Jones Law (Philippines)

The Jones Law was an Organic Act passed by the United States Congress. The law replaced the Philippine Organic Act of 1902 and acted as a constitution of the Philippines from its enactment until 1934, when the Tydings–McDuffie Act was passed; the Jones Law created the first elected Philippine legislature. The law was enacted by the 64th United States Congress on August 29, 1916, contained the first formal and official declaration of the United States Federal Government's commitment to grant independence to the Philippines, it was a framework for a "more autonomous government", with certain privileges reserved to the United States to protect its sovereign rights and interests, in preparation for the grant of independence by the United States. The law provides that the grant of independence would come only "as soon as a stable government can be established", to be determined by the United States Government itself; the law changed the Philippine Legislature into the Philippines' first elected body and therefore made it more autonomous of the U.

S. Government; the 1902 Philippine Organic Act provided for an elected lower house, while the upper house was appointed. The Jones Law provided for both houses to be elected and changed the name of the Assembly to the House of Representatives; the executive branch continued to be headed by an appointed Governor General of the Philippines, always an American. Elections were held on October 1916, to the newly created Philippine Senate. Elections to the Philippine Assembly had been held on June 6, 1916, those elected in that election were made members of the House of Representatives by the law; the ultimate goal for the Philippines was independence. U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt said as early as 1901, "We hope to do for them what has never been done for any people of the tropics—to make them fit for self-government after the fashion of free nations." The American public tended to view America's presence in the Philippines as unremunerative and expensive, so Roosevelt had concluded by 1907, "We shall have to be prepared for giving the islands independence of a more or less complete type much sooner than I think advisable."Woodrow Wilson said, during the 1912 election campaign which made him US President, "The Philippines are at present our frontier but I hope we presently are to deprive ourselves of that frontier."

Before the 1912 elections, U. S. House Committee on Insular Affairs Chairman William Atkinson Jones attempted to launch a bill which set a fixed date for Philippine independence. Manuel L. Quezon was one of the Philippines' two resident commissioners to the US House of Representatives. Jones delayed launching his bill, so Quezon drafted the first of two "Jones Bills", he drafted a second Jones Bill in early 1914 after the election of Wilson as president and his appointment of Francis Burton Harrison as President of the Philippine Commission and Governor General of the Philippines. Wilson had informed Quezon of his hostility to any fixed timetable for independence, Quezon believed that the draft bill contained enough flexibility to suit Wilson; the bill passed the House in October 1913 and went to the Senate, backed by Harrison, US Secretary of War Lindley Garrison, President Wilson. A final version of the bill was signed into US law by President Wilson on August 29, 1916, after amendment by the Senate and further changes in a congressional conference committee.

Among the provisions of the law was the creation of an all-Filipino legislature. It created the Philippine Senate to replace the Philippine Commission, which had served as the upper chamber of the legislature. Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act Commonwealth of the Philippines Jones–Shafroth Act "The Philippine Autonomy Act". Corpus Juris online Philippine law library. Retrieved January 13, 2008

Leuconostoc mesenteroides

Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a bacterial species sometimes associated with fermentation, under conditions of salinity and low temperatures. In some cases, for instance vegetables and food storage, it was associated with pathogenicity. L. mesenteroides is 0.5-0.7 µm in diameter and has a length of 0.7-1.2 µm, producing small grayish colonies that are less than 1.0 mm in diameter. It is facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-motile, non-sporogenous, spherical, it forms lenticular coccoid cells in pairs and chains, however, it can forms short rods with rounded ends in long chains, as its shape can differ depending on what media the species is grown on. L. mesenteroides grows best at 30 °C, but can survive in temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 30 °C. It's optimum pH is 5.5, but can still show growth in pH of 4.5-7.0. L. mesenteroides is an obligate heterolactic fermentative lactic acid bacterium, used in industrial dairy fermentation, playing various roles, such as production of dextran and flavor compounds.

It is 0.5-0.7 µm by 0.7-1.2 µm, produces small grayish colonies that are less than 1.0 mm in diameter. L. mesenteroides is a facultative anaerobe and will undergo heterolactic fermentation under microaerophilic conditions. Taking this into consideration, it is important to note that L. mesenteroides utilizes sugar glucose as its primary source of metabolism well as other sugars such as sucrose and fructose. It creates ethanol, CO2 as products of fermentation; when grown in sucrose solution, it converts the sugar to dextrans having alpha 1,6 linkages, but 1,2, 1,3, 1,4 linkages are present. L. mesenteroides is found on the skin of a large variety of fleshy fruits and vegetables, can be cultured using MRS agar, tomato juice agar, MRS broth, skim milk. This microbe is used for souring vegetables like cucumbers and cabbage, producing fermented foods such as kim chi and pickles. L. mesenteroides does best in temperatures ranging between 10 °C to 30 °C, but has an optimum temperature of 30 °C. Additionally, it can survive in a pH range of 4.5-7.0, with an optima of 5.5.

L. mesenteroides has a doubling time of 0.6 h−1 under aerobic conditions. The genome of L. mesenteroides has been mapped, having an average genome size of 1.90138 Mbp and 1762 protein genes. It has a G+C content of 37.7683% L. mesenteroides is from the phylum Firmicutes, is a member of the lactic bacteria family. This is important as it has the ability to produce lactic acid which lowers the pH of the surrounding environment and, in turn, inhibits other competing food spoilage organism's growth as they cannot tolerate the acidic environment. L. mesenteroides is divided into several subspecies. L. m. subsp. Cremoris Garvie 1983 L. m. subsp. Dextranicum Garvie 1983 L. m. subsp. Mesenteroides Garvie 1983 L. m. subsp. Suionicum Gu et al. 2012 Type strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase

São Vicente Caves

The São Vicente Caves are caves located in the parish and county of São Vicente, Madeira. Entrance is charged at €8 for adults; these caves were formed around 890,000 years ago from a volcanic eruption in Paul da Serra that ran down to the sea. Thus, the outside, exposed to lower temperatures solidified while the inner liquid continued to run with many gases, forming a series of lava tubes, which today constitute the caves of São Vicente, they were first discovered in 1885, by local people who informed James Yate Johnson an English naturalist in Madeira who explored the caves further. The caves were opened to the public on 1 of October 1996, being one of the first caves of volcanic origins to be opened to the public in Portugal. Official website