Josiah Quincy III
Josiah Quincy III was a U. S. educator and political figure. He was a member of the U. S. House of Representatives, Mayor of Boston, President of Harvard University; the historic Quincy Market in downtown Boston is named in his honor. Quincy, the son of Josiah Quincy II and Abigail Phillips, was born in Boston, on that part of Washington Street, known as Marlborough Street, he was a descendant of the Rev. George Phillips of Watertown, the progenitor of the New England Phillips family in America. Quincy's father had traveled to England in 1774 for his health but as an agent of the patriot cause to with the friends of the colonists in London. Josiah Quincy II died off the coast of Gloucester on April 26, 1775, his son, young Josiah, was not yet three years old. He entered Phillips Academy, when it opened in 1778, graduated from Harvard in 1790. After his graduation from Harvard he studied law for three years under the tutorship of William Tudor. Quincy was admitted to the bar in 1793, but was never a prominent advocate.
In 1797 Quincy married Eliza Susan Morton of younger sister of Jacob Morton. They had seven children: Eliza Susan Quincy, Josiah Quincy, Jr. Abigail Phillips Quincy, Maria Sophia Quincy, Margaret Morton Quincy, Edmund Quincy, Anna Cabot Lowell Quincy. In 1798 Quincy was appointed Boston Town Orator by the Board of Selectmen, in 1800 he was elected to the School Committee. Quincy became a leader of the Federalist party in Massachusetts, was an unsuccessful candidate for the United States House of Representatives in 1800, served in the Massachusetts Senate in 1804–5, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1803. From 1805 to 1813, he was a member of the United States House of Representatives where he was one of the small Federalist minority, he attempted to secure the exemption of fishing vessels from the Embargo Act, urged the strengthening of the United States Navy, vigorously opposed the admittance of Louisiana as a state in 1811. In this last matter he stated as his "deliberate opinion, that if this bill passes, the bonds of this Union are dissolved.
This was the first assertion of the right of secession on the floor of Congress. Quincy left Congress. In 1812, Quincy was a founding member of the American Antiquarian Society. After leaving Congress, Quincy was a member of the Massachusetts Senate until 1820. In 1821 -- 22 he was a speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. Quincy resigned from the legislature to become judge of the municipal court of Boston. Quincy was a candidate for Mayor of Boston in Boston's first election under a city charter, held on April 8, 1822; the votes of this first election were evenly split between Quincy and Harrison Gray Otis, with a few votes to others. Neither Quincy nor Otis had a majority, so neither was elected, they both withdrew their candidacies, John Phillips was elected Boston's first mayor. In 1823 Quincy was elected as the second mayor of Boston. During his terms as mayor Quincy Market was built, the fire and police departments were reorganized, the city's care of the poor was systematized.
From 1829 to 1845, he was President of Harvard University, of which he had been an overseer since 1810, when the board was reorganized. At a time when college presidents were chosen for their intellectual achievements, Quincy's past experience as a politician and not an academic made him an unusual choice, he has been called "the great organizer of the university." He gave an elective system an elaborate trial. During his term Dane Hall was dedicated, Gore Hall was built, the Astronomical Observatory was equipped. Quincy House, one of the university's twelve upperclass residential houses, is named for him. In 1856 Quincy gave an address concerning the upcoming American presidential election. Quincy endorsed the Republican candidate, John C. Fremont, denounced how "for more than fifty years, the Slave States have subjugated the Free States." This speech is cited by Garry Wills. His last years were spent principally on his farm in Quincy, where he died on July 1, 1864. A Municipal History of the Town and City of Boston During Two Centuries from September 17, 1630 to September 17, 1830, Boston: Charles C.
Little & James Brown, 1852. History of Harvard University. Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1840. The History of the Boston Athenæum, with Biographical Notices of its Deceased Founders. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Metcalf and Company, 1851. Essay on the Soiling of Cattle". 1852. Address Illustrative of the Nature and Power of the Slave States and the Duties of the Free States The Duty of Conservative Whigs in the Present Crisis: A Letter to the Hon. Rufus Choate, Boston: William A. Hall, 1856. Timeline of Boston, 1820s Attribution Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Quincy, Josiah". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. United States Congress. "Josiah Quincy III". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Works by Josiah Quincy at Project Gutenberg
Massachusetts's 1st congressional district
Massachusetts's 1st congressional district is located in western and central Massachusetts. The largest Massachusetts district in area, it covers about one-third of the state and is more rural than the rest, it has Mount Greylock. The district includes the cities of Springfield, West Springfield, Pittsfield and Westfield; the shape of the district underwent some changes effective from the elections of 2012, after Massachusetts congressional redistricting to reflect the 2010 census. The entire Springfield area is included in the new 1st district, the Worcester County areas of the old 1st district were split between the new 2nd and 3rd districts. Richard Neal, a Democrat from Springfield, represents the district. All of Berkshire County, all of Hampden County, the following towns and cities: In Franklin County: Ashfield, Buckland, Colrain, Hawley, Leyden, Monroe and Shelburne. In Hampshire County: Chesterfield, Easthampton, Granby, Middlefield, South Hadley, Westhampton and Worthington. In Worcester County: Brookfield, Dudley, East Brookfield, Southbridge and Warren.
Massachusetts's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. "CNN.com Election 2004". Retrieved March 15, 2019 – via CNN.com. "CNN.com - Elections 2006". CNN.com. Retrieved March 15, 2019. "Massachusetts Congressional Districts". Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth. January 1, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2019. "Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present". Retrieved March 15, 2019
Richard Fletcher (American politician)
Richard Fletcher was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts. The brother of Governor Ryland Fletcher, he was born in Cavendish, Vermont on January 8, 1788, he pursued classical studies and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1806. He taught school in Salisbury, New Hampshire, studied law, was admitted to the bar and commenced practice there, he was elected as a Whig to the Twenty-fifth Congress. Fletcher was not a candidate for renomination to the Twenty-sixth Congress, he served as a judge of the Massachusetts Supreme Court 1848–1853, died in Boston on June 21, 1869. His interment was in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge. Fletcher was elected as the first president of the American Statistical Association, although by the ASA's own admission, he was "little more than a figurehead". List of presidents of the American Statistical Association United States Congress. "Richard Fletcher". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration. From 1801 to 1825, the new party controlled the presidency and Congress as well as most states during the First Party System, it began in 1791 as one faction in Congress and included many politicians, opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves Republicans after republicanism, they distrusted the Federalist tendency to centralize and loosely interpret the Constitution, believing these policies were signs of monarchism and anti-republican values. The party splintered in 1824, with the faction loyal to Andrew Jackson coalescing into the Jacksonian movement, the faction led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay forming the National Republican Party and some other groups going on to form the Anti-Masonic Party.
The National Republicans, Anti-Masons, other opponents of Andrew Jackson formed themselves into the Whig Party. During the time that this party existed, it was referred to as the Republican Party. To distinguish it from the modern Republican Party, political scientists and pundits refer to this party as the Democratic-Republican Party or the Jeffersonian Republican Party; when the modern Republican Party was founded in 1854, it deliberately chose to name itself after the Jeffersonians. In response, contemporary Democrats embraced the name Democratic-Republican to reinforce their party's claim to the party's pre-Jacksonian history. Modern Democratic politicians continue to claim Jefferson as their founder; the party arose from the Anti-Administration faction which met secretly in the national capital to oppose Alexander Hamilton's financial programs. Jefferson denounced the programs as leading to subversive of republicanism. Jefferson needed to have a nationwide party to challenge the Federalists, which Hamilton was building up with allies in major cities.
Foreign affairs took a leading role in 1794–1795 as the Republicans vigorously opposed the Jay Treaty with the United Kingdom, at war with France. Republicans saw France as more democratic after its Revolution while the United Kingdom represented the hated monarchy; the party denounced many of Hamilton's measures as unconstitutional the national bank. The party was weakest in the Northeast, it demanded states' rights as expressed by the "Principles of 1798" articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that would allow states to nullify a federal law. Above all, the party stood for the primacy of the yeoman farmers. Republicans were committed to the principles of republicanism, which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical tendencies of the Hamiltonian Federalists; the party came to power in 1801 with the election of Jefferson in the 1800 presidential election. The Federalists—too elitist to appeal to most people—faded away and collapsed after 1815. Despite internal divisions, the Republicans dominated the First Party System until partisanship itself withered away during the Era of Good Feelings after 1816.
The party selected its presidential candidates in a caucus of members of Congress. They included James Madison and James Monroe. By 1824, the caucus system had collapsed. After 1800, the party dominated most state governments outside New England. By 1824, the party was split four ways and lacked a center as the First Party System collapsed; the emergence of the Second Party System in the 1820s and 30s realigned the old factions. One remnant followed Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren into the new Democratic Party by 1828. Another remnant, led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, formed the National Republican Party in 1824 while some remaining smaller factions formed the Anti-Masonic Party, which along with some National Republican groups developed into the Whig Party by 1836. Most remaining National Republicans would soon after go on to be a part of the Free Soil and modern Republican parties in the 1840s and 1850s. Congressman James Madison started the party among Representatives in Philadelphia as the "Republican Party".
He, Jefferson and others reached out to include state and local leaders around the country New York and the South. The precise date of founding is disputed, but 1791 is a reasonable estimate and some time by 1792 is certain; the new party set up newspapers that made withering critiques of Hamiltonianism, extolled the yeoman farmer, argued for strict construction of the Constitution, favored the French Revolution opposed the United Kingdom and called for stronger state governments than the Federalist Party was proposing. The elections of 1792 were the first ones to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis. In most states, the congressional elections were recognized—as Jefferson strategist John Beckley put it—as a "struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest". In New York, the candidates for governor were a Federalist. Four states' electors voted for Clinton and one for Jefferson for Vice President in opposition to incumbent John Adams as well as casting their votes for President Washington.
Before 1804, electors cast two votes together wi
Nathan Appleton was an American merchant and politician and a member of "The Boston Associates". Appleton was born in the son of Isaac Appleton and his wife Mary Adams. Appleton's father was a church deacon, Nathan was brought up in the "strictest form of Calvinistic Congregationalism". Appleton was the cousin of William Appleton and James Appleton, his paternal grandparents were Elizabeth Sawyer and Isaac Appleton, the son of Isaac Appleton and Priscilla Baker, granddaughter of Lt. Gov. Samuel Symonds, he was educated in the New Ipswich Academy. He entered Dartmouth College in 1794, that same year he left college to begin mercantile life in Boston, working for his brother Samuel, a successful and benevolent man of business, with whom he was in partnership from 1800 to 1809. In 1813, Appleton co-operated with Francis Cabot Lowell, Patrick T. Jackson, Paul Moody and others in introducing the power loom and the manufacture of cotton on a large scale into the United States, establishing a factory at Waltham, Massachusetts, in 1814.
The Waltham mill employed the first power loom used in the United States. This proving successful, he and others purchased the water-power at Pawtucket Falls, he was one of the founders of the Merrimac Manufacturing Company; the settlement that grew around these factories developed into the city of Lowell, of which in 1821 Appleton was one of the three founders. In a pamphlet entitled The Origin of Lowell, Appleton wrote of the mills: "The contrast in the character of our manufacturing population with that of Europe has been the admiration of most intelligent strangers; the effect has been to more than double the wages of that description of labor from what they were before the introduction of this manufacture". Appleton was a member of the general court of Massachusetts in 1816, 1821, 1822, 1824 and 1827. In 1831-1833 and 1842 he served in the United States House of Representatives, in which he was prominent as an advocate of protective duties, he was a member of the Academy of Science and Arts, of the Massachusetts Historical Society.
He published speeches and essays on currency and the tariff, of which his Remarks on Currency and Banking is the most celebrated, as well as his memoirs on the power loom and Lowell. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1842, elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1854. Appleton married Maria Theresa Gold on April 13, 1806. Two months he hired the artist Gilbert Stuart to paint portraits of the newlyweds; the couple had five children: Thomas Gold Appleton Mary "Molly" Appleton, who married British colonial governor Robert James Mackintosh Charles Sedgwick Appleton Frances "Fanny" Elizabeth Appleton, who married the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1843. George William Appleton, who died in infancy; the Appletons attended Federal Street Church. Maria Theresa Appleton died of tuberculosis in 1833. Nathan Appleton remarried on January 8, 1839, to Harriot Coffin Sumner, the daughter of Jesse Sumner, a Boston merchant, Harriot Coffin of Portland, Maine.
They had three children: William Sumner Appleton, the father of William Sumner Appleton Jr.. Harriet Sumner Appleton, who married Union Army officer Greely S. Curtis Nathan Appleton Jr, he gave his daughter Fanny, who married Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1843, a house in which her husband had rented rooms as a wedding gift. He paid $10,000 for the home. Frances wrote to her brother Thomas on August 30, 1843: "We have decided to let Father purchase this grand old mansion", a former headquarters of George Washington during the American Revolutionary War. Nathan Appleton purchased the land across the street, as Longfellow's mother wrote, "so that their view of the River Charles may not be intercepted". Fanny Appleton died after accidentally catching fire. Appleton died the next day in Boston on July 14, 1861. Nathan Appleton Residence, Beacon Street, Boston Notes Sources Wilson, J. G.. "Appleton, Samuel". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Calhoun, Charles C. Longfellow: A Rediscovered Life, Boston: Beacon Press, ISBN 0-8070-7026-2 Tharp, Louise Hall, The Appletons of Beacon Hill, Boston: Little and CompanyAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Appleton, Nathan". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 224–225. Endnotes: Winthrop, Robert C. Memoir of Nathan Appleton, Boston Hale, Susan and Letters of Thomas Gold Appleton, New York Nathan Appleton Dictionary of Unitarian & Universalist Biography United States Congress. "Nathan Appleton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "Appleton, Nathan". The American Cyclopædia. 1879
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Samuel Atkins Eliot (politician)
Samuel Atkins Eliot was a member of the notable Eliot Family of Boston, Massachusetts who served in political positions at the local and national levels. Eliot was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1798, was the son of banker Samuel Eliot and Catherine Atkins Eliot and was related to Thomas Hopkinson Eliot, he attended the Boston Latin School. His father had wanted to see him become a minister, but he died the year of his graduation and Samuel stopped short of the pulpit. Electing instead to travel Europe for two years and gaining great knowledge in music and interests in parks and playgrounds. In 1826 he married Mary Lyman the daughter of Theodore Lyman born in York Maine, his second wife Lydia Pickering Williams of Salem Massachusetts, the daughter of George Williams and the niece of Colonel Timothy Pickering. Lyman became prosperous in the East India trade and an influential merchant in Boston, building a country estate known as the "Vale" in Waltham Massachusetts where his daughter Mary and Samuel would be married.
The marriage produced four daughters and two sons, including Charles William Eliot, a future President of Harvard University. He would build between 1829-1830 a lavish house at 31 Beacon Street, now the western edge of the Massachusetts Statehouse lawn, his interest in music led him to become president of the Boston Academy of Music from 1834-1847. Being an influential member of the Boston school committee, was successful in placing music on the curriculum of all public schools. With his brother William he founded the Union Church in Nahant where he had earlier built a classical Greek revival summer home at 40 steps beach. Served as first president of the Boston Provident Association, one of the first organizations to aid the poor. Assisted developing the Prison Discipline Society, becoming its treasurer and president to reduce the miserable conditions found in the houses of correction, he was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1834 to 1837. From 1837 to 1839, he was Mayor of Boston.
During his administration a riot took place, caused by a collision between a volunteer fire company and an Irish funeral procession. The disturbance was suppressed by the promptness of Mayor Eliot, on the ground at the first alarm, took measures for calling out the militia; the result of this affair was the establishment of a day police. He served in the Massachusetts Senate in 1843–1844, he was elected as a Whig to the to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Robert C. Winthrop and served from August 22, 1850 to March 3, 1851, he was treasurer of Harvard University from 1842 to 1853. He published a Sketch of the History of Harvard College and of its Present State, edited selections from the sermons of Dr. Francis W. P. Greenwood, with a memoir. Contributed writings to the North American Review and the Christian Examiner, he died in Cambridge, Massachusetts on January 29, 1862 and his body was interred in Mount Auburn Cemetery. Timeline of Boston, 1830s Wilson, J. G.. "Eliot, Samuel Atkins".
Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Image from Mayors of Boston: An Illustrated Epitome of who the Mayors Have Been and What they Have Done, Boston, MA: State Street Trust Company, Page 12. Eliot, Samuel A.. "Being Mayor of Boston a Hundred Years Ago". Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 66: 154–173. JSTOR 25080323. Samuel Atkins Eliot at Find a GraveUnited States Congress. "Samuel Atkins Eliot". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress