It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football and it is in college football where a players performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as a free agent. Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained extremely popular throughout the U. S, in many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. This allows them to more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries, colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as football, by the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges, the first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9,1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock, a football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College, a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional mob football played in England.
The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football, Princeton University students played a game called ballown as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as Bloody Monday began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes, in 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a figure called Football Fightum. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called Old division football, the rules of which were first published in 1871, all of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university on a 2, 000-acre campus in Gainesville, Florida. It is a member of the State University System of Florida and traces its origins to 1853. The University is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, for 2017, U. S. News & World Report ranked Florida as the fourteenth best public university in the United States. The university is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and it is the third largest Florida university by student population, and is the eighth largest single-campus university in the United States with 49,913 students enrolled for the fall 2012 semester. The University of Florida is home to sixteen colleges and more than 150 research centers. The University of Florida traces its origins to 1853, when the East Florida Seminary, on January 6,1853, Governor Thomas Brown signed a bill that provided public support for higher education in Florida.
Gilbert Kingsbury was the first person to take advantage of the legislation, and established the East Florida Seminary, the East Florida Seminary was Floridas first state-supported institution of higher learning. James Henry Roper, an educator from North Carolina and a senator from Alachua County, had opened a school in Gainesville. In 1866, Roper offered his land and school to the State of Florida in exchange for the relocation of the East Florida Seminary to Gainesville, the second major precursor to the University of Florida was the Florida Agricultural College, established at Lake City by Jordan Probst in 1884. Florida Agricultural College became the states first land-grant college under the Morrill Act, in 1905, the Florida Legislature passed the Buckman Act, which consolidated the states publicly supported higher education institutions. The member of the legislature who wrote the act, Henry Holland Buckman, became the namesake of Buckman Hall, the Buckman Act organized the State University System of Florida and created the Florida Board of Control to govern the system.
The City of Gainesville, led by its Mayor William Reuben Thomas, on July 6,1905, the Board of Control selected Gainesville for the new university campus. Andrew Sledd, president of the pre-existing University of Florida at Lake City, was selected to be the first president of the new University of the State of Florida, architect William A. Edwards designed the first official campus buildings in the Collegiate Gothic style. Classes began on the new Gainesville campus on September 26,1906, in 1909, the schools name was simplified from the University of the State of Florida to the University of Florida. The alligator was incidentally chosen as the mascot in 1911, after a local vendor ordered. Murphree is the only University of Florida president honored with a statue on the campus, before this, only the summer semester was coeducational, to accommodate women teachers who wanted to further their education during the summer break. Lassie Goodbread-Black from Lake City became the first woman to enroll at the University of Florida, john J.
Tigert became the third university president in 1928. By the end of the 1946–47 school year,954 men were enrolled at the Tallahassee Branch, the following semester, the Florida Legislature returned the Florida State College for Women to coeducational status and renamed it Florida State University
Tackle (gridiron football position)
Tackle is a playing position in American and Canadian football. Historically, in the one-platoon system prevalent in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In the modern system of specialized units, offensive tackle and defensive tackle are separate positions, the offensive tackle is a position on the offensive line and right. The term tackle is a vestige of an era of football in which the same players played both offense and defense. A tackle is the position on the offensive line. They power their blocks with quick steps and maneuverability, the tackles are mostly in charge of the outside protection. If the tight end goes out for a pass, the tackle must cover everyone that his guard does not, usually they defend against defensive ends. In the NFL, offensive tackles often measure over 6 ft 4 in and 300 lb, the Wonderlic is taken before the draft to assess each players aptitude for learning and problem solving, a score of 26 is estimated to correspond with an IQ of 112. The right tackle is usually the teams best run blocker, most running plays are towards the strong side of the offensive line.
Consequently, the tackle will face the defending teams best run stoppers. He must be able to gain traction in his blocks so that the back can find a hole to run through. The left tackle is usually the teams best pass blocker, of the two tackles, the left tackles will often have better footwork and agility than the right tackle in order to counteract the pass rush of defensive ends. When a quarterback throws a pass, the quarterbacks shoulders are aligned roughly perpendicular to the line of scrimmage. Right-handed quarterbacks, the majority of players in the position, thus turn their backs to defenders coming from the left side, creating a vulnerable blind side that the left tackle must protect. A2006 book by Michael Lewis, The Blind Side, Evolution of a Game, made into a 2009 motion picture, the book and the films introduction discuss how the annual salary of left tackles in the NFL skyrocketed in the mid-90s. Recent examples include Eric Fisher, Luke Joeckel, Lane Johnson, Matt Kalil, Trent Williams, Jake Long, and Joe Thomas
College Football Hall of Fame
The College Football Hall of Fame is a hall of fame and museum devoted to college football. The National Football Foundation launched the Hall in 1951 to immortalize the players, from 1995 to 2012, the Hall was located in South Bend, Indiana. It was connected to a center and situated in the citys renovated downtown district,2 miles south of the University of Notre Dame campus. In August 2014, the College Football Hall of Fame and Chick-fil-A Fan Experience opened in downtown Atlanta, rutgers donated land near its football stadium, office space, and administrative support. In response, the Foundation moved its operations to New York City, when the New York Attorney Generals office began its own investigation, the foundation moved to Kings Mills, where a building finally was constructed adjacent to Kings Island in 1978. The Hall opened with good attendance figures early on, but visitation dwindled dramatically as time went on, nearby Galbreath Field remained open as the home of Moeller High School football until 2003.
A new building was opened in South Bend, Indiana on August 25,1995. Despite estimates that the South Bend location would more than 150,000 visitors a year, the Hall of Fame drew about 115,000 people the first year. In 2009, the National Football Foundation decided to move the College Football Hall of Fame to Atlanta, the possibility of moving the museum has been brought up in other cities, including Dallas, which had the financial backing of billionaire T. Boone Pickens. However, the National Football Foundation ultimately decided on Atlanta for the next site, the new $68.5 million museum opened on August 23,2014. It is located next to Centennial Olympic Park, which is near other attractions such as the Georgia Aquarium, the World of Coca-Cola, CNN Center, and the National Center for Civil and Human Rights. The Hall of Fame is located near the Georgia Institute of Technology of the ACC, the new building broke ground on January 28,2013. Sections of the architecture are reminiscent of a football in shape, the facility is 94,256 square feet and contains approximately 50,000 square feet of exhibit and event space, interactive displays and a 45-yard indoor football field.
Atlanta Hall Management operates the College Football Hall of Fame, as of 2017, there are 987 players and 214 coaches enshrined in the College Football Hall of Fame, representing 306 schools. The National Football Foundation outlines specific criteria that may be used for evaluating a candidate for induction into the Hall of Fame. A player must have received major first team All-America recognition, a player becomes eligible for consideration 10 years after his last year of intercollegiate football played. Football achievements are considered first, but the record as a citizen is weighed. Players must have played their last year of football within the last 50 years
Touchdown Club of Columbus
The Touchdown Club of Columbus was founded in Columbus, Ohio, in 1956 by Sam B. Nicola at the request of state auditor James A. Rhodes, Nicola served as the clubs president until his death in 1993. More than a later, his son Sam Nicola Jr. took over the Touchdown Club. The Touchdown Club of Columbus gives several awards to outstanding athletes. The Sammy Baugh Trophy is awarded annually to the top collegiate passer. J. 1991 – Desmond Howard, Michigan 1992 – O. J, named for Ohio State great and Hall of Famer Jim Parker. J. Henderson, Maryland 2003 – Jonathan Vilma, Miami 2004 – Derrick Johnson and it is named in honor of the only two-time Heisman Trophy winner, Archie Griffin of Ohio State. J. Not to be confused with the Joe F. Carr Trophy which was the official National Football League MVP award from 1938-46, both trophies are named after Carr, a former NFL commissioner. A. J. Simpson, Buffalo Bills 1974 – Ken Stabler, Oakland Raiders 1975 – O. J, Rhodes Trophy is awarded annually to the Ohio High School player of the year.
This annual recognition goes to the top boxer. The Touchdown Club gives the annual TDC Lifetime Achievement Award to a selected athlete, bert Bell Award Maxwell Football Club Washington D. C
1996 NFL season
The 1996 NFL season was the 77th regular season of the National Football League and the season was marked by notable controversies from beginning to end. The season ended with Super Bowl XXXI when the Green Bay Packers defeated the New England Patriots 35-21 at the Louisiana Superdome, either way, the beloved Cleveland Browns would continue, while the Baltimore Ravens began their new history when the 1996 season started. The season was the season for the Houston Oilers before leaving Texas for Memphis for the following season. This move left Houston with no football team until the 2002 debut of the Texans. For that, and his excellent performance on kick-off and punt returns throughout the game, Howard was named Super Bowl MVP, the only time that a special teams player has earned that distinction. In the event, Parcells did not even return with the players, and telephone records showed he was talking to the Jets in the days before, New Orleans Saints – New numbers on uniforms. On home uniform old gold numbers with white trim, and road uniforms old gold numbers with black trim, similar to teams original jerseys worn from 1967–69, 30th anniversary patch worn on the left chest.
New uniforms, with green color. Dallas Cowboys – New color road uniforms, Baltimore Ravens – New team in new city. Purple jerseys with white numbers trimmed in black and gold at home, white jerseys with black numbers trimmed in purple, black pants worn with both jerseys. San Francisco 49ers – New uniforms, darker red, white pants, and updated team logo. Minnesota Vikings – Changes in uniforms, Vikings logo on sleeve ends of home uniforms. Arizona Cardinals - New road jerseys, black trim removed from numbers, logo removed from sleeves, and Arizona state flag moved above sleeve stripes. Arizona Cardinals - Vince Tobin new head coach, replaced Buddy Ryan, who was fired after the 1995 season. Tampa Bay Buccaneers – Tony Dungy new head coach, replaced Sam Wyche who was fired after the 1995 season. Miami Dolphins – Jimmy Johnson new head coach, replaced Don Shula who retired after the 1995 season. Indianapolis Colts – Lindy Infante new head coach, replaced Ted Marchibroda who was offered a job from the Baltimore Ravens.
Cincinnati Bengals – Dave Shula was fired by mid season and was replaced by head coach Bruce Coslet
Track and field
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running and throwing. The name is derived from the sports venue, a stadium with an oval running track enclosing a grass field where the throwing and jumping events take place. Track and field is categorised under the sport of athletics, which includes road running, cross country running. The foot racing events, which include sprints, middle- and long-distance events, the jumping and throwing events are won by the athlete who achieves the greatest distance or height. Regular jumping events include long jump, triple jump, high jump and pole vault, while the most common throwing events are shot put, javelin and hammer. There are combined events or multi events, such as the pentathlon consisting of five events, heptathlon consisting of seven events, in these, athletes participate in a combination of track and field events. Most track and field events are individual sports with a victor, the most prominent team events are relay races.
Events are almost exclusively divided by gender, although both the mens and womens competitions are held at the same venue. It is one of the oldest sports, in ancient times, it was an event held in conjunction with festivals and sports meets such as the Ancient Olympic Games in Greece. The ancient Olympic Games began in the year 776 BC, when Koroibos, a cook from the city of Elis, won the stadium race. According to some traditions, this was the only athletic event of the games for the first 13 Olympic festivals. In modern times, the two most prestigious track and field competitions are athletics competition at the Olympic Games and the IAAF World Championships in Athletics. The International Association of Athletics Federations is the governing body. Records are kept of the best performances in specific events, at world and national levels, however, if athletes are deemed to have violated the events rules or regulations, they are disqualified from the competition and their marks are erased. In North America, the track and field may be used to refer to other athletics events, such as the marathon.
The sport of track and field has its roots in human prehistory and field-style events are among the oldest of all sporting competitions, as running and throwing are natural and universal forms of human physical expression. The first recorded examples of organized track and field events at a festival are the Ancient Olympic Games. At the first Games in 776 BC in Olympia, only one event was contested and field events were present at the Panhellenic Games in Greece around this period, and they spread to Rome in Italy around 200 BC
2008 Pro Bowl
The 2008 Pro Bowl was the National Football Leagues all-star game for the 2007 season. It was played at Aloha Stadium in Honolulu, Hawaii on February 10,2008, the game was televised in the United States by Fox and began shortly after 11, 40am local time following Pole Qualyfiling for 2008 Daytona 500. The NFC won, 42–30, despite a 17-point first half AFC lead, NFC running back Adrian Peterson rushed 16 times for 129 yards and was named the games MVP, winning a Cadillac CTS in recognition of his efforts. The starting rosters for the game were released on December 18,2007, with New England Patriots quarterback Tom Brady starting for the AFC, Brett Favre withdrew due to an ankle injury. Notable Pro Bowl selections included the late Sean Taylor, the AFC was coached by Norv Turner of the San Diego Chargers staff, while Mike McCarthy and the staff of the Green Bay Packers coached the NFC. Three Washington Redskins players wore #21 in memory of Taylor, their deceased teammate, the game featured 41 players appearing in their first Pro Bowl, the most in eight years.
In addition, the NFC played their first defensive play with ten players on the field, lacking a free safety. The game was the most watched Pro Bowl since 2000, pulling in a Nielsen rating of 6.3 and it marked the first ever Pro Bowl to be televised by Fox. The 2008 Pro Bowl marked the fewest players represented by a Super Bowl winning team, with Osi Umenyiora being the representative of the New York Giants. 1st Quarter AFC – Lorenzo Neal 1-yard run,10,59, drive,7 plays,70 yards,4,01. NFC – Larry Fitzgerald 6-yard pass from Tony Romo,7,08, drive,9 plays,54 yards,3,51. Houshmandzadeh 16-yard pass from Peyton Manning,2,42, drive,9 plays,58 yards,4,26. AFC – Rob Bironas 33-yard FG,0,48, drive,5 plays,14 yards,1,41. Houshmandzadeh 1-yard pass from Ben Roethlisberger,12,08, drive,4 plays,29 yards,1,48. NFC – Terrell Owens 6-yard pass from Tony Romo,7,58, drive,8 plays,51 yards,4,10. AFC – Rob Bironas 48-yard FG,3,30, drive,9 plays,51 yards,4,28. NFC – Chris Cooley 17-yard pass from Matt Hasselbeck,0,28, drive,6 plays,77 yards,3,02.
3rd Quarter NFC – Adrian Peterson 17-yard run,9,49, drive,9 plays,67 yards,5,11
2007 NFL season
The 2007 NFL season was the 88th regular season of the National Football League. Regular-season play was held from September 6 to December 30, the New England Patriots became the first team to complete the regular season undefeated since the league expanded to a 16-game regular season in 1978. However, with all efforts being put into the London regular season game, plans for the game were postponed, on March 26,2007, the league announced the aforementioned opening Saints-Colts Kickoff Game on September 6 that would be telecast on NBC. Pre-game activities featured Indiana native John Mellencamp, Faith Hill, the entertainment portion of events started 30 minutes earlier than the scheduled start time of the game, leading up to the unveiling of the Colts Super Bowl XLI championship banner. The opening events were simulcast on NFL Network, the Dallas Cowboys hosted the New York Giants in the first Sunday night game September 9 at 8,15 p. m. Monday Night Football on ESPN kicked off with a doubleheader on September 10 with the Cincinnati Bengals hosting the Baltimore Ravens at 7,00 p.
m, US EDT, and the San Francisco 49ers hosting the Arizona Cardinals at 10,15 p. m. The 49ers paid tribute to three-time Super Bowl winning head coach Bill Walsh, in October 2006, NFL club owners approved a plan to stage up to two international regular season games per season beginning in 2007 and continuing through at least 2011. In Week 9, the New England Patriots faced the Indianapolis Colts in a battle of undefeated teams, many people dubbed the game Super Bowl 41 1⁄2. The Patriots prevailed 24–20, and would finish the regular season as the leagues first 16–0 team. For the second year in a row, three games were held on the United States Thanksgiving Day. In addition to the traditional games hosted by the Detroit Lions and Cowboys, based on the NFLs scheduling formula, the intraconference and interconference matchups for 2007 were, The NFL entered its second year of flexible scheduling in the final weeks of the season. In each of the Sunday night contests from Weeks 11 through 17, NBC had the option of switching its Sunday night game for a more favorable contest, in addition to an extra week of flexible scheduling, the NFL slightly changed its flex-schedule procedure.
In 2006, the league did not reveal its predetermined Sunday night game, in 2007, the league announced all predetermined matchups, with a footnote on the games subject to flex scheduling. The first flex game was the New England Patriots visiting the Buffalo Bills on November 18, the Dallas Cowboys–Washington Redskins game was switched on Fox from 1 PM kickoff to 4,15 PM. B Detroit finished in place in the NFC North over Chicago based on a head-to-head sweep over Chicago. C Carolina finished in place in the NFC South over New Orleans based on a better conference record. D Kansas City finished in place in the AFC West over Oakland based on a better record against common opponents. E Tennessee clinched the AFC No.6 seed over Cleveland based on a record against common opponents
1996 NFL Draft
The 1996 NFL draft was the procedure by which National Football League teams selected amateur college football players. It is officially known as the NFL Annual Player Selection Meeting, the draft was held April 20–21,1996, at the Paramount Theatre at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York. No teams chose to claim any players in the draft that year. This draft is considered one of the best draft classes ever for the position of wide receiver, combined,1996 wide receivers have totalled 7,646 receptions for 105,866 yards, eclipsing any other class by more than 1,000 receptions and 10,000 yards. As of 2016, it was the last draft without a quarterback selected in the first round, the 1988 draft had been the last with no quarterback selected in the first round. It was one of the best draft years for middle linebackers, Lewis won Super Bowl XXXV and was selected MVP of that game. Lewis won Super Bowl XLVII in the game of his career. Other linebackers who made at least one Pro Bowl from this draft are Tedy Bruschi, Kevin Hardy, Simeon Rice, John Mobley, randall Godfrey, Earl Holmes, and Carlos Emmons had solid careers in the league.
The trade was immediately after the Rams drafted Nebraska running back Lawrence Phillips. Jonathan Ogden, offensive tackle from UCLA, taken 1st round 4th overall by the Baltimore Ravens, Professional Football Hall of Fame class of 2013. Marvin Harrison, wide receiver from Syracuse, taken 1st round 19th overall by the Indianapolis Colts, Professional Football Hall of Fame class of 2016. NFL. com –1996 Draft databaseFootball. com –1996 Draft Pro Football Hall of Fame
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress and Supreme Court.
Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia.
Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles.
Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four professional sports leagues in North America. The NFLs 17-week regular season runs from the week after Labor Day to the week after Christmas, with each team playing 16 games, the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, and the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season, the merger was completed in 1970. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States. S. The NFLs executive officer is the commissioner, who has authority in governing the league. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen, the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Atlanta Falcons 34–28 in Super Bowl LI.
Another meeting held on September 17,1920 resulted in the renaming of the league to the American Professional Football Association, the league hired Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of 14 teams. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, the first event occurred on September 26,1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3,1920, the first full week of league play occurred, the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans. In 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League, in 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. This method had used since the leagues creation in 1920. The league quickly determined that a game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the leagues champion. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, the 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure, the NFL was always the foremost professional football league in the United States, it nevertheless faced a large number of rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues and the All-America Football Conference, on top of regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams