Johan Steyn, Baron Steyn
Johan van Zyl Steyn, Baron Steyn, PC was a South African-British judge, until September 2005 a Law Lord. He sat in the House of Lords as a crossbencher. Born in Cape Town, South Africa in 1932 he studied Law at the University of Stellenbosch before reading Law as a Rhodes Scholar at University College, Oxford, he was called to the Bar in South Africa in 1958 and appointed senior counsel of the Supreme Court of South Africa in 1970. As a result of his opposition to apartheid in his native South Africa, he settled in the UK in 1973 joining the English Bar and building a distinguished international commercial law practice, he married Susan Heard in 1977, having two sons and two daughters from a previous marriage to Jean Pollard. He had three stepgrandchildren, he was appointed Queen's Counsel in 1979 and was appointed a High Court Judge in 1985, receiving the customary knighthood, a surprise appointment by the Conservative Lord Chancellor Lord Hailsham. He served as presiding judge of the Northern Circuit from 1989–1991 and was appointed Lord Justice of Appeal in 1992.
On 11 January 1995 he was elevated to a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary and was created a life peer as Baron Steyn, of Swafield in the County of Norfolk. As a Law Lord he achieved prominence for his liberal views and espousal of human rights, he was a fierce critic of Augusto Pinochet's claim to stand immune from prosecution. His record of open criticism of Camp X-ray at Guantanamo Bay led to pressure from the UK government that he make himself unavailable for the hearing on the indefinite detention of suspects under the Anti-terrorism and Security Act 2001 that began on 4 October 2004; the decision in the latter case caused the government to review its policy of indefinite detention of terror suspects and led to the controversial Terrorism Bill 2005. His judicial work in the House of Lords has been instrumental in weaving the Human Rights Act 1998 into the fabric of English law, he drew upon his background as a commercial lawyer. His Hart Lecture of May 2000 was influential in its criticism of Pepper v Hart UKHL 3, a landmark decision of the House of Lords on the use of legislative history in statutory interpretation.
He was one of the few senior judges to support calls for modernisation of the English legal system and abolition of the role of Lord Chancellor. Whilst a Lord of Appeal he refrained from speaking in the House, instead expressing his views on democracy and human rights through judgments and lectures, he retired as a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary on 30 September 2005. Jonathan Mance was elevated from Lord Justice of Appeal on 1 October 2005 to replace him. Since his retirement he was for a period the chairman of the human rights organisation JUSTICE and was vocal in his criticism of Tony Blair's government and its approach to human rights, he had expressed grave misgivings over the proposed powers to allow detention without trial and about the use of existing anti-terror powers. R v Bournewood Community and Mental Health NHS Trust Ex p. L 1 AC 458 Jackson v Attorney General UKHL 56 - controversial comments on Parliamentary Supremacy and its common law foundations Arklow vs. MacLean and Others UKPC 51, 1999 Privy Council London Barclays Bank plc v Quincecare Ltd 4 All ER 363 Profile in The Guardian
An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation, the passing of comprehensive examinations. It is known by the Latin phrases honoris causa or ad honorem; the degree is a doctorate or, less a master's degree, may be awarded to someone who has no prior connection with the academic institution or no previous postsecondary education. An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows: Doctorate in Business Administration; the degree is conferred as a way of honouring a distinguished visitor's contributions to a specific field or to society in general. It is sometimes recommended that such degrees be listed in one's curriculum vitae as an award, not in the education section. With regard to the use of this honorific, the policies of institutions of higher education ask that recipients "refrain from adopting the misleading title" and that a recipient of an honorary doctorate should restrict the use of the title "Dr" before their name to any engagement with the institution of higher education in question and not within the broader community.
Rev. Theodore Hesburgh held the record for most honorary degrees, having been awarded 150 during his lifetime; the practice dates back to the Middle Ages, when for various reasons a university might be persuaded, or otherwise see fit, to grant exemption from some or all of the usual statutory requirements for the awarding of a degree. The earliest honorary degree on record was awarded to Lionel Woodville in the late 1470s by the University of Oxford, he became Bishop of Salisbury. In the latter part of the 16th century, the granting of honorary degrees became quite common on the occasion of royal visits to Oxford or Cambridge. On the visit of James I to Oxford in 1605, for example, forty-three members of his retinue received the degree of Master of Arts, the Register of Convocation explicitly states that these were full degrees, carrying the usual privileges. Honorary degrees are awarded at regular graduation ceremonies, at which the recipients are invited to make a speech of acceptance before the assembled faculty and graduates – an event which forms the highlight of the ceremony.
Universities nominate several persons each year for honorary degrees. Those who are nominated are not told until a formal approval and invitation are made; the term honorary degree is a slight misnomer: honoris causa degrees are not considered of the same standing as substantive degrees earned by the standard academic processes of courses and original research, except where the recipient has demonstrated an appropriate level of academic scholarship that would ordinarily qualify him or her for the award of a substantive degree. Recipients of honorary degrees wear the same academic dress as recipients of substantive degrees, although there are a few exceptions: honorary graduands at the University of Cambridge wear the appropriate full-dress gown but not the hood, those at the University of St Andrews wear a black cassock instead of the usual full-dress gown. An ad eundem or jure officii degree is sometimes considered honorary, although they are only conferred on an individual who has achieved a comparable qualification at another university or by attaining an office requiring the appropriate level of scholarship.
Under certain circumstances, a degree may be conferred on an individual for both the nature of the office they hold and the completion of a dissertation. The "dissertation et jure dignitatis" is considered to be a full academic degree. See below. Although higher doctorates such as DSc, DLitt, etc. are awarded honoris causa, in many countries it is possible formally to earn such a degree. This involves the submission of a portfolio of peer-refereed research undertaken over a number of years, which has made a substantial contribution to the academic field in question; the university will appoint a panel of examiners who will consider the case and prepare a report recommending whether or not the degree be awarded. The applicant must have some strong formal connection with the university in question, for example full-time academic staff, or graduates of several years' standing; some universities, seeking to differentiate between substantive and honorary doctorates, have a degree, used for these purposes, with the other higher doctorates reserved for formally examined academic scholarship.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has the authority to award degrees. These "Lambeth degrees" are sometimes, thought to be honorary. Between the two extremes of honoring celebrities and formally assessing a portfolio of research, some universities use honorary degrees to recognize achievements of intellectual rigor; some institutes of higher education do not confer honorary degrees as a matter of policy — see below. Some learned societies award honorary fellowships in the same way as
Surrey is a subdivision of the English region of South East England in the United Kingdom. A historic and ceremonial county, Surrey is one of the home counties; the county borders Kent to the east, East Sussex and West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, Greater London to the northeast. Inhabited by about 1.2 million people, Surrey is the twelfth most populous English county, both the third most populous home county and the third most populous county in the South East. Guildford is considered to be the county town; however despite the town's designation, Surrey County Council has never been based there, being instead seated throughout its history in London. Since the borders of Surrey were altered in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 which created Greater London, none of these places are now in Surrey, marking an example of a de facto capital, located outside of its administrative area. Surrey is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge and Ewell, Mole Valley and Banstead, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge and Woking.
Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth and death registration, social and children's services are administered by Surrey County Council. The London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and small parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. Since the 1965 reform the bordering boroughs of the capital have been those taken from it in 1965 plus Bromley and Hounslow; the form of Surrey which remains since 1965 is a wealthy county due to economic, aesthetic and logistical factors. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, some of the highest property values outside Inner London and the highest cost of living in the UK outside of the capital. Surrey has the highest proportion of woodland in England, having been rural since it was shorn in 1965 of the urbanised swathes of South London which had hitherto been part of the county, it has large protected green spaces. It has four racecourses in horse racing, the most of any Home County and as at 2013 contained 141 golf courses including international competition venue Wentworth.
Surrey has proximity to London and to Heathrow and Gatwick airports, along with access to major arterial road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent rail services into Central London. Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs; the ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey and Mole, tributaries of the Thames, which formed the northern border of the county before modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county. To the north of the Downs the land is flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames; the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low Weald, rising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald; the Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs.
Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It contains valued reserves of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in one of the oldest in Europe. Surrey contains England's principal concentration of lowland heath, on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms; the highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking.
It is 294 m above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill in West Berkshire, 297 m. Surrey has a population of 1.1 million people. Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 77,057, they are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the historic county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893; the county counc
A heliograph is a wireless telegraph that signals by flashes of sunlight reflected by a mirror. The flashes are produced by momentarily pivoting the mirror, or by interrupting the beam with a shutter; the heliograph was a simple but effective instrument for instantaneous optical communication over long distances during the late 19th and early 20th century. Its main uses were military and forest protection work. Heliographs were standard issue in the British and Australian armies until the 1960s, were used by the Pakistani army as late as 1975. There were many heliograph types. Most heliographs were variants of the British Army Mance Mark V version, it used a mirror with a small unsilvered spot in the centre. The sender aligned the heliograph to the target by looking at the reflected target in the mirror and moving their head until the target was hidden by the unsilvered spot. Keeping their head still, they adjusted the aiming rod so its cross wires bisected the target, they turned up the sighting vane, which covered the cross wires with a diagram of a cross, aligned the mirror with the tangent and elevation screws so the small shadow, the reflection of the unsilvered spot hole was on the cross target.
This indicated. The flashes were produced by a keying mechanism that tilted the mirror up a few degrees at the push of a lever at the back of the instrument. If the sun was in front of the sender, its rays were reflected directly from this mirror to the receiving station. If the sun was behind the sender, the sighting rod was replaced by a second mirror, to capture the sunlight from the main mirror and reflect it to the receiving station; the U. S. Signal Corps heliograph mirror did not tilt; this type produced flashes by a shutter mounted on a second tripod. The heliograph had some great advantages, it allowed long distance communication without a fixed infrastructure, though it could be linked to make a fixed network extending for hundreds of miles, as in the fort-to-fort network used for the Geronimo campaign. It was portable, did not require any power source, was secure since it was invisible to those not near the axis of operation, the beam was narrow, spreading only 50 feet per mile of range.
However, anyone in the beam with the correct knowledge could intercept signals without being detected. In the Boer War, where both sides used heliographs, tubes were sometimes used to decrease the dispersion of the beam. In some other circumstances, though, a narrow beam made it difficult to stay aligned with a moving target, as when communicating from shore to a moving ship, so the British issued a dispersing lens to broaden the heliograph beam from its natural diameter of 0.5 degrees to 15 degrees. The distance that heliograph signals could be seen depended on the clarity of the sky and the size of the mirrors used. A clear line of sight was required, since the Earth's surface is curved, the highest convenient points were used. Under ordinary conditions, a flash could be seen 30 miles with the naked eye, much farther with a telescope; the maximum range was considered to be 10 miles for each inch of mirror diameter. Mirrors ranged from 1.5 inches to 12 inches or more. The record distance was established by a detachment of U.
S. signal sergeants by the inter-operation of stations on Mount Ellen and Mount Uncompahgre, Colorado, 183 miles apart on September 17, 1894, with Signal Corps heliographs carrying mirrors only 8 inches square. The German professor Carl Friedrich Gauss of the University of Göttingen developed and used a predecessor of the heliograph in 1821, his device directed a controlled beam of sunlight to a distant station to be used as a marker for geodetic survey work, was suggested as a means of telegraphic communications. This is the first reliably documented heliographic device, despite much speculation about possible ancient incidents of sun-flash signalling, the documented existence of other forms of ancient optical telegraphy. For example, one author in 1919 chose to "hazard the theory" that the mainland signals Roman emperor Tiberius watched for from Capri were mirror flashes, but admitted "there are no references in ancient writings to the use of signaling by mirrors", that the documented means of ancient long-range visual telecommunications was by beacon fires and beacon smoke, not mirrors.
The story that a shield was used as a heliograph at the Battle of Marathon is a modern myth, originating in the 1800s. Herodotus never mentioned any flash. What Herodotus did write was that someone was accused of having arranged to "hold up a shield as a signal". Suspicion grew in the 1900s; the conclusion after testing the theory was "Nobody flashed a shield at the Battle of Marathon". In a letter dated 3 June 1778, John Norris, High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire, notes: "Did this day heliograph intelligence from Dr Franklin in Paris to Wycombe". However, there is little evidence that "heliograph" here is other than a misspelling of "holograph"; the term "heliograph" for solar telegraphy did not enter the English language until the 1870s—even the word "telegraphy" was not coined until the 1790s. Henry Christopher Mance, of the British Government Persian Gulf Telegraph Department, developed the first accepted heliograph about 1869 while stationed at Karachi, in the Bombay Presidency in British India.
Mance was familiar with heliotropes by their use for the Great India Survey. The Mance Heliograph was operated by one man, since it weighed about seven pounds, the operator could carry the devi
London Borough of Camden
The London Borough of Camden is a borough in north west London, forms part of Inner London. In Middlesex, some southern areas of the borough, such as Holborn, are sometimes described as part of the West End of London; the local authority is Camden London Borough Council. The borough was created in 1965 from the former area of the metropolitan boroughs of Hampstead, St Pancras, which had formed part of the County of London; the borough was named after Camden Town, which had gained its name from Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden in 1795. The transcribed diaries of William Copeland Astbury made available, describe Camden and the surrounding areas in great detail from 1829–1848. Sir Jan inspired many of his art works in this area. There are 162 English Heritage blue plaques in the borough of Camden representing the many diverse personalities that have lived there; the southern part of the borough is in the Central Activities Zone including Holborn and King's Cross. The northern part of the borough includes the less densely developed areas of Hampstead, Hampstead Heath and Kentish Town.
Neighbouring boroughs are the City of Westminster and the City of London to the south, Brent to the west and Haringey to the north and Islington to the east. It covers all or part of the N1, N6, N7, N19, NW1, NW2, NW3, NW5, NW6, NW8, EC1, WC1, WC2, W1 and W9 postcode areas. Camden Town Hall is located in Judd Street in St Pancras. Camden London Borough Council was controlled by the Labour Party continuously from 1971 until the 2006 election, when the Liberal Democrats became the largest party. In 2006, two Green Cllrs, Maya de Souza and Adrian Oliver, were elected and were the first Green Party councillors in Camden. In 1985 when the borough was rate-capped, the Labour leadership joined the rebellion in which it declared its inability to set a budget in an unsuccessful attempt to force the Government to allow higher spending. Camden was the fourth to last council to drop out of the campaign, doing so in the early hours of 6 June. Borough councillors are elected every four years. Since May 2002 the electoral wards in Camden are Belsize, Camden Town with Primrose Hill, Fortune Green and Fitzjohns, Gospel Oak, Hampstead Town, Highgate and Covent Garden, Kentish Town, King's Cross, Regent's Park, St Pancras and Somers Town, Swiss Cottage and West Hampstead.
Between 2006 and 2010 Labour lost two seats to the Liberal Democrats through by-elections, in Kentish Town and Haverstock wards. A Labour Councillor in Haverstock ward defected to the Liberal Democrats in February 2009; the Conservatives lost two seats, one to the Liberal Democrats in Hampstead, one to the Green Party, Alexander Goodman, in Highgate, taking the total number of Green Party Councillors to three. At the local elections on 6 May 2010 the Labour party regained full control of Camden council; the organisation's staff are led by the Chief Executive, Mike Cooke. The organisation is divided into five directorates: Housing and Adult Social Care Children and Families Culture & Environment Central Services: Finance Legal Strategy and Organisation Development Chief Executives DepartmentThe directorates are headed by a director who reports directly to the Chief Executive; each directorate is divided into a number of divisions headed by an assistant director. They, in turn, are divided into groups.
This is a similar model to most local government in London. Camden forms part of the Barnet and Camden London Assembly constituency, represented by Andrew Dismore of the Labour Party There are two parliamentary constituencies covering Camden: Hampstead and Kilburn in the north, represented by Labour's Tulip Siddiq, Holborn and St. Pancras in the south, represented by Labour's Keir Starmer. In 1801, the civil parishes that form the modern borough were developed and had a total population of 96,795; this continued to rise swiftly throughout the 19th century as the district became built up, reaching 270,197 in the middle of the century. When the railways arrived the rate of population growth slowed, for while many people were drawn in by new employment, others were made homeless by the new central London termini and construction of lines through the district; the population peaked at 376,500 in the 1890s, after which official efforts began to clear the overcrowded slums around St Pancras and Holborn.
After World War II, further suburban public housing was built to rehouse the many Londoners made homeless in the Blitz, there was an exodus from London towards the new towns under the Abercrombie Plan for London. As industry declined during the 1970s the population continued to decline, falling to 161,100 at the start of the 1980s, it has now begun to rise again with new housing developments on brownfield sites and the release of railway and gas work lands around Kings Cross. A 2017 study found that the eviction rate of 6 per 1,000 renting households in Camden is the lowest rate in London; the 2001 census gave Camden a population of 198,000, an undercount, revised to 202,600. The projected 2006 figure is 227,500. On 20 May 1999, the Camden New Journal newspaper documented'Two Camdens' syndrome as a high-profile phenomenon differentiating the characteristics of education services in its constituencies. In 2006, Dame Julia Neuberger's book reported similar variation as a characteristic of Camden's children's health services.
Her insider's view was corroboration – in addition to the 2001 "Inequalities" report by Director of Public Health Dr. Maggie Barker of "stark contrasts in" health and education opportunities – of earlier similar Audit Commission findings and a verification/update of the 1999 CNJ rep
St Cross College, Oxford
St Cross College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Founded in 1965, St Cross is the fourth youngest of Oxford's 38 colleges, it is an all-graduate college with traditional-style buildings on a central site in St Giles', just south of Pusey Street. It aims to match the structure and support of undergraduate colleges, with the relaxed atmosphere of an all-graduate college. In May 2016, it was announced that the Fellows of St Cross College had elected Carole Souter CBE, Chief executive of the National Heritage Memorial Fund and Heritage Lottery Fund, as the next Master of the College. In September 2016, she succeeded Sir Mark Jones, Master of St Cross since 2011. St Cross College was formally set up as a society by the University on 5 October 1965. Like the majority of Oxford's newer colleges, St Cross has been coeducational since its foundation; the early location of St Cross was on a site in St Cross Road south of St Cross Church. The college was named for its proximity to these places.
In 1976 negotiations began between the college and the members of Pusey House over the possibility of moving the college to the St Giles site. The negotiations were successful, in 1981 the college moved from St Cross Road into a site owned by Pusey House for a leased period of 999-years; the old site on St Cross Road continued to be used by the Centre for Islamic Studies, subsequently in the early 1990s the site was developed by the college in collaboration with Brasenose College. The site now houses two residential buildings, which were opened in 1996. On 18 November 2010, it was announced that Sir Mark Jones Director of the Victoria and Albert Museum, had been elected as the next Master of the college. Unlike every other college head, the Master of St Cross is appointed not by the college's governing body but by the University Council. Therefore, the election has only the character of a recommendation to Council, albeit one, followed; the college is located on St Giles' near to the Ashmolean Museum, south of Regent's Park College and north of Blackfriars.
It is within metres of the Classics Faculty and the Oriental Institute. The college buildings are structured around two quads, the Richard Blackwell Quadrangle and the new West Quad. St Cross shares the site with Pusey House, which comprises the first floor and parts of the ground floor to the eastern side of the Blackwell quad, a library on the first floor on its western side, as well as the chapel; the original Pusey House buildings around the Blackwell quad, including the chapel, date from the period of 1884 to 1926 and are the work of the architects Temple and Leslie Moore and Ninian Comper. Discreet internal alterations were made when St Cross moved in by Geoffrey Beard and the Oxford Architects Partnership. Among these was the conversion of a cloister and store rooms into the Saugman Hall named after Per Saugman, a former Director of Blackwell Scientific Publications and a former fellow of the college; the first quadrangle was named the Richard Blackwell Quadrangle in honour of Richard Blackwell.
Most students, used to refer to the Richard Blackwell Quadrangle by its nickname:'the Quad'. After completion of the second quad, it is now known as'the front Quad'. At the west side of the Blackwell Quad lies the Four Colleges Arch, named after the four colleges which had contributed generous capital and recurrent funding to St Cross: Merton, All Souls, Christ Church, St John's. Behind the Four Colleges Arch lay a large open garden bordered by medieval boundary wall; this offered the college the possibility of expanding its buildings and erecting a second quadrangle, the West Quad. Work was first completed on the South Wing on the southern side of the West Quad, containing a hall and kitchen, with bar, the Ian Skipper conference room, the Caroline Miles games room below, a guest room and study bedrooms above; this development has in part been financed by Ian Skipper, Domus fellow of the college, after whom the conference room on the lower ground floor was named. A second building to the western and northern sides of the West Quad was set to be completed in time for the college's semicentennial in 2015.
However, planning permission for the new building was rejected, as it required the demolition of a medieval boundary wall, an action which the council qualified as'unjustifiable'. Planning permission was subsequently granted following an appeal, the new West Wing building was completed in 2017; the new West Quad includes 50 student bedrooms, a lecture theatre, a library with a garden room, several seminar rooms, the Audrey Blackman Guest Room. In addition to the current main site, the college still owns its original site on St Cross Road, located near the Law Faculty. After the college moved to its present location, this site was developed into student accommodation, the St Cross Annexe. Additional buildings which are run by St Cross College as student accommodation include Bradmore Road House, Stonemason House, the Wellington Square houses; the master's lodgings are located in Wellington Square. In 2016, St Cross had over 550 graduate students, studying for degrees in all subjects. There is a strong emphasis on international diversity, with over 75% of the students coming from outside the UK.
This is reflected in the college mot