U.S. Route 277
U. S. Route 277 is a north–south United States Highway, it is a spur of U. S. Route 77, it runs for 633 miles across Texas. US 277's northern terminus is in Newcastle, Oklahoma at Interstate 44, the northern terminus of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike, its southern terminus is in Carrizo Springs, Texas at U. S. Route 83, it passes through the states of Texas. Most of U. S. 277's route through the two states overlaps other U. S. highways. Those include U. S. 62 from Newcastle to Chickasha, Oklahoma, U. S. 62 and U. S. 281 from five miles west of Elgin, Oklahoma, to Lawton, U. S. 281 from Lawton to Wichita Falls, Texas, U. S. 82 from Wichita Falls to Seymour, U. S. 83 from Anson, Texas to Abilene, Texas. Through the Lawton area and again from Randlett, Oklahoma, to near downtown Wichita Falls, U. S. 277 is co-signed with I-44. The highway begins at an intersection with US 83 in Carrizo Springs, about 60 miles northwest of Laredo; the highway runs until reaching Eagle Pass. From here to Del Rio, the highway parallels the Rio Grande River at the U.
S.-Mexico border. The highway overlaps US 377 for about 26 miles, with the highways passing the Amistad National Recreation Area. US 277 crosses I-10 near Sonora, before traveling to Eldorado and San Angelo; the highway overlaps US 87 in the city. In Abilene, the highway overlaps with the latter leaving shortly after. US 83 leaves in Anson. In Seymour, US 82 begins an overlap with US 277; the two highways enter the city of Wichita Falls, with US 82 leaving the highway at US 281/US 287. US 277 joins US 281/287 and the three highways travel into the downtown area of the city, where I-44 begins. US 287 leaves the freeway, while I-44/US 277/US 281 travel to Burkburnett, before crossing the Red River into Oklahoma. From its present terminus at Interstate 44 near Newcastle, U. S. 277 runs concurrent with U. S. 62 through Blanchard into downtown Chickasha, where U. S. 277 joins U. S. 81 for several miles to an intersection south of Chickasha near Ninnekah, where U. S. 277 turns west/southwest through the cities of Cement, Cyril and Elgin - crossing over I-44/H.
E. Bailey east of Cement, under the interstate south of Fletcher and under the interstate/turnpike on the west side of Elgin. About five miles west of Elgin, U. S. 277 rejoins U. S. 62 for the next 10 miles with the triplex 62-277-281 route joining Interstate 44 at the starting/ending point of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike north section near Medicine Park south through Fort Sill to I-44 Exit 40A, where U. S. 62 diverts from the interstate. U. S. 277 and 281 continue their concurrent route with I-44 through the Lawton-Fort Sill area to a point six miles south of Lawton where I-44 becomes the H. E. Bailey Turnpike south to Randlett. At this interchange which includes Oklahoma 36 west/southwest to Chattanooga and Grandfield, U. S. 277-281 diverts east and curve south to parallel the interstate past Geronimo, OK and 10 miles joins Oklahoma 5 about 5 miles west of Walters for three miles west crossing over I-44/H. E. Bailey Turnpike at the Walters exit and toll plaza. West of I-44, U. S. 277-281 turns south from Oklahoma 5 and continues south, crossing under I-44 south of Cookietown and joins U.
S. 70 at Randlett, from where the triplex U. S. 70-277-281 continues 3 miles west to an interchange with I-44 at the beginning/ending points of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike. At this interchange, U. S. 277-281 joins I-44 for the last 6 miles in Oklahoma before crossing the Red River into Texas. From Newcastle to the Red River north of Wichita Falls, Texas, U. S. 277 serves as an alternate free route to the two sections of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike between Oklahoma City and the Red River from Newcastle southwest of Oklahoma to near Medicine Park north of Lawton and from near Geronimo south of Lawton to Randlett just north of the Red River near Burkburnett, Texas; the former route of U. S. 277 through the City of Lawton via 2nd Street and 11th Street has been designated as U. S. 281 Business since the completion of Lawton's Pioneer Expressway in 1964 from present I-44 Exit 39-B to Exit 33. Present U. S. 281 Business and former U. S. 277-281 follows 2nd Street south of I-44 into the downtown area and south of Lee Boulevard, curves into the diagonal route to 11th Street and still locally designated by the City of Lawton as Highway 277 though it is designated as U.
S. 281 Business. From the end of the diagonal route at 11th and Tennessee Avenue south past the Lawton-Fort Sill Regional Airport to Exit 33 of Interstate 44, the former U. S. 277-281 and current U. S. Business 281 route follows 11th Street. South of this point, U. S. 281 Business ends/begins and current U. S. 277-281 continues to run concurrent with I-44 for another 3 miles to Exit 30, bypassing 3 miles of the former U. S. 277-281 concurrency that followed 11th Street south of Lawton until the completion of the present I-44 route south of Lawton in 1964, when the former highway reverted to local jurisdiction. At Exit 31, Oklahoma 36 begins its route to Chattanooga and Grandfield west of I-44 while U. S. 277-281 uses the same route east of the interstate for a half-mile and tur
Nolan County, Texas
Nolan County is a county located in the west central region of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 15,216, its county seat is Sweetwater. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1881, it is named for one of the first American traders to visit Texas. Nolan County comprises TX Micropolitan Statistical Area. Susan King has been since 2007 the Republican state representative from Nolan as well as Jones and Taylor Counties. From 1921 to 1925, the Democrat Richard M. Chitwood of Sweetwater represented Nolan County in the state House; as chairman of the House Education Committee, he worked in 1923 to establish what became Texas Tech University in Lubbock. He had first tried to obtain the institution for Sweetwater as the central location of West Texas. After the institution was established, he resigned from the House to move to Lubbock to become the first Texas Tech business manager, he served in that capacity for just 15 months. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 914 square miles, of which 912 square miles are land and 2.0 square miles are covered by water.
Nolan County is in the Cross Timbers region for wildlife management. Geologically Nolan County occupies part of the Rolling Plains in the North and South, separated by an isolated part of the Edwards Plateau in much of the center; the uplifted plateau, rising up to 500 feet above the surrounding plains, gives Nolan county an advantage on production of wind energy. Plateau areas of the Cretaceous Period and much of the county are underlain by petroleum deposits from the Pennsylvanian Period. Interstate 20 U. S. Highway 84 State Highway 70 State Highway 153 Fisher County Taylor County Runnels County Coke County Mitchell County As of the census of 2000, 15,802 people, 6,170 households, 4,288 families resided in the county; the population density was 17 people per square mile. The 7,112 housing units averaged 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.45% White, 4.68% Black or African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 14.02% from other races, 2.07% from two or more races.
About 28.04% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 6,170 households, 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.00% were married couples living together, 12.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.50% were not families. Around 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was distributed as 27.10% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 25.40% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,209, for a family was $32,004. Males had a median income of $28,674 versus $19,335 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,077. About 18.30% of families and 21.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.50% of those under age 18 and 18.50% of those age 65 or over.
Nolan County has established itself as a center for wind power generation. As of July 2008, Nolan County generated more wind energy than the entire state of California, would have ranked sixth in the world for wind power generation if it were counted as its own country. A branch of Texas State Technical College operates near Sweetwater offering the first community college program for wind energy in Texas beginning in 2007. Wind energy investments in the county of about $3 billion US dollars since 1999 have resulted in about 1,330 direct wind-related jobs which were created in Nolan County alone, with $18,000,000 in annual landowner royalties and over $12,000,000 in annual local school taxes, about $1.7 million more in county property taxes. Nolan county is a hub of the Public Utility Commission’s $5 Billion CREZ wind energy transmission line expansion project in Texas. Blackwell Roscoe Sweetwater Maryneal Nolan Bitter Creek Wastella Decker List of museums in West Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Nolan County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Nolan County Nolan County Official Site Nolan County from the Handbook of Texas Online Nolan County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties The National WASP WWII Museum
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Texas State Highway 6
State Highway 6 runs from the Red River, the Texas–Oklahoma boundary, to northwest of Galveston, where it is known as the Old Galveston Highway. In Sugar Land and Missouri City, it is known as Alvin-Sugarland Road and runs perpendicular to I-69/US 59. In the Houston area, it runs north to FM 1960 northwest along US Highway 290 to Hempstead, south to Westheimer Road and Addicks, is known as Addicks Satsuma Road. In the Bryan–College Station area, it is known as the Earl Rudder Freeway. In Hearne, it is known as Market Street. In Calvert, it is known as Main Street. For most of its length, SH 6 is not a limited-access road. In 1997, the Texas Legislature designated SH 6 as the Texas Korean War Veterans Memorial Highway. State Highway 6 was one of the original 25 state highways proposed on June 21, 1917, overlying the King of Trails Highway. From 1919, the routing followed present-day U. S. Highway 75 from Oklahoma to Dallas U. S. Highway 77 to Waco. On August 21, 1923, SH 6 was extended along the eastern Gulf Division branch of State Highway 2 to keep SH 2 from having two separate highways with the same number.
In 1926, US 75 and US 77 were overlaid on northern SH 6 from Waco northward through the Dallas area to Denison, US 75 was overlaid on the section from Houston to Galveston. In 1935, US 290 was overlaid on the section from Hempstead to Houston. While the routes were marked concurrently, the concurrent SH 6 kept its numbering until September 26, 1939, when SH 6 was truncated to the Gulf Division routing ending at Waco, it was rerouted south from Hempstead to Galveston, replacing SH 242 and SH 38. On September 26, 1945, the roadway was extended northwest to Breckenridge over SH 67, continuing northwest to near Throckmorton along SH 157, decommissioned; that same day, the section in southeast Texas between Hempstead and Sugar Land was cancelled, as it was redundant with the new Farm to Market Road 359. On August 20, 1952, the route was truncated on the north side; this section was transferred to U. S. Highway 183. On September 26, 1967, SH 6 was rerouted to bypass Bremond, with the old route through Bremond transferred to SH 14 and FM 46.
On November 1, 1968, the section between Hempstead and Sugar Land was re-established, as it was routed along U. S. Highway 290 until it reached Farm to Market Road 1960 replacing FM 1960 southward to where the southern branch of SH 6 intersected to what is now Interstate 69/U. S. Highway 59 in Sugar Land; that portion of FM 1960 from 290 to Highway 90 at Addicks was built in the 1950s, replacing and rerouting some of what was known as Jackrabbit Road. In the early 1970s, the northern section underwent a massive rerouting due to realignments of numerous U. S. and state routes. On August 4, 1971, the section from Breckenridge south to Eastland was redesignated as State Highway 69. SH 6 was instead rerouted west along U. S. Highway 80 to Cisco replaced U. S. Highway 380 northwest to near Old Glory; the route was again extended on July 31, 1975, replacing State Highway 283 between Old Glory and Stamford northward to the Texas/Oklahoma border, completing the current routing of SH 6. The old route of SH 6 was transferred to new SH 283.
On October 27, 1989, a section from US 90A to McKeever Road was added. A spur, SH 6A was designated on August 1928 from SH 6 to Texas City. On March 19, 1930, this route was renumbered as State Highway 146. In June 2016, a section of the highway in Eastland County between Cisco and Albany was destroyed due to major flooding. SH 6 has three business routes. Business State Highway 6-N is a business loop; the road was bypassed on November 30, 1978 by SH 6 and designated Loop 23. The road was redesignated as Business SH 6-N on June 21, 1990; the number was used for Spur 23 on September 25, 1939 as a renumbering of SH 5 Spur, running from US 82 to Annona. On May 19, 1942, this was cancelled and transferred to FM 44. Business State Highway 6-R is a business loop that runs through College Station; the route runs on Texas Avenue in both cities. The route, created in 1972 when SH 6 was routed further north and east, is 12.5 miles long. The road was redesignated as Business SH 6-R on June 21, 1990, it serves as the eastern boundary of Texas A&M University.
Business State Highway 6-S is a business loop. The route was created in 1972 when SH 6 was rerouted further east around town; the road was redesignated as Business SH 6-S on June 21, 1990. SH 6 begins at an intersection with Interstate 45 and SH 3 in Bayou Vista, proceeds to the northwest, paralleling the ATSF railroad tracks; the highway makes a straight line through Galveston and Fort Bend Counties, passing through the city of Alvin. As the highway traverses through Sugar Land, it makes a turn to the north after passing intersections with Interstate 69/US Route 59 and Alternate US Route 90; the highway continues north into western Harris County, reaching the Westpark Tollway and Interstate 10. It intersects US Route 290 in CyFair, joining it as they travel to the northwest, thus finishing a large routing around the southern and western portions of Houston; the route continues northwest with US 290 as a limited-access highway. At Hockley, the highway veers to the right, forking from an old alignment of the highway, bypassing the cities of Waller and Hempstead to the north.
At Hempstead, it splits from US 290 and turns northward into Grimes County, where it bypasses the city of Navasota, while Business SH 6 passes through town. The highway turns northwest again, crossing into Brazos County; the highway starts
Haskell County, Texas
Haskell County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 5,899; the county seat is Haskell. The county was created in 1858 and organized in 1885, it is named for Charles Ready Haskell, killed in the Goliad massacre. Haskell County is the home county of former Texas Governor Rick Perry. Republican Drew Springer, Jr. a businessman from Muenster in Cooke County, has represented Haskell County in the Texas House of Representatives since January 2013. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 910 square miles, of which 903 square miles are land and 7.1 square miles are covered by water. U. S. Highway 277 U. S. Highway 380 State Highway 6 State Highway 222 Knox County Throckmorton County Shackelford County Jones County Stonewall County Baylor County King County As of the census of 2000, 6,093 people, 2,569 households, 1,775 families resided in the county; the population density was 8 people per square mile. The 3,555 housing units averaged 4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 82.78% White, 2.79% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 11.67% from other races, 2.05% from two or more races. About 20% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 2,569 households, 27.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.60% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were not families. About 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 18.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.86. In the county, the population distributed as 23.70% under the age of 18, 5.70% from 18 to 24, 22.10% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 25.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $23,690, for a family was $29,506.
Males had a median income of $23,542 versus $16,418 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,918. About 16.90% of families and 22.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.00% of those under age 18 and 15.40% of those age 65 or over. Haskell O'Brien Stamford Weinert Rochester Rule Irby Paint Creek Sagerton Jud Double Mountain Fork Brazos River Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Haskell County Haskell County government's website Haskell County from the Handbook of Texas Online Haskell County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Texas Department of Criminal Justice
The Texas Department of Criminal Justice is a department of the government of the U. S. state of Texas. The TDCJ is responsible for statewide criminal justice for adult offenders, including managing offenders in state prisons, state jails, private correctional facilities and certain oversight of community supervision, supervision of offenders released from prison on parole or mandatory supervision; the TDCJ operates the largest prison system in the United States. The department has its headquarters in the BOT Complex in Huntsville and offices at the Price Daniel Sr. Building in downtown Austin. In 1848, the Texas Legislature passed "An Act to Establish a State Penitentiary", which created an oversight board to manage the treatment of convicts and administration of the penitentiaries. Land was acquired in Huntsville and Rusk for facilities; the prison system began as a single institution, located in Huntsville. A second prison facility, Rusk Penitentiary, began receiving convicts in January 1883.
Before the Ruiz v. Estelle court case, the Texas Department of Corrections had 18 units, including 16 for males and two for females. Various administrative changes where the organization of the managing board of the department occurred over the next 100 years. In 1921, George W. Dixon of The Prison Journal published a report on the Texas Prison System facilities, his article stated. Dixon said that the prisons featured corporal punishment such as whipping and isolation. In July and August 1974, a major riot at the Huntsville Walls prison resulted in the murder of two hostages. In 1979, Ruiz v. Estelle found that the conditions of imprisonment within the TDC prison system constituted cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the United States Constitution; the decision led to federal oversight of the system, with a prison construction boom and "sweeping reforms... that fundamentally changed how Texas prisons operated."In 1989, the TDJC and the Board of Criminal Justice were created. The board is composed of nine members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate to six-year, overlapping terms.
This new agency absorbed functions of three state agencies - the Texas Department of Corrections, the Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles, the Texas Adult Probation Commission. In the 1980s, the government of Texas began building more prisons. During that decade, impoverished rural communities viewed the prisons as a boon, as they provided jobs. In 1987, the Texas State Board of Corrections voted to build two new 2,250-inmate maximum-security prisons in Gatesville and Amarillo and several 1,000-inmate medium-security prisons in Liberty County, Marlin and Woodville; the TDC units in Amarillo and Snyder were the first ones located outside of Central Texas and East Texas. James Anthum "Andy" Collins, the executive director of the TDCJ from April 10, 1994, to around December 1995, became a consultant for VitaPro, a company selling a meat substitute, used in Texas prisons. Shirley Southerland, a prisoner at the Hobby Unit, stated that her fellow prisoners discovered that the VitaPro product was intended for consumption by canines.
Collins arranged for VitaPro to be used while he was still the head of the TDCJ. Collins had awarded a $33.7 million contract to the company. Robert Draper of the Texas Monthly accused various TDCJ board members and state officials in the early to mid-1990s of capitalizing on the rapid expansion of Texas prisons – from 1994 to 1996 the number of prisoners doubled and the number of the prison units increased from 65 to 108 – and trying to establish favorable business contracts and/or get prisons named after them. Draper reasoned, "If and other board members didn't care about ethics, why should Andy Collins?" According to a December 2007 survey of prisoners from the U. S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, five TDCJ units, Allred Unit, Clemens Unit, Coffield Unit, Estelle Unit, Mountain View Unit, were among those in the United States with the highest numbers of reported prison rape cases in 2006. In 2007, the TDCJ reported. Michelle Lyons, the TDCJ spokesperson, said, "The actual reports we have are not consistent with the results in the survey, but because it's anonymous, there's no way for us to verify that additional number."In 2008, the TDCJ planned to install cell phone-jamming devices at its units, but encountered resistance from cell phone companies.
In 2014, the Human Rights Clinic of the University of Texas School of Law released a report stating that the temperatures in many TDCJ units are too high over the summer and that at least 14 inmates had been killed by the heat since 2007. In 2013, the TDCJ had signed a deal for a climate-controlled housing system for pig breeding. In response, John Whitmire of the Texas State Senate stated, "the people of Texas don't want air-conditioned prisons, there's a lot of other things on my list above the heat. It's hot in Texas, a lot of Texans who are not in prison don't have air conditioning." That year, a federal judge declared that the TDCJ is making it impossible for Muslim inmates to practice their religion. In 2017, the use of solitary confinement as punishment was ended; the Texas Board of Criminal Justice oversees the TDCJ. The board selects the executive director, who manages the TDCJ; the members of the board are appointed by the Governor of Texas. Dale Wainwright R. Terrell McCombs Eric Gambrell E.
F. "Mano" DeAyala Thomas G. Fordyce Larry Don Miles Patrick O'Daniel Derrelynn Perryman Thomas P. Wingate The department encompasses these major divisions: Correctional Institutions Division Parole Division Community Justice Assistance Division The Co