A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, make reports; the information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers and visual journalists, such as photojournalists.
Journalism has developed a variety of standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are of primary concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint; this has become more prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions and policies. These platforms project extreme bias, as "sources" are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, televised, or otherwise "published" end product. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, Public Opinion and The Phantom Public, Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights; these limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was important.” In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026. Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press.
Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment; the "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are higher; the ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Cuba and Sudan. Apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically; this applies to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is needed.
However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far. The Newseum in Washington, D. C. is home to the Journalists Memorial, which lists the names of over 2,100 journalists from around the world who were killed in the line of duty. The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can sometimes impact the direction of the article written by the journalist; the article'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor'The Tango' to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source leads but journalists object to this notion for two reasons: It signals source supremacy in news making, it offends journalists' professional culture, which emphasizes editorial autonomy. This dance metaphor helps showcase consensus within the relationship but the article describe the common relation between the two "A relationship with sources, too cozy is compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive.
Journalists have favored a
Centre for Fortean Zoology
Centre for Fortean Zoology is an organisation dedicated to cryptozoology, allied disciplines. According to the CFZ, it is a non-profit organisation founded in 1992 by Jonathan Downes, its honorary life president is the British explorer John Blashford-Snell. According to the CFZ, its primary focus involves unknown animals or cryptozoology, but they examine unusual and aberrant animal behavior, animal mutilations, animal colour variants, animal folklore, classic Fortean subjects as creature falls, vampire/werewolf reports. CFZ members have carried out expeditions in the UK, including Cannock,Bolam Lake, the Lake District, as well as foreign locations such as The Gambia and Tasmania From 2000 to 2016, the CFZ promoted an annual conference called The Weird Weekend. CFZ Press publishes a journal entitled Animals & Men, founded in 1994; the magazine covers a wide range of phenomena. Penn and Teller: Bullshit! - Season 4 Episode 1: Cryptozoology CFZ website
Lost Tapes is an American television horror series that aired on Animal Planet. Produced by Go Go Luckey Entertainment, the program presents fictional found footage depicting traumatic encounters with cryptozoological creatures, supernatural creatures, mythological creatures, extraterrestrials. Creatures featured include Bigfoot, the Chupacabra, Vampires and Reptilians; the pilot aired on Animal Planet October 30, 2008, for Halloween, but the series premiered on January 6, 2009. Animal Planet commissioned a second season, which premiered on September 29, 2009. Season 3 premiered on September 28, 2010, with episodes featuring creatures such as zombies and the Kraken; the show used to air on Planet Green. Lost Tapes depicts traumatic scenarios where people are attacked and/or killed by mysterious, deadly and ferocious paranormal wild cryptids; the series is shot in a mockumentary style. Most episodes begin with a quick introduction of facts, which include interviews with experts explaining scientific theories or facts and folklore behind the episode's titular creature.
In the second season, some episodes began with footage of a person being attacked and killed by the episode's creature, an introduction meant to set up the events of each episode. In the third season, every episode had such an introduction, though the events of every episode in all three seasons are accompanied by videos of scientists and folklorists giving their thoughts and opinions of the creatures, which are called Lost Tapes: Revelations. A common formula in Lost Tapes involves the human characters either a single person or a small group, ending up in a remote part of the world or otherwise in a place with few options of escape, such as enclosed areas like buildings or underground tunnels, they soon encounter the episode's creature in a series of stressful events, which sometimes result in the deaths of some or all of the featured characters. Many episodes end in cliffhangers which state that the creature which appeared in the episode was never found, may "live among us". With the exception of a brief injury in Thunderbird, no children have been physically harmed on-screen, though sometimes they become traumatized after the events of the episode, as in Chupacabra and Death Raptor.
In most episodes, the creatures are only revealed to the audience, in brief glimpses or otherwise only as silhouettes, shadows, or are obscured by darkness. To give the show a mysterious atmosphere, techniques such as those used in Jaws are employed, the creatures are never seen. Hellhound, the last episode of the first season, marked the first time that a creature was shown on camera, the second season revealed more creatures than the first: in Jersey Devil, for instance, the creature's legs and face are shown; the third season showed more creatures, many of them in full view of the camera. However, realism was better-maintained with human-like creatures, such as in Reptilian. Non-human-like animals were shown more though this led to some negative criticism among fans as many of the creatures in the third season were less convincing with low budget animatronics and CGI, such as in Kraken and Q: The Serpent God, or simply people in costumes, as in Devil Monkey and Yeti. While most episodes feature the titular cryptid as the antagonist, in some episodes they benefit the people that the story follows.
For example, in Bigfoot, the creature seems to be watching over and protecting the main character killing a poacher, trying to attack her. While there is no connection between episodes, the third season introduced the recurring Enigma Corporation, "a private security firm that specializes in the unexplained," though it is not clear what order each of the episodes featuring them is supposed to be in chronologically or if the characters Noel Connor and Elise Mooney remember their experiences in each episode, as no connection between each time besides the third agent being killed; the Enigma Corporation first appeared in the third season's premiere and reappeared in Strigoi Vampire and again in Q: The Serpent God. Lost Tapes has received mixed reviews from critics. In a review of the season one DVD, TV Squad writer John Scott Lewinski gave the series a unfavorable review, stating that in the case of this series, "Animal Planet could be accused of repacking a horror/sci-fi show as an animal documentary" and that much of the program is "outright bollocks."
He did, state that the show holds some appeal for audiences looking for a scare, or "incredibly gullible people." Emily Ashby of Common Sense Media gave the series three out of five stars, noting that while the acting was "subpar", the show overall was "simultaneously scintillating and bone-chilling." Found footage Cryptozoology Cryptid Monsters and Mysteries in America Official website Lost Tapes on IMDb
Libertarianism is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle. Libertarians seek to maximize political freedom and autonomy, emphasizing freedom of choice, voluntary association and individual judgment. Libertarians share a skepticism of authority and state power, but they diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing political and economic systems. Various schools of libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the legitimate functions of state and private power calling for the restriction or dissolution of coercive social institutions. Traditionally, libertarianism was a term for a form of left-wing politics; such left-libertarian ideologies seek to abolish capitalism and private ownership of the means of production, or else to restrict their purview or effects, in favor of common or cooperative ownership and management, viewing private property as a barrier to freedom and liberty. Classical libertarian ideologies include—but are not limited to—anarcho-communism, anarcho-syndicalism and egoism, alongside many other anti-paternalist, New Left schools of thought centered around economic egalitarianism.
Modern right-libertarian ideologies, such as minarchism and anarcho-capitalism, co-opted the term in the mid-20th century to instead advocate laissez-faire capitalism and strong private property rights such as in land and natural resources. The first recorded use of the term libertarian was in 1789, when William Belsham wrote about libertarianism in the context of metaphysics; as early as 1796, the word libertarian came to mean an advocate or defender of liberty in the political and social spheres, when the London Packet printed on 12 February the following: "Lately marched out of the Prison at Bristol, 450 of the French Libertarians". The word was again used in a political sense in 1802 in a short piece critiquing a poem by "the author of Gebir" and has since been used with this meaning; the use of the word libertarian to describe a new set of political positions has been traced to the French cognate libertaire, coined in a letter French libertarian communist Joseph Déjacque wrote to mutualist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in 1857.
Déjacque used the term for his anarchist publication Le Libertaire, Journal du mouvement social, printed from 9 June 1858 to 4 February 1861 in New York City. Sébastien Faure, another French libertarian communist, began publishing a new Le Libertaire in the mid-1890s while France's Third Republic enacted the so-called villainous laws which banned anarchist publications in France. Thus, libertarianism has been used as a synonym for anarchism and libertarian socialism since this time; the term libertarianism was first used in the United States as a synonym for classical liberalism in May 1955 by writer Dean Russell, a colleague of Leonard Read and a classical liberal himself. Russell justified the choice of the word as follows: "Many of us call ourselves'liberals.' And it is true that the word'liberal' once described persons who respected the individual and feared the use of mass compulsions. But the leftists have now corrupted that once-proud term to identify themselves and their program of more government ownership of property and more controls over persons.
As a result, those of us who believe in freedom must explain that when we call ourselves liberals, we mean liberals in the uncorrupted classical sense. At best, this is subject to misunderstanding. Here is a suggestion: Let those of us who love liberty trade-mark and reserve for our own use the good and honorable word'libertarian'". Subsequently, a growing number of Americans with classical liberal beliefs began to describe themselves as libertarian. One person responsible for popularizing the term libertarian in this sense was Murray Rothbard, who started publishing libertarian works in the 1960s. Rothbard describes this modern use of the words overtly as a "capture" from his enemies, saying that "for the first time in my memory, we,'our side,' had captured a crucial word from the enemy.'Libertarians' had long been a polite word for left-wing anarchists, for anti-private property anarchists, either of the communist or syndicalist variety. But now we had taken it over". Robert Nozick was responsible for popularizing this usage of the term in philosophical circles and Europe instead.
According to common meanings of conservative and liberal, libertarianism in the United States has been described as conservative on economic issues and liberal on personal freedom and it is often associated with a foreign policy of non-interventionism. All libertarians begin with a conception of personal autonomy from which they argue in favor of civil liberties and a reduction or elimination of the state. Left-libertarianism encompasses those libertarian beliefs that claim the Earth's natural resources belong to everyone in an egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively. Contemporary left-libertarians such as Hillel Steiner, Peter Vallentyne, Philippe Van Parijs, Michael Otsuka and David Ellerman believe the appropriation of land must leave "enough and as good" for others or be taxed by society to compensate for the exclusionary effects of private property. Libertarian socialists promote usufruct and socialist economic theories, including communism, collectivism and mutualism.
They criticize the state for being the defender of private property and believe capitalism entails wage slavery. Right-libertarianism developed in the United States in the mid-20th century from the works of Euro
The Monster Hunter franchise is a series of fantasy-themed action role-playing video games that started with the game Monster Hunter for PlayStation 2, released in 2004. Titles have been released across a variety of platforms, including personal computer, home console, portable consoles, mobile devices; the series is published by Capcom. The games are action role-playing games; the player takes the role of a Hunter, slaying or trapping large monsters across various landscapes as part of quests given to them by the locals. As part of its core gameplay loop, players use loot gained from slaying monsters, gathering resources, quest rewards to craft improved weapons and other items that allows them to face more powerful monsters. All main series games feature multiplayer, but can be played single player; as of December 31, 2018, the series has sold 53 million units worldwide, principally in Japan and other Asian countries, where it has flourished due to the popularity of the series' ad hoc multiplayer features on portable consoles.
Monster Hunter has been critically well received in Western markets, but has languished in sales, in part due to the game's high difficult learning curve. However, with Monster Hunter: World, Capcom aimed to attract a global audience using the power of advanced home gaming consoles and computers, released the title worldwide. In addition to games, the franchise has an anime based on the spin-off game Monster Hunter Diary: Poka Poka Airou Village, Monster Hunter Stories: Ride On based on Monster Hunter Stories, a manga Monster Hunter Orage, a book Monster Hunter Episode. A feature film is scheduled for release in 2020. Monster Hunter games are action role-playing games, set in a fantasy genre. Players take the role of a Hunter that serves to help protect a village or help research the large monsters that roam the various areas near the village; this is presented through a series of quests to slay or trap a monster, but can include numerous optional challenges. The core feature of Monster Hunter is its compulsion loop.
A player's Hunter does not grow as in traditional computer role-playing games, has no intrinsic attributes. Instead, the Hunter's abilities are defined by what equipment they select prior to leaving on a mission; the games have more than ten weapon archetypes, such as sword and bow, each with various combat abilities, a vast array of specific weapons that provide attack power and the ability to inflict elemental or status effects on a monster. Multiple pieces of armor can be worn, providing defensive value, providing resistances to certain types of attacks or status effects, additional skills that boost the Hunter's attributes while in the field. Additional equipment atop armor can be worn to boost those skills. While the Hunter starts the game with basic equipment and can buy some equipment, most of the gear must be made by collecting resources from the field, including parts that are carved from downed monsters or given as rewards from completing quests successfully; the gameplay loop becomes one of selecting the best equipment to defeat a specific monster, using the parts from that monster to make better gear as to face tougher monsters.
However, as the monster parts that are obtained are distributed based on certain rarity factors, a player may need to grind, hunting the same monster to get the right parts. Once a quest is selected and the player equips their Hunter, they enter one of several fields and must track down the monster, as well as collect other resources used in crafting weapons and restorative items. While in the field, the player must watch their Hunter's stamina; the Hunter will faint if they lose all their health and be returned to the field's base camp where they can continue the mission, but fainting three times will fail the mission. Stamina is consumed by most attacks and actions, but can be regained by standing still. However, should the Hunter use all their stamina, they will be unable to react until they recover, leaving them vulnerable to any attack; the games offer a number of tools and other equipment that can be used to help defeat a monster and recover health and stamina while in the field. Combat is centered around watching for a monster's tells prior to an attack to able to dodge it and/or make a counter-attack, looking for openings to unleash strings of attack combos, depending on the Hunter's current weapon.
In most cases, once the player has initiated an action, such as a combat maneuver or taking a recovery item, they cannot cancel that move until its animation cycle is complete, which may leave them vulnerable to a monster's attack in mid-maneuver. In addition to monster parts for completed a quest, the Hunter is rewarded with Zenny, the in-game currency. Nearly all Monster Hunter games have a single-player mode. More newer games support four player cooperative online modes, allowing the group to hunt down stronger versions of monsters; the games have a main quest line called "Low Rank" quests, which can take up to fifty hours to complete. Once completed, the game opens up with new "High Rank" quests, featuring stronger versions of monsters they have faced, as well as new monsters yet seen and unique var
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals and plants in their environment. A person who studies natural history is called natural historian. Natural history is not limited to it, it involves the systematic study of any category of natural organisms. So while it dates from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic world, through to European Renaissance naturalists working in near isolation, today's natural history is a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences; the meaning of the English term "natural history" has narrowed progressively with time. In antiquity, "natural history" covered anything connected with nature, or which used materials drawn from nature, such as Pliny the Elder's encyclopedia of this title, published circa 77 to 79 AD, which covers astronomy, geography and their technology and superstition, as well as animals and plants. Medieval European academics considered knowledge to have two main divisions: the humanities and divinity, with science studied through texts rather than observation or experiment.
The study of nature revived in the Renaissance, became a third branch of academic knowledge, itself divided into descriptive natural history and natural philosophy, the analytical study of nature. In modern terms, natural philosophy corresponded to modern physics and chemistry, while natural history included the biological and geological sciences; the two were associated. During the heyday of the gentleman scientists, many people contributed to both fields, early papers in both were read at professional science society meetings such as the Royal Society and the French Academy of Sciences – both founded during the seventeenth century. Natural history had been encouraged by practical motives, such as Linnaeus' aspiration to improve the economic condition of Sweden; the Industrial Revolution prompted the development of geology to help find useful mineral deposits. Modern definitions of natural history come from a variety of fields and sources, many of the modern definitions emphasize a particular aspect of the field, creating a plurality of definitions with a number of common themes among them.
For example, while natural history is most defined as a type of observation and a subject of study, it can be defined as a body of knowledge, as a craft or a practice, in which the emphasis is placed more on the observer than on the observed. Definitions from biologists focus on the scientific study of individual organisms in their environment, as seen in this definition by Marston Bates: "Natural history is the study of animals and Plants – of organisms.... I like to think of natural history as the study of life at the level of the individual – of what plants and animals do, how they react to each other and their environment, how they are organized into larger groupings like populations and communities" and this more recent definition by D. S. Wilcove and T. Eisner: "The close observation of organisms—their origins, their evolution, their behavior, their relationships with other species"; this focus on organisms in their environment is echoed by H. W. Greene and J. B. Losos: "Natural history focuses on where organisms are and what they do in their environment, including interactions with other organisms.
It encompasses changes in internal states insofar as they pertain to what organisms do". Some definitions go further, focusing on direct observation of organisms in their environment, both past and present, such as this one by G. A. Bartholomew: "A student of natural history, or a naturalist, studies the world by observing plants and animals directly; because organisms are functionally inseparable from the environment in which they live and because their structure and function cannot be adequately interpreted without knowing some of their evolutionary history, the study of natural history embraces the study of fossils as well as physiographic and other aspects of the physical environment". A common thread in many definitions of natural history is the inclusion of a descriptive component, as seen in a recent definition by H. W. Greene: "Descriptive ecology and ethology". Several authors have argued for a more expansive view of natural history, including S. Herman, who defines the field as "the scientific study of plants and animals in their natural environments.
It is concerned with levels of organization from the individual organism to the ecosystem, stresses identification, life history, distribution and inter-relationships. It and appropriately includes an esthetic component", T. Fleischner, who defines the field more broadly, as "A practice of intentional, focused attentiveness and receptivity to the more-than-human world, guided by honesty and accuracy"; these definitions explicitly include the arts in the field of natural history, are aligned with the broad definition outlined by B. Lopez, who defines the field as the "Patient interrogation of a landscape" while referring to the natural history knowledge of the Eskimo. A different framework for natural history, covering a similar range of themes, is implied in the scope of work encompassed by many leading natural history museums, which include elements of anthropology, geology and astronomy along with botany and zoology, or include both cultural and natural components of the world; the pl
Loch Ness is a large, freshwater loch in the Scottish Highlands extending for 37 kilometres southwest of Inverness. Its surface is 16 metres above sea level. Loch Ness is best known for alleged sightings of the cryptozoological Loch Ness Monster known affectionately as "Nessie", it is connected at the southern end by the River Oich and a section of the Caledonian Canal to Loch Oich. At the northern end there is the Bona Narrows which opens out into Loch Dochfour, which feeds the River Ness and a further section of canal to Inverness leading to the North Sea via the Moray Firth, it is one of a series of interconnected, murky bodies of water in Scotland. Loch Ness is the second largest Scottish loch by surface area at 56 km2 after Loch Lomond, but due to its great depth, it is the largest by volume in the British Isles, its deepest point is 230 m. A 2016 survey claimed to have discovered a crevice that pushed the depth to 271 m but further research determined it to be a sonar anomaly, it contains more fresh water than all the lakes in England and Wales combined, is the largest body of water in the Great Glen, which runs from Inverness in the north to Fort William in the south.
At Drumnadrochit is the "Loch Ness Centre and Exhibition" which examines the natural history and legend of Loch Ness. Boat cruises operate from various locations on the loch shore, giving visitors the chance to look for the "monster". Urquhart Castle is located on the western shore, 2 km east of Drumnadrochit. Lighthouses are located at Fort Augustus. Loch Ness is known as the home of the Loch Ness Monster, a cryptid, reputedly a large unknown animal, it is similar to other supposed lake monsters in Scotland and elsewhere, though its description varies from one account to the next. Popular interest and belief in the animal's existence have varied since it was first brought to the world's attention in 1933. There is an RNLI lifeboat station on Loch Ness, operational since 2008, it is manned by voluntary crew with an inshore lifeboat. The following fish species are native to Loch Ness. A number of others such as perch and roach have been introduced in the Loch or Caledonian Canal with various levels of success.
Loch Ness has one island, Cherry Island, near Fort Augustus. It is an artificial island, known as a crannog, was constructed during the Iron Age. There was a second island, submerged when the water level was raised during the construction of the Caledonian Canal. Loch Ness serves as the lower storage reservoir for the Foyers pumped-storage hydroelectric scheme, the first of its kind in the United Kingdom; the turbines were used to provide power for a nearby aluminium smelting plant, but now electricity is generated and supplied to the National Grid. Another scheme, the 100 megawatt Glendoe Hydro Scheme near Fort Augustus, began generation in June 2009, it was out of service between 2009 and 2012 for repair of the tunnels connecting the reservoir to the turbines. Loch Ness lies along the Great Glen Fault, which forms a line of weakness in the rocks, excavated by glacial erosion, forming the Great Glen and the basins of Loch Lochy, Loch Oich and Loch Ness. John Cobb died in an attempt at the water speed record when his boat Crusader struck an unexplained wake on the surface of the loch in 1952.
His accident was recorded by the BBC reporters on site at the time. Nearby, there is a memorial. On 31 August 1974, David Scott Munro, of Ross-shire Caberfeidh Water Ski Club, became the first person in the world to water ski the length of Loch Ness. From Lochend to Fort Augustus and back, he covered the 77 km in 77 minutes at an average speed of 60 kilometres per hour. In July 1966, Brenda Sherratt became the first person to swim the length of the loch, it took 27 minutes. Media related to Loch Ness at Wikimedia Commons Loch Ness travel guide from Wikivoyage Loch Ness information Website, Editor Tony Harmsworth Loch Ness Project Research Site, Editor Adrian Shine Loch Ness Investigation website, Editor Dick Raynor Loch Ness Pictures Loch Ness Photographs Virtual Tour of Loch Ness and surrounding area Nessieland at Loch Ness