Baldwin County, Georgia
Baldwin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,337; the county seat is Milledgeville, developed along the Oconee River. Baldwin County is part of GA Micropolitan Statistical Area. For centuries the land was occupied by the Creek Nation, for thousands of years before them, varying cultures of indigenous peoples. Part of the land ceded by the Creek Nation in the Treaty of Fort Wilkinson in 1802 was used to create Baldwin County on May 11, 1803, by the Georgia General Assembly, the state's legislative body; the land west of the Oconee River was organized as Wilkinson counties. The Treaty of Washington with the Creek in 1805 extended the state's western boundary to the Ocmulgee River. A legislative act on June 26, 1806, added some of this additional land to both counties; the state legislature subsequently passed an act on December 10, 1807 that created four new counties from Baldwin County's 1806 borders. It expanded Baldwin to the east with land from Washington counties.
The new counties were Morgan, Jones and present-day Jasper. The county is named for Abraham Baldwin, a signer of the United States Constitution, U. S. congressman representing Georgia, the founder of the University of Georgia. White settlers moved into the area and developed large cotton plantations, made possible by the labor of slaves. Since the invention of the cotton gin, short-staple cotton could be profitably processed, it was well-suited to the uplands of Georgia. What became known as the Black Belt of Georgia, an arc of fertile soil, was one of the destinations for slaves being sold from the Upper South, as well as from the Low Country; the county seat of Milledgeville is the former state capital of Georgia. Other than Washington, DC, it is the only planned capital city in the United States; because of its central location within the state and its abundant supply of water from the Oconee River, Milledgeville grew into a bustling frontier town. On November 2, 1807, the state legislature held its first session in the newly completed statehouse in Milledgeville.
Georgia's first state penitentiary was built within the historic city limits of Milledgeville in 1817. This site is now used as the main campus of State University. In 1837 the General Assembly provided for the establishment of the state's first mental asylum, today known as Central State Hospital; when the state of Georgia seceded from the Union in January 1861 during a legislative session held in Milledgeville, Baldwin County became a target for Union forces. When Union general William T. Sherman's made his devastating March to the Sea through Georgia, his troops occupied the capital city in November 1864. Sherman and his Union armies burned the state penitentiary, vandalized the city, held a mock session of the legislature in the statehouse to repeal the state's ordinance of secession. In 1868, after the Civil War, Georgia's capital was moved from Milledgeville to its present location in Atlanta. Today Milledgeville is home to two institutions of higher education: Georgia College and State University and Georgia Military College.
Founded in 1889 as the Georgia Normal and Industrial College for Women, Georgia College and State University has since grown to become the state's premier public liberal arts university. Georgia Military College, founded in 1879, now occupies the Old Capitol Building. In addition to the Old Capitol and Governor's Mansion, visitors to Baldwin County can explore Andalusia, the family farm of writer Flannery O'Connor. Carl Vinson, who served for fifty years in the U. S. Congress, was born in Baldwin County. Oliver Hardy and film director, began his career in the Milledgeville Opera House. Flannery O'Connor and short-story writer, lived in Milledgeville, she is buried in her family plot in the city's historic Memory Hill Cemetery. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 267 square miles, of which 258 square miles is land and 9.6 square miles is water. The majority of Baldwin County, south of Lake Sinclair, is located in the Lower Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin.
The northern portion of the county is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin. Putnam County, Georgia - north Hancock County, Georgia - northeast Washington County, Georgia - east Wilkinson County, Georgia - south Jones County, Georgia - west As of the census of 2010, there were 46,337 people, 14,758 households, 9,843 families residing in the county; the population density was 173 people per square mile. There were 17,173 housing units at an average density of 66 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 54.17% White, 43.38% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. 1.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 14,758 households out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.90% were married couples living together, 18.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.30% were non-families.
25.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.70% under the age of 18, 14.50% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, and
Wilkinson County, Georgia
Wilkinson County, established in 1803 and named for General James Wilkinson, is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,563; the county seat is Irwinton. The county was created on May 11, 1803. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 452 square miles, of which 447 square miles is land and 4.6 square miles is water. The entirety of Wilkinson County is located in the Lower Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. Baldwin County Bleckley County Washington County Johnson County Laurens County Twiggs County Jones County As of the census of 2000, there were 10,220 people, 3,827 households, 2,805 families residing in the county; the population density was 23 people per square mile. There were 4,449 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 57.96% White, 40.70% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.40% from other races, 0.66% from two or more races.
0.99% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,827 households out of which 33.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.60% were married couples living together, 18.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families. 24.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.13. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.20% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 13.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 90.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,723, the median income for a family was $39,349. Males had a median income of $31,814 versus $21,461 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,658.
About 14.60% of families and 17.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.90% of those under age 18 and 18.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 9,563 people, 3,666 households, 2,638 families residing in the county; the population density was 21.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,487 housing units at an average density of 10.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 58.5% white, 38.4% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 1.3% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 14.7% were American. Of the 3,666 households, 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.9% were married couples living together, 18.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.0% were non-families, 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.06.
The median age was 41.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,902 and the median income for a family was $49,138. Males had a median income of $39,009 versus $25,935 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,929. About 17.9% of families and 23.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.1% of those under age 18 and 21.9% of those age 65 or over. Wilkinson County Primary/Elementary SchoolWilkinson County Middle/High SchoolWilkinson County is home of the 9-time state high school basketball class A champions. Allentown Danville Gordon Irwinton - county seat Ivey McIntyre Toomsboro National Register of Historic Places listings in Wilkinson County, Georgia
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Benjamin Elijah Mays was an American Baptist minister and civil rights leader, credited with laying the intellectual foundations of the Civil Rights Movement. Mays taught and mentored many influential activists: Martin Luther King Jr, Julian Bond, Maynard Jackson, Donn Clendenon, among others, his rhetoric and intellectual work focused on notions of nonviolence and civil resistance–beliefs inspired by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. The peak of his public influence occurred during his thirty years as the 6th President of Morehouse College, a black institution of higher learning. Mays was born in the Jim Crow South on a repurposed cotton plantation to freed sharecroppers, he traveled North to attend Bates College and the University of Chicago from where he began his career in activism as a pastor in the Shiloh Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia. After a brief career as a professor, he was appointed as the Dean of the School of Religion at Howard University in 1934 which elevated him to national prominence as a proponent of the New Negro movement.
Six years Mays was elected as the president of Morehouse College, an at-the-time financially unstable enterprise. Over his tenure from 1940 to 1967, the college's financial endowment was doubled and enrollment quadrupled. Due to the relative smallness of the college, Mays mentored and taught many students, most notably King, his connection with King spanned his early days at the college in 1944. King was known as Mays' "spiritual son" and Mays his "intellectual father." After King's famous "I Have A Dream" speech at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963, Mays gave the benediction. Upon the 1968 death of King, he was asked to give the eulogy where he described him in his "No Man is Ahead of His Time" speech. Mays stepped down from the presidency in 1967 continuing to work as a leader in the African American community, he presided over the Atlanta Board of Education from 1969 to 1978, where he initiated the desegregation of Atlanta. Mays' contributions to the civil rights movement have had him hailed as the "movement's intellectual conscience" or alternatively the "Dean of the Movement".
Historian Lawrence Carter described Mays as "one of the most significant figures in American history". Hundreds of streets, statues, scholarships and fellowships are named in his honor. Numerous efforts have been brought forward to posthumously award Mays the Presidential Medal of Freedom as well as feature him on a U. S. postage stamp. Benjamin Elijah Mays was born on August 1, 1894 in Epworth, South Carolina, in the small town of Ninety Six, South Carolina, the youngest of eight children, his mother, Louvenia Carter Mays, father, Hezekiah Mays, were born into slavery on Virginia and South Carolina plantations, respectively. Both were freed in their lives with the passage of the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation. Mays' father hit him, his siblings and Louvenia growing up, expressing anger about how he was treated by his master; the "Mays" family name was derived from owner's name, Henry Hazel Mays. Hezekiah worked as a cotton sharecropper to generate income for his family. Mays was told to exhibit black pride whenever possible growing up.
Mays' older sister, began to teach him how to read before his formal schooling commenced, which gave him a year's growth in reading compared to the other students in his primary schools. School officials cited him as "destined for greatness." Growing up, he went by the nickname "Bennie" and was inspired by Fredrick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, Thomas E. Miller; the Bible was influential to young Mays because he could see his name mentioned instilling a feeling of empowerment within. During this time, Benjamin Tillman rose to power in South Carolina which saw to the redoubling of lynching and segregation in Mays' neighborhood. Throughout his tenure as governor, 18 black men were lynched and dozens were hurt in the 1876 shoot-off. On November 8, 1898, members of the Phoenix Riot–a white suprematist mob–rode up on horses to the Mays household, a repurposed cotton plantation, they told him to remove his hat and bow down to them. The event would stay with Mays throughout his life. A year white mobs and Ku Klux Klan members searched his house in search of relatives after local newspapers announced that cotton prices had plummeted.
In 1911, he was enrolled at the Brick House School in a Baptist-sponsored school. He transferred to the High School Department of South Carolina State College in Orangeburg, he graduated in 1916, aged 22 as its valedictorian. In high school, teachers let Mays instruct parts of the mathematics curriculum to students in exchange for extra credit, he won awards for mathematics. A teacher at the school had told Mays to seek graduate school at the University of Chicago as he thought the school would best nurture Mays' intellect. However, before attending graduate school Mays needed to seek an undergraduate education, his relatives and teachers forced him to attend a Baptist university–the Virginia Union University. He grew weary of the violence against blacks in Virginia so he sought the guidance of his academic advisors at Virginia Union, they advised him to look into schools in the North as they were seen as more prestigious and prominent than those of the South. Four professors at the university had attended Bates College in Lewiston and urged Mays to apply.
However, its exacting standards prohibited him from attending. After a year more in Richmond, M
The Jarrell Plantation State Historic Site is a cotton plantation and state park in Juliette, United States. Located in the red clay hills of the Georgia piedmont, the site stands as one of the best-preserved examples of a "middle class" Southern plantation; the Jarrell Plantation's buildings and artifacts all came from one source, the Jarrell family, who farmed the land for over 140 years. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973, it is a Georgia state park in Jones County. Before the Civil War, the Jarrell's farm was one of the half-million cotton farms in the South that collectively produced two-thirds of the world's cotton. Like many small planters, the Jarrell family benefited from the development of the cotton gin in 1793 by Eli Whitney, which made it practical to cultivate seeded, short-staple cotton in hilly, inland areas of Georgia. John Fitz Jarrell built the first permanent structure on the site in 1847. Typical of antebellum cotton plantations, John Jarrell ran the farm with his slave labor.
By 1860 John Jarrell operated the 660-acre farm with the labor of 39 slaves. Although a cotton plantation, the farm provided food crops and grazing for livestock. During the turbulent decade of the 1860s, the farm survived a typhoid fever outbreak, General Sherman and Reconstruction. After the Civil War, John Jarrell continued to farm with the help of former slaves and he increased the farm to nearly 1,000 acres; the former-slave laborers began leaving the farm in John Jarrell's final years. After John's death in 1884 one of John's sons, Benjamin Richard "Dick" Jarrell, gave up a teaching career to return home and build his family home in 1895. Although the farm had been processing sugarcane since 1864, Dick Jarrell expanded the industrialization of the farm by adding a mill complex that included a steam-driven sawmill, cotton gin, shingle mill, planer. In 1920, with the labor of his five sons and two nephews, Dick Jarrell completed a second home, fit for his large family; the Jarrell 1920 House is 1850's - style home built of heart pine.
In 1974, Dick Jarrell's nine surviving adult children donated the plantation site to the State of Georgia for the preservation of the farm and the education of future generations about their heritage. The State of Georgia's Department of Natural Resources operates the now 200-acre historic site and opens it to the public Thursday through Saturday; the site's buildings and structures include the farmhouse, a sawmill, cotton gin, shingle mill, sugar cane press, syrup evaporator, workshop and outbuildings. Jarrell Plantation Historic Site - official site
Johnny Cash was an American singer-songwriter, guitarist and author. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 90 million records worldwide. Although remembered as a country music icon, his genre-spanning songs and sound embraced rock and roll, blues and gospel; this crossover appeal won Cash the rare honor of being inducted into the Country Music and Roll, Gospel Music Halls of Fame. Cash was known for his deep, calm bass-baritone voice, the distinctive sound of his Tennessee Three backing band characterized by train-sound guitar rhythms, a rebelliousness coupled with an somber and humble demeanor, free prison concerts, a trademark, all-black stage wardrobe, which earned him the nickname "The Man in Black." He traditionally began his concerts by introducing himself, "Hello, I'm Johnny Cash," followed by his signature song "Folsom Prison Blues". Much of Cash's music contained themes of sorrow, moral tribulation, redemption in the stages of his career, his other signature songs include "I Walk the Line", "Ring of Fire", "Get Rhythm", "Man in Black".
He recorded humorous numbers like "One Piece at a Time" and "A Boy Named Sue". During the last stage of his career, Cash covered songs by several late 20th-century rock artists, notably "Hurt" by Nine Inch Nails and "Rusty Cage" by Soundgarden. Johnny Cash was born on February 1932, in Kingsland, Arkansas, to Ray Cash and Carrie Cloveree, he was the fourth of seven children, who were in birth order: Roy, Margaret Louise, Jack, J. R. Reba and Tommy, he was of English and Scottish descent. As an adult he traced his surname to 11th-century Fife, after meeting with the then-laird of Falkland, Major Michael Crichton-Stuart. Cash Loch and other locations in Fife bear the name of his family. At birth, Cash was named J. R. Cash; when Cash enlisted in the United States Air Force, he was not permitted to use initials as a first name, so he changed his name to John R. Cash. In 1955, when signing with Sun Records, he started going by Johnny Cash. In March 1935, when Cash was three years old, the family settled in Dyess, Arkansas, a New Deal colony established to give poor families a chance to work land that they had a chance to own as a result.
J. R. started singing along with his family while working. The Cash farm flooded during the family's time in Dyess which led Cash to write the song "Five Feet High and Rising", his family's economic and personal struggles during the Great Depression inspired many of his songs those about other people facing similar difficulties. He had sympathy for the poor and working class. Cash was close to his older brother, Jack. On Saturday May 12, 1944, Jack was pulled into an unguarded table saw at his high school while cutting oak into fence posts as his job and was cut in two, he lingered until the following Saturday. Cash spoke of the horrible guilt he felt over this incident. According to Cash: The Autobiography, his father was away that morning, but Johnny and his mother, Jack himself, all had premonitions or a sense of foreboding about that day, his mother urged Jack to go fishing with his brother. Jack insisted on working. On his deathbed, Jack said he had visions of angels. Decades Cash spoke of looking forward to meeting his brother in Heaven.
Cash's early memories were dominated by gospel radio. Taught guitar by his mother and a childhood friend, Cash began playing and writing songs at the age of 12; when young, Cash had a high-tenor voice, before becoming a bass-baritone after his voice changed. In high school, he sang on a local radio station. Decades he released an album of traditional gospel songs, called My Mother's Hymn Book, he was significantly influenced by traditional Irish music, which he heard performed weekly by Dennis Day on the Jack Benny radio program. Cash enlisted in the United States Air Force on July 7, 1950. After basic training at Lackland Air Force Base and technical training at Brooks Air Force Base, both in San Antonio, Cash was assigned to the 12th Radio Squadron Mobile of the U. S. Air Force Security Service at Landsberg, Germany, as a Morse code operator intercepting Soviet Army transmissions, it was there he created his first band, named "The Landsberg Barbarians". He was honorably discharged as a staff sergeant on July 3, 1954, returned to Texas.
During his military service, he acquired a distinctive scar on the right side of his jaw as a result of surgery to remove a cyst. On July 18, 1951, while in Air Force training, Cash met 17-year-old Italian-American Vivian Liberto at a roller skating rink in her native San Antonio, they dated for three weeks. During that time, the couple exchanged hundreds of pages of love letters. On August 7, 1954, one month after his discharge, they were married at St. Ann's Roman Catholic Church in San Antonio; the ceremony was performed by Vincent Liberto. They had four daughters: Rosanne, Kathy and Tara. In 1961, Johnny moved his family to a hilltop home overlooking Casitas Springs, California, a small town south of Ojai on Highway 33, he had moved his parents to the area to run a small trailer park called the Johnny Cash Trailer Park. Johnny's drinking led to several run-ins with local law enforcement