Global warming is a long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system, an aspect of climate change shown by temperature measurements and by multiple effects of the warming. Though earlier geological periods experienced episodes of warming, the term refers to the observed and continuing increase in average air and ocean temperatures since 1900 caused by emissions of greenhouse gasses in the modern industrial economy. In the modern context the terms global warming and climate change are used interchangeably, but climate change includes both global warming and its effects, such as changes to precipitation and impacts that differ by region. Many of the observed warming changes since the 1950s are unprecedented in the instrumental temperature record, in historical and paleoclimate proxy records of climate change over thousands to millions of years. In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report concluded, "It is likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century."
The largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Climate model projections summarized in the report indicated that during the 21st century, the global surface temperature is to rise a further 0.3 to 1.7 °C to 2.6 to 4.8 °C depending on the rate of greenhouse gas emissions and on climate feedback effects. These findings have been recognized by the national science academies of the major industrialized nations and are not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing. Future climate change effects are expected to include rising sea levels, ocean acidification, regional changes in precipitation, expansion of deserts in the subtropics. Surface temperature increases are greatest in the Arctic, with the continuing retreat of glaciers and sea ice. Predicted regional precipitation effects include more frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, wildfires, heavy rainfall with floods, heavy snowfall. Effects directly significant to humans are predicted to include the threat to food security from decreasing crop yields, the abandonment of populated areas due to rising sea levels.
Environmental impacts appear to include the extinction or relocation of ecosystems as they adapt to climate change, with coral reefs, mountain ecosystems, Arctic ecosystems most threatened. Because the climate system has a large "inertia" and greenhouse gases will remain in the atmosphere for a long time, climatic changes and their effects will continue to become more pronounced for many centuries if further increases to greenhouse gases stop. Possible societal responses to global warming include mitigation by emissions reduction, adaptation to its effects, possible future climate engineering. Most countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, whose ultimate objective is to prevent dangerous anthropogenic climate change. Parties to the UNFCCC have agreed that deep cuts in emissions are required and that global warming should be limited to well below 2.0 °C compared to pre-industrial levels, with efforts made to limit warming to 1.5 °C. Some scientists call into question climate adaptation feasibility, with higher emissions scenarios, or the two degree temperature target.
Public reactions to global warming and concern about its effects are increasing. A 2015 global survey showed that a median of 54% of respondents consider it "a serious problem", with significant regional differences: Americans and Chinese are among the least concerned. Multiple independently produced datasets confirm that between 1880 and 2012, the global average surface temperature increased by 0.85 °C. Since 1979 the rate of warming has doubled. Climate proxies show the temperature to have been stable over the one or two thousand years before 1850, with regionally varying fluctuations such as the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. Although the increase of the average near-surface atmospheric temperature is used to track global warming, over 90% of the additional energy stored in the climate system over the last 50 years has accumulated in the oceans; the rest warmed the continents and the atmosphere. The warming evident in the instrumental temperature record is consistent with a wide range of observations, as documented by many independent scientific groups.
Examples include sea level rise, widespread melting of snow and land ice, increased heat content of the oceans, increased humidity, the earlier timing of spring events, e.g. the flowering of plants. Global warming refers with the amount of warming varying by region. Since 1979, global average land temperatures have increased about twice as fast as global average ocean temperatures; this is due to the larger heat capacity of the oceans and because oceans lose more heat by evaporation. Where greenhouse gas emissions occur does not impact the location of warming because the major greenhouse gases persist long enough to diffuse across the planet, although localized black carbon deposits on snow and ice do contribute to Arctic warming; the Northern Hemisphere and North Pole have heated much faster than the South Pole and Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere not only has much more land, its arrangement around the Arctic Ocean has resulted in the maximum surface area flipping from reflective snow and ice cover to ocean and land surfaces that absorb more sunlight.
University of Birmingham
The University of Birmingham is a public research university located in Edgbaston, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1900 as a successor to Queen's College and Mason Science College, making it the first English civic or'red brick' university to receive its own royal charter, it is a founding member of both the Russell Group of British research universities and the international network of research universities, Universitas 21. The university was ranked 14th in the UK and 79th in the world in the QS World University Rankings for 2019. In 2013, Birmingham was named'University of the Year 2014' in the Times Higher Education awards; the 2017 Global Employability University Ranking places Birmingham at 142nd worldwide and 10th in the UK. Birmingham is ranked 5th in the UK for Graduate Prospects in The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2018; the student population includes 22,440 undergraduate and 12,395 postgraduate students, the fourth largest in the UK. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £673.8 million of which £134.2 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £663.2 million.
The university is home to the Barber Institute of Fine Arts, housing works by Van Gogh and Monet. Academics and alumni of the university include former British Prime Ministers Neville Chamberlain and Stanley Baldwin, the British composer Sir Edward Elgar and eleven Nobel laureates. Although the earliest beginnings of the university were traced back to the Queen's College, linked to William Sands Cox in his aim of creating a medical school along Christian lines, unlike the London medical schools, further research has now revealed the roots of the Birmingham Medical School in the medical education seminars of Mr John Tomlinson, the first surgeon to the Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary, to the General Hospital; these classes were the first held outside London or south of the Scottish border in the winter of 1767–68. The first clinical teaching was undertaken by medical and surgical apprentices at the General Hospital, opened in 1779; the medical school which grew out of the Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary was founded in 1828 but Cox began teaching in December 1825.
Queen Victoria granted her patronage to the Clinical Hospital in Birmingham and allowed it to be styled "The Queen's Hospital". It was the first provincial teaching hospital in England. In 1843, the medical college became known as Queen's College. In 1870, Sir Josiah Mason, the Birmingham industrialist and philanthropist, who made his fortune in making key rings, pen nibs and electroplating, drew up the Foundation Deed for Mason Science College; the college was founded in 1875. It was this institution that would form the nucleus of the University of Birmingham. In 1882, the Departments of Chemistry and Physiology were transferred to Mason Science College, soon followed by the Departments of Physics and Comparative Anatomy; the transfer of the Medical School to Mason Science College gave considerable impetus to the growing importance of that college and in 1896 a move to incorporate it as a university college was made. As the result of the Mason University College Act 1897 it became incorporated as Mason University College on 1 January 1898, with Joseph Chamberlain becoming the President of its Court of Governors.
It was due to Chamberlain's enthusiasm that the university was granted a royal charter by Queen Victoria on 24 March 1900. The Calthorpe family offered twenty-five acres of land on the Bournbrook side of their estate in July; the Court of Governors received the Birmingham University Act 1900, which put the royal charter into effect on 31 May. Birmingham was therefore arguably the first so-called red brick university, although several other universities claim this title; the transfer of Mason University College to the new University of Birmingham, with Chamberlain as its first chancellor and Sir Oliver Lodge as the first principal, was complete. All that remained of Josiah Mason's legacy was his Mermaid in the sinister chief of the university shield and of his college, the double-headed lion in the dexter, it became the first civic and campus university in England. The University Charter of 1900 included provision for a commerce faculty, as was appropriate for a university itself founded by industrialists and based in a city with enormous business wealth, in effect creating the first Business School in England.
The faculty, the first of its kind in Britain, was founded by Sir William Ashley in 1901, who from 1902 until 1923 served as first Professor of Commerce and Dean of the Faculty. From 1905 to 1908, Edward Elgar held the position of Peyton Professor of Music at the university, he was succeeded by his friend Granville Bantock. The university's own heritage archives are accessible for research through the university's Cadbury Research Library, open to all interested researchers; the Great Hall in the Aston Webb Building was converted into the 1st Southern General Hospital during World War I, with 520 beds and treated 125,000 injured servicemen. In 1939, the Barber Institute of Fine Arts, designed by Robert Atkinson, was opened. In 1956, the first MSc programme in Geotechnical Engineering commenced under the title of "Foundation Engineering", has been run annually at the university since, it was the
The UA1 experiment was a high-energy physics experiment that ran at CERN's Proton-Antiproton Collider, a modification of the one-beam Super Proton Synchrotron. The data was recorded between 1981 and 1990; the joint discovery of the W and Z bosons by this experiment and the UA2 experiment in 1983 led to the Nobel Prize for physics being awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer in 1984. Peter Kalmus and John Dowell, from the UK groups working on the project, were jointly awarded the 1988 Rutherford Medal and Prize from the Institute of Physics for their outstanding roles in the discovery of the W and Z particles, it was named as the first experiment in a CERN "Underground Area", i.e. located underground, outside of the two main CERN sites, at an interaction point on the SPS accelerator, modified to operate as a collider. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton collisions, it played a most important role in identifying a handful of W and Z particles among billions of collisions.
After the discovery of the W and Z boson, the UA1 collaboration went on to search for the top quark. Physicists had anticipated its existence since 1977, when its partner — the bottom quark — was discovered, it was felt. In June 1984, Carlo Rubbia at the UA1 experiment expressed to the New York Times that evidence of the top quark "looks good". Over the next months it became clear; the top quark was discovered in 1994–1995 by physicists at Fermilab with a mass near 175 GeV. The UA1 was a complex detector for its day, it was designed as a general-purpose detector. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss. Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles; the electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires.
The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced. The UA1 detector was conceived and designed in 1978/9, with the proposal submitted in mid-1978. Since the end of running, the magnet used in the UA1 experiment has been used for other high energy physics experiments, notably the NOMAD and T2K neutrino experiments. UA2 experiment List of Super Proton Synchrotron experiments "UA1 magnet sets off for a second new life". CERN Courier. 13 March 2008. "The W and Z Particles: A Personal Recollection". CERN Courier. 1 April 2004. "Neutral currents and W and Z: a celebration". CERN Courier. 9 December 2003. Image of- UA1 detector image of-central part of UA1 detector
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology. New Scientist, based in London, publishes editions in the UK, the United States, Australia. Since 1996 it has been available online. Sold in retail outlets and on subscription, the magazine covers news, features and commentary on science and their implications. New Scientist publishes speculative articles, ranging from the technical to the philosophical; the magazine was founded in 1956 by Tom Margerison, Max Raison and Nicholas Harrison as The New Scientist, with Issue 1 on 22 November, priced one shilling. The British monthly science magazine Science Journal, published 1965–71, was merged with New Scientist to form New Scientist and Science Journal; the cover of New Scientist listed articles in plain text. Page numbering followed academic practice with sequential numbering for each quarterly volume. So, for example, the first page of an issue in March could be 649 instead of 1.
Issues numbered issues separately. From the beginning of 1961 "The" was dropped from the title. From 1965, the front cover was illustrated; until the 1970s, colour was not used except for on the cover. Since its first issue, New Scientist has written about the applications of science, through its coverage of technology. For example, the first issue included an article "Where next from Calder Hall?" on the future of nuclear power in the UK, a topic that it has covered throughout its history. In 1964 there was a regular "Science in British Industry" section with several items. An article in the magazine's 10th anniversary issues provides anecdotes on the founding of the magazine. In 1970, the Reed Group, which went on to become Reed Elsevier, acquired New Scientist when it merged with IPC Magazines. Reed retained the magazine when it sold most of its consumer titles in a management buyout to what is now TI Media. Throughout most of its history, New Scientist has published cartoons as light relief and comment on the news, with contributions from regulars such as Mike Peyton and David Austin.
The Grimbledon Down comic strip, by cartoonist Bill Tidy, appeared from 1970 to 1994. The Ariadne pages in New Scientist commented on the lighter side of science and technology and included contributions from Daedalus; the fictitious inventor devised plausible but impractical and humorous inventions developed by the DREADCO corporation. Daedalus moved to Nature. Issues of New Scientist from Issue 1 to the end of 1989 have been made free to read online. Subsequent issues require a subscription. In the first half of 2013, the international circulation of New Scientist averaged 125,172. While this was a 4.3% reduction on the previous year's figure, it was a much smaller reduction in circulation than many mainstream magazines of similar or greater circulation. For the 2014 UK circulation fell by 3.2% but stronger international sales, increased the circulation to 129,585. See #Website below. In April 2017, New Scientist changed hands when RELX Group known as Reed Elsevier, sold the magazine to Kingston Acquisitions, a group set up by Sir Bernard Gray, Louise Rogers and Matthew O’Sullivan to acquire New Scientist.
Kingston Acquisitions renamed itself New Scientist Ltd. New Scientist contains the following sections: Leader, Technology, Features, CultureLab, The Last Word and Jobs & Careers. A Tom Gauld cartoon appears on the Letters page. A readers' letters section discusses recent articles and discussions take place on the website. Readers contribute observations on examples of pseudoscience to Feedback, offer questions and answers on scientific and technical topics to Last Word. New Scientist has produced a series of books compiled from contributions to Last Word. There are 51 issues a year, with a New Year double issue; the double issue in 2014 was the 3,000th edition of the magazine. The Editor-in-chief is Emily Wilson, Executive Editor is Graham Lawton, Managing Editor is Rowan Hooper and Editor-at-Large is Jeremy Webb. Consultants include Fred Pearce, Marcus Chown, Linda Geddes. Simon Ings and former editor Alun Anderson are contributors.) Percy Cudlipp Nigel Calder Donald Gould Bernard Dixon Michael Kenward David Dickson Alun Anderson Jeremy Webb Roger Highfield Sumit Paul-Choudhury Emily Wilson The New Scientist website carries blogs and news articles.
Users with free-of-charge registration have limited access to new content and can receive emailed New Scientist newsletters. Subscribers to the print edition have full access to all articles and the archive of past content that has so far been digitised. Online readership takes various forms. Overall global views of an online database of over 100,000 articles are 8.0m by 3.6m unique users according to Adobe Reports & Analytics, as of September 2014. On social media there are 1.47m+ Twitter followers, 2.3m+ Facebook likes and 365,000+ Google+ followers as of January 2015. New Scientist has published books derived from its content, many of which are selected questions and answers from the Last Word section of the magazine and website: 1998; the Last Word. ISBN 978-0-19-286199-3 2000; the Last Word 2. ISBN 978-0-19-286204-4 2005. Does Anything Eat Wasps?. ISBN 978-1-86197-973-5 2006. Why Don't Penguins' Feet Freeze?. ISBN 978-1861978769 2007. How to
Sea level rise
Since at least the start of the 20th century, the average global sea level has been rising. Between 1900 and 2016, the sea level rose by 16–21 cm. More precise data gathered from satellite radar measurements reveal an accelerating rise of 7.5 cm from 1993 to 2017, a trend of 30 cm per century. This acceleration is due to human-caused global warming, driving thermal expansion of seawater and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers. Between 1993 and 2018, thermal expansion of the oceans contributed 42% to sea level rise. Climate scientists expect the rate to further accelerate during the 21st century. Projecting future sea level is challenging, due to the complexity of many aspects of the climate system; as climate research into past and present sea levels leads to improved computer models, projections have increased. For example, in 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projected a high end estimate of 60 cm through 2099, but their 2014 report raised the high-end estimate to about 90 cm.
A number of studies have concluded that a global sea level rise of 200 to 270 cm this century is "physically plausible". A conservative estimate of the long-term projections is that each Celsius degree of temperature rise triggers a sea level rise of 2.3 metres over a period of two millennia: an example of climate inertia. The sea level will not rise uniformly everywhere on Earth, it will drop in some locations. Local factors include tectonic effects and subsidence of the land, tides and storms. Sea level rises can influence human populations in coastal and island regions. Widespread coastal flooding is expected with several degrees of warming sustained for millennia. Further effects are higher storm-surges and more dangerous tsunamis, displacement of populations and degradation of agricultural land and damage in cities. Natural environments like marine ecosystems are affected, with fish and plants losing parts of their habitat. Societies can respond to sea level rise in three different ways: to retreat, to accommodate and to protect.
Sometimes these adaptation strategies go hand in hand, but at other times choices have to be made among different strategies. Ecosystems that adapt to rising sea levels by moving inland might not always be able to do so, due to natural or man-made barriers. Understanding past sea level is important for the analysis of current and future changes. In the recent geological past, changes in land ice and thermal expansion from increased temperatures are the dominant reasons of sea level rise; the last time the Earth was 2 °C warmer than pre-industrial temperatures, sea levels were at least 5 metres higher than now: this was when warming because of changes in the amount of sunlight due to slow changes in the Earth's orbit caused the last interglacial. The warming was sustained over a period of thousands of years and the magnitude of the rise in sea level implies a large contribution from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Since the last glacial maximum about 20,000 years ago, the sea level has risen by more than 125 metres, with rates varying from less than a mm/year to 40+ mm/year, as a result of melting ice sheets over Canada and Eurasia.
Rapid disintegration of ice sheets led to so called'meltwater pulses', periods during which sea level rose rapidly. The rate of rise started to slow down about 8,200 years before present. Sea level changes can be driven either by variations in the amount of water in the oceans, the volume of the ocean or by changes of the land compared to the sea surface; the different techniques used to measure changes in sea level do not measure the same. Tide gauges can only measure relative sea level, whilst satellites can measure absolute sea level changes. To get precise measurements for sea level, researchers studying the ice and the oceans on our planet factor in ongoing deformations of the solid Earth, in particular due to landmasses still rising from past ice masses retreating, the Earth's gravity and rotation. Since the 1992 launch of TOPEX/Poseidon, altimetric satellites have been recording the change in sea level; those satellites can measure the hills and valleys in the sea caused by currents and detect trends in their height.
To measure the distance to the sea surface, the satellite sends a microwave pulse to the ocean's surface and records the time it takes to return. A microwave radiometer corrects any delay. Combining this data with the precise location of the spacecraft makes it possible to determine sea-surface height to within a few centimeters. Current rates of sea level rise from satellite altimetry have been estimated to be 3.0 ± 0.4 millimetres per year for the period 1993–2017. Earlier satellite measurements were at odds with tide gauge measurements. A small calibration error for the Topex/Poseidon satellite discovered in 2015 was identified as the cause of this mismatch, it had caused a slight overestimation of the 1992–2005 sea levels, which masked the ongoing sea level rise acceleration. Satellites are useful for measuring regional variations in sea level, such as the substantial rise between 1993 and 2012 in the western tropical Pacific; this sharp rise has been linked to increasing trade winds, which occur when the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation change from one state to t
The European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN, is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border and has 23 member states. Israel is the only non-European country granted full membership. CERN is an official United Nations Observer; the acronym CERN is used to refer to the laboratory, which in 2016 had 2,500 scientific and administrative staff members, hosted about 12,000 users. In the same year, CERN generated 49 petabytes of data. CERN's main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research – as a result, numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN through international collaborations; the main site at Meyrin hosts a large computing facility, used to store and analyse data from experiments, as well as simulate events. Researchers need remote access to these facilities, so the lab has been a major wide area network hub.
CERN is the birthplace of the World Wide Web. The convention establishing CERN was ratified on 29 September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe; the acronym CERN represented the French words for Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire, a provisional council for building the laboratory, established by 12 European governments in 1952. The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved though the name changed to the current Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire in 1954. According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed, the abbreviation could have become the awkward OERN, Werner Heisenberg said that this could "still be CERN if the name is ". CERN's first president was Sir Benjamin Lockspeiser. Edoardo Amaldi was the general secretary of CERN at its early stages when operations were still provisional, while the first Director-General was Felix Bloch; the laboratory was devoted to the study of atomic nuclei, but was soon applied to higher-energy physics, concerned with the study of interactions between subatomic particles.
Therefore, the laboratory operated by CERN is referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics, which better describes the research being performed there. At the sixth session of the CERN Council, which took place in Paris from 29 June - 1 July 1953, the convention establishing the organization was signed, subject to ratification, by 12 states; the convention was ratified by the 12 founding Member States: Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Yugoslavia. Several important achievements in particle physics have been made through experiments at CERN, they include: 1973: The discovery of neutral currents in the Gargamelle bubble chamber. In September 2011, CERN attracted media attention when the OPERA Collaboration reported the detection of faster-than-light neutrinos. Further tests showed that the results were flawed due to an incorrectly connected GPS synchronization cable; the 1984 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments that resulted in the discoveries of the W and Z bosons.
The 1992 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber". The 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to François Englert and Peter Higgs for the theoretical description of the Higgs mechanism in the year after the Higgs boson was found by CERN experiments; the World Wide Web began as a CERN project named ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and Robert Cailliau in 1990. Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honoured by the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web. Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was intended to facilitate the sharing of information between researchers; the first website was activated in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced. A copy of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the World Wide Web Consortium's website as a historical document.
Prior to the Web's development, CERN had pioneered the introduction of Internet technology, beginning in the early 1980s. More CERN has become a facility for the development of grid computing, hosting projects including the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE and LHC Computing Grid, it hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point, one of the two main internet exchange points in Switzerland. CERN operates a network of a decelerator; each machine in the chain increases the energy of particle beams before delivering them