBI. He is above-average in career regular season batting average, walk rate and Isolated Power, he holds the MLB all-time record for most times grounded into a double play. With 14 seasons of 100 or more RBI produced, he is tied with Alex Rodriguez for the most in MLB history. Pujols got his 3,000 th career hit in 2018. Pujols became the fourth member of the 3,000-hit club to hit 600 home runs, joining Willie Mays, Hank Aaron, Alex Rodriguez in this exclusive club, he is a strong future candidate for the Hall of Fame. Pujols was raised in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic by his grandmother, America Pujols, 10 of his uncles and aunts, he was an only child. His father, Bienvenido Pujols, was a softball pitcher, but he was an alcoholic. Albert had to take his father home when his father got drunk following the games. Growing up, Pujols practiced baseball using a milk carton for a glove.
Pujols, his father and his grandmother immigrated in 1996 to New York City, where Albert witnessed a shooting at a grocery store. Because of the shooting, they moved to Independence, two months to join some relatives. Pujols played baseball at Fort Osage High School in Independence and was named an All-State athlete twice; as a senior, he was walked 55 times in protest because opposing coaches believed he was older than 18, but he still hit eight home runs in 33 at bats. One of his home runs travelled 450 feet. After graduating from high school a semester early in December 1998, he was given a baseball scholarship to Maple Woods Community College. Pujols hit a grand slam and turned an unassisted triple play in the first game of his only college season. Playing shortstop, he batted.461 with 22 home runs as a freshman before deciding to enter the Major League Baseball draft. Few teams were interested in Pujols because of uncertainty about his age, which position he would play, his build. Tampa Bay Rays scout Fernando Arango recommended that his team sign Pujols, quit his job when Tampa Bay failed to do so.
Pujols was not drafted until the 13th round of the 1999 Major League Baseball Draft, when the St. Louis Cardinals selected him with the 402nd overall pick. Pujols turned down a $10,000 bonus and spent the summer playing for the Hays Larks of the Jayhawk Collegiate League; when the Cardinals increased their bonus offer to $60,000, he signed. Pujols began his minor league career in 2000 playing third base with the Peoria Chiefs of the single-A Midwest League, he batted.324 in 109 games. He finished second in the league in batting, tied for ninth in doubles, tied for fourth in triples, tied for sixth in home runs and sixth in RBI, he was named to the All-Star team. Pujols played 21 games with the Potomac Cannons in the high-A Carolina League that year, batting.284 with 23 hits, eight doubles, one triple, two home runs and 10 RBI. He finished the 2000 season with the Memphis Redbirds in the AAA Pacific Coast League, after appearing in three regular season games with them, he batted.367 in the playoffs and was named the postseason Most Valuable Player as the Redbirds won their first PCL title.
During spring training in 2001, incumbent first baseman Mark McGwire said to Cardinals manager Tony La Russa that if he did not promote Pujols to the major league roster, "it might be one of the worst moves you make in your career." La Russa recounted the "myth" that Pujols only made the Opening Day roster in 2001 because Bobby Bonilla was injured. According to La Russa, he and the rest of Cardinals management were impressed enough by Pujols that they decided to promote him to the big league club before Bonilla's injury. Although the team did not require Pujols to fill any particular position, the Cardinals activated him to the Opening Day roster, he started all season at either third base, right field, left field, or first base. On Opening Day against the Colorado Rockies on April 2, he recorded his first career hit, a single against pitcher Mike Hampton in an 8–0 loss. Four days lat
In baseball, a save is credited to a pitcher who finishes a game for the winning team under certain prescribed circumstances, described below. The number of saves, or percentage of save opportunities converted, is an oft-cited statistic of relief pitchers those in the closer role, it became an official Major League Baseball statistic in 1969. Mariano Rivera is MLB's all-time leader in regular season saves with 652; the term save was being used as far back as 1952. Executives Jim Toomey of the St. Louis Cardinals, Allan Roth of the Los Angeles Dodgers and Irv Kaze of the Pittsburgh Pirates awarded saves to pitchers who finished winning games but were not credited with the win, regardless of the margin of victory; the statistic went unnoticed. A formula with more criteria for saves was invented in 1960 by baseball writer Jerome Holtzman, he felt that the existing statistics at the time, earned run average and win–loss record, did not sufficiently measure a reliever's effectiveness. ERA does not account for inherited runners a reliever allows to score, W-L record does not account for relievers protecting leads.
Elroy Face of the Pittsburgh Pirates was 18–1 in 1959. Holtzman felt that Face was more effective the previous year when he was 5–2; when Holtzman presented the idea to J. G. Taylor Spink, publisher of The Sporting News, " gave a $100 bonus. Maybe it was $200." Holtzman recorded the unofficial save statistic in The Sporting News weekly for nine years before it became official in 1969. In conjunction with publishing the statistic, The Sporting News in 1960 introduced the Fireman of the Year Award, awarded based on a combination of saves and wins; the save became an official MLB statistic in 1969. It was MLB's first new major statistic since the run batted in was added in 1920. Bill Singer is credited with recording the first official save when he pitched three shutout innings in relief of Don Drysdale in the Los Angeles Dodgers' 3–2 Opening Day victory over the Cincinnati Reds at Crosley Field on April 7 of that year. In baseball statistics, the term save is used to indicate the successful maintenance of a lead by a relief pitcher the closer, until the end of the game.
A save is a statistic credited to a relief pitcher, as set forth in Rule 9.19 of the Official Rules of Major League Baseball. That rule states the official scorer shall credit a pitcher with a save when such pitcher meets all four of the following conditions: He is the finishing pitcher in a game won by his team. If a relief pitcher satisfies all of the criteria for a save, except he does not finish the game, he will be credited with a hold. A blown save is charged to a pitcher who enters a game in a situation which permits him to earn a save, but who instead allows the tying run to score. Note that if the tying run was scored by a runner, on base when the new pitcher entered the game, that new pitcher will be charged with a blown save though the run will not be charged to the new pitcher, but rather to the pitcher who allowed that runner to reach base. If the reliever allows the tying or leading run, but the reliever's team wins the game, the reliever wins the game. Due to this definition, a pitcher cannot blow multiple saves in a game unless he has multiple save opportunities, a situation only possible when a pitcher temporarily switches defensive positions.
The blown save was introduced by the Rolaids Relief Man Award in 1988. A pitcher who enters the game in a save situation and does not finish the game—but his team still leading—is not charged with a save opportunity. Save percentage is the ratio of saves to save opportunities. In 1974, tougher criteria were adopted for saves where the tying run had to be on base or at the plate when the reliever entered to qualify for a save; this addressed saves such as Ron Taylor's in a 20–6 New York Mets win over the Atlanta Braves. The rule was relaxed in 1975 to credit a save when a reliever pitches at least one inning with no more than a three-run lead, or comes in with runners on base but the tying run on deck. In 2000, Rolaids started recording a tough save when a pitcher enters a save situation with the potential tying run on base, but still earns the save; as Francisco Rodríguez pursued the single-season saves record in 2008, Baseball Prospectus member Joe Sheehan, Sports Illustrated writer Tom Verducci, The New York Sun writer Tim Marchman wrote that Rodríguez's save total was enhanced by the number of opportunities his team presented, allowing him to amass one particular statistic.
They thought. Sheehan offered that saves did not account for a pitcher's proficiency at preventing runs nor did it reflect leads that were not preserved. Bradford Doolittle of The Kansas City Star wrote, " is the only example in sports of a statistic creating a job." He decried the best relievers pitching fewer innings starting in the 1980s with their workload being reduced from two- to one-inning outings while less efficient pitchers were pitching those innin
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it