Jongmyo is a Confucian shrine dedicated to the perpetuation of memorial services for the deceased kings and queens of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. According to UNESCO, the shrine is the oldest royal Confucian shrine preserved and the ritual ceremonies continue a tradition established in the 14th century; such shrines existed during the Three Kingdoms of Korea period. The Jongmyo Shrine was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1995. Jongmyo is adjacent to Changgyeonggung in the south, they used to be connected in the Joseon period, but were separated by a road built by Japanese colonialists. Nowadays there is a construction plan to recover the original structure of the shrine; the main buildings of Jongmyo was constructed in October, 1394 when Taejo, first king of Joseon Dynasty, moved the capital to Seoul. It was destroyed by fire in the Japanese invasions of Korea rebuilt in 1608; when it was built in 1394 by order of King Taejo, the Jongmyo Shrine was thought to be one of the longest buildings in Asia, if not the longest.
The main hall, known as Jeongjeon, had seven rooms. Each room, known as "myo-shil" was reserved for his queen; the complex was expanded by King Sejong. This practice of expansion continued, with the growth of the complex moving from west to east, because of the need to house more memorial tablets during the reigns of kings until there were a total of 19 rooms. However, during the Seven-Year War, Japanese invaders burned down the original shrine and a new complex was constructed in 1601 and has survived to this day; the original tablets were saved in the invasion by hiding them in the house of a commoner and survive. A king's tablets were enshrined three years after his death. There are 19 memorial tablets of 30 of their queens, placed in the 19 chambers; each room is simple and plain in design. Only two kings' memorial tablets are not enshrined here. In addition to the tablet, there is a panel listing each king's accomplishments; the current Jeongjeon is National treasure of Korea No. 227 and is the longest building in Korea of traditional design.
Viewed from the king's throne at Gyeongbokgung Palace, Jongmyo Shrine would have been on the king's left while the Sajik Shrine, another important Confucian shrine, was on the right. This arrangement was derived from Chinese practice; the main halls are surrounded by hills. In front of the main hall is the Woldae Courtyard, 150 meters in length and 100 meters in width; the south entrance gate was reserved for spirits to enter and exit, the east gate was for the king, the west gate was for the performers of the royal ritual. An elaborate performance of ancient court music known as Jongmyo jeryeak is performed there each year for the Jongmyo jerye ritual. Musicians and scholars would perform Confucian rituals, such as the Jongmyo Daeje in the courtyard five times a year. Today the rituals have been revived; the Jongmyo Daeje has been designated as Important Intangible Cultural Property No. 56 and is performed every year on the first Sunday in May. The Jongmyo Jerye-ak, the traditional court music of Joseon, is performed by the Royal Court Orchestra and has been designated as Important Intangible Cultural Property of South Korea No. 1.
This court music has its origins in Chinese court music, brought to Korea during the Goryeo period. King Sejong composed new music for the ritual based on hyangak in 1447 and 1462; the songs invite the ancestral spirits to descend from heaven to enjoy the kings achievements in founding the dynasty and defending the country in order to encourage their descendants to follow in their footsteps. Today the members of the Jeonju Yi Royal Family Association perform the rites to the accompaniment of music and dance provided by musicians from the National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts and dancers from the Gukak National High School. Hoon, Shin Young; the Royal Palaces of Korea: Six Centuries of Dynastic Grandeur. Singapore: Stallion Press. ISBN 978-981-08-0806-8. Jongmyo Shrine at english.visitkorea.or.kr Jongmyo Shrine at www.theseoulguide.com
Roxanne Bosch Guinoo-Yap is a Filipino actress. Since April 2012, she is employed by GMA Network, having transferred from ABS-CBN as a contract of GMA Artist Center for three years. In 2015 she transferred back to her home network ABS-CBN, she is set to appear as young Amelia Guerrero in The General's Daughter. Before her transfer to GMA in 2012, she went back to showbiz as a brief Talent5 Artist and appeared on Valiente and an episode on Real Confessions. In 2008-2010, she was with TV5 to appear on Everybody Hapi. In 2004, Guinoo joined the popular reality TV show Star Circle Teen Quest aired on ABS-CBN and made it into the group of finalists known as the "Magic Circle of 5", along with co-stars Hero Angeles, Sandara Park, Joross Gamboa, Melissa Ricks. In June 2004, the televised live final was held in Araneta Coliseum, where she finished in second place, she was introduced as one of the newest members of ABS-CBN's Star Magic. She made her ABS-CBN debut with her SCQ co-finalists. Guinoo has starred in movies, such as Now That I Have You, Can This Be Love, D' Anothers.
Her big break came when she was cast in a leading role on the drama series Sineserye Presents: Natutulog Ba ang Diyos?, with local television stars Dina Bonnevie and Rosanna Roces. In 2008, she took up her first solo role on ABS-CBN with a show entitled Ligaw na Bulaklak which airs in an afternoon slot, she starred in the popular comedy series "Everybody Hapi" over TV5 as "Jenny", alongside John Estrada, Eugene Domingo, Long Mejia, Alex Gonzaga and Matt Evans. This marked her first project in the Kapatid Network before returning to ABS-CBN, she returned to TV5 in 2012 and appeared on Valiente and an episode on Real Confessions before moving to GMA the same year. The following year, she made her main character debuts in Home Sweet Home and Pyra: Ang Babaeng Apoy. In 2015 she is set to do a TV series on her home network ABS-CBN via Walang Iwanan. In May 2006 she got engaged and married Filipino-Chinese Elton Yap on January 23, 2011. Together they had a daughter born on September 2010 named Rain Eliana Guinoo-Yap.
The elk or wapiti is one of the largest species within the deer family and one of the largest terrestrial mammals in North America and Northeast Asia. This animal should not be confused with the still larger Alces alces, known as the moose in America, but as the "elk" in British English and in reference to populations in Eurasia. Elk range in forest and forest-edge habitat, feeding on grasses, plants and bark. Male elk have large antlers. Males engage in ritualized mating behaviors during the rut, including posturing, antler wrestling, bugling, a loud series of vocalizations that establishes dominance over other males and attracts females. Although they are native to North America and eastern Asia, they have adapted well to countries in which they have been introduced, including Argentina and New Zealand, their great adaptability may threaten endemic species and ecosystems into which they have been introduced. Elk are susceptible to a number of infectious diseases, some of which can be transmitted to livestock.
Efforts to eliminate infectious diseases from elk populations by vaccination, have had mixed success. Some cultures revere the elk as a spiritual force. In parts of Asia and their velvet are used in traditional medicines. Elk are hunted as a game species; the meat is higher in protein than beef or chicken. Elk were long believed to belong to a subspecies of the European red deer, but evidence from many mitochondrial DNA genetic studies beginning in 1998 shows that the two are distinct species. Key morphological differences that distinguish C. canadensis from C. elaphus are the former's wider rump patch and paler-hued antlers. Early European explorers in North America, who were familiar with the smaller red deer of Europe, thought that the larger North American animal resembled a moose, gave it the name elk, the common European name for moose; the word elk is related to the Latin alces, Old Norse elgr, Scandinavian elg/älg and German Elch, all of which refer to the animal known in North America as the moose.
The name wapiti is from the Shawnee and Cree word waapiti, meaning "white rump". This name is used in particular for the Asian subspecies, because in Eurasia the name elk continues to be used for the moose. Wapiti is the preferred name for the species in New Zealand. Asian subspecies are sometimes referred to as the maral, but this name applies to the Caspian red deer, a subspecies of red deer. There is a subspecies of elk in Mongolia called the Altai wapiti known as the Altai maral. Members of the genus Cervus first appear in the fossil record 25 million years ago, during the Oligocene in Eurasia, but do not appear in the North American fossil record until the early Miocene; the extinct Irish elk was not a member of the genus Cervus, but rather the largest member of the wider deer family known from the fossil record. Until red deer and elk were considered to be one species, Cervus elaphus. However, mitochondrial DNA studies, conducted on hundreds of samples in 2004 from red deer and elk subspecies as well as other species of the Cervus deer family indicate that elk, or wapiti, should be a distinct species, namely Cervus canadensis.
The previous classification had over a dozen subspecies under the C. elaphus species designation. Elk and red deer produce fertile offspring in captivity, the two species have inter-bred in New Zealand's Fiordland National Park, where the cross-bred animals have all but removed the pure elk blood from the area. There are numerous subspecies of elk described, with six from North America and four from Asia, although some taxonomists consider them different ecotypes or races of the same species. Populations vary in antler shape and size, body size and mating behavior. DNA investigations of the Eurasian subspecies revealed that phenotypic variation in antlers and rump patch development are based on "climatic-related lifestyle factors". Of the six subspecies of elk known to have inhabited North America in historical times, four remain, including the Roosevelt, Tule and Rocky Mountain; the Eastern elk and Merriam's elk subspecies have been extinct for at least a century. Four subspecies described in Asia include the Tianshan wapiti.
Two distinct subspecies found in China and Korea are the Alashan wapitis. The Manchurian wapiti is more reddish in coloration than the other populations; the Alashan wapiti of north central China is the smallest of all subspecies, has the lightest coloration and is the least studied. Biologist Valerius Geist, who has written on the world's various deer species, holds that there are only three subspecies of elk. Geist recognizes the Manchurian and Alashan wapiti but places all other elk into C. canadensis canadensis, claiming that classification of the four surviving North American groups as subspecies is driven, at least for political purposes to secure individualized conservation and protective measures for each of the surviving populations. Recent DNA studies su