Parliament is a funk band formed in the late 1960s by George Clinton as part of his Parliament-Funkadelic collective. Less rock-oriented than its sister act Funkadelic, Parliament drew on science-fiction and outlandish performances in their work; the band scored a number of Top 10 hits, including the million-selling 1975 single "Give Up the Funk," and Top 40 albums such as Mothership Connection. Parliament was the Parliaments, a doo-wop vocal group based at a Plainfield, New Jersey barbershop; the group was formed in the late 1950s and included George Clinton, Ray Davis, Fuzzy Haskins, Calvin Simon, Grady Thomas. Clinton was manager; the group scored a hit single in 1967 with " Testify" on Revilot Records. To capitalize on this chart success, Clinton formed a touring band, featuring teenage barbershop employee Billy Nelson on bass and his friend Eddie Hazel on guitar, with the lineup rounded out by Tawl Ross on guitar, Tiki Fulwood on drums, Mickey Atkins on organ. During a contractual dispute with Revilot, Clinton temporarily lost the rights to the name "The Parliaments", signed the ensemble to Westbound Records as Funkadelic, which Clinton positioned as a funk-rock band featuring the five touring musicians with the five Parliaments singers as uncredited guests.
With Funkadelic as a recording and touring entity in its own right, in 1970 Clinton relaunched the singing group, now known as Parliament, at first featuring the same ten members. Clinton was now the leader of two different acts and Funkadelic, which featured the same members but were marketed as creating two different types of funk; the Parliament album entitled Osmium was released on Invictus Records in 1970, was reissued on CD with non-album tracks as both Rhenium and First Thangs. Osmium featured a psychedelic soul sound, more similar to the Funkadelic albums of the period than to the Parliament albums; the song "The Breakdown" was released separately as a single, reached #30 on the R&B charts in 1971. Due to continuing contractual problems and the fact that Funkadelic releases were more successful at the time, Clinton temporarily abandoned the name Parliament. Following Osmium, the lineup of Parliament-Funkadelic began going through many changes and was expanded with the addition of important members such as keyboardist Bernie Worrell in 1970, singer/guitarist Garry Shider in 1971, bassist Bootsy Collins in 1972.
Dozens of singers and musicians would contribute to future Parliament-Funkadelic releases. Clinton signed the act to Casablanca Records. Parliament, now augmented by the Horny Horns was positioned as a smoother R&B-based funk ensemble with intricate horn and vocal arrangements, as a counterpoint to the guitar-based funk-rock of Funkadelic. By this point and Funkadelic were touring as a combined entity known as Parliament-Funkadelic or P-Funk; the album Up for the Down Stroke was released in 1974, with Chocolate City following in 1975. Both performed on the Billboard R&B charts and were moderately successful on the Pop charts. Parliament began its period of greatest mainstream success with the concept album Mothership Connection, the lyrics of which launched much of the P-Funk mythology; the subsequent albums The Clones of Dr. Funkenstein, Funkentelechy vs. the Placebo Syndrome, Motor Booty Affair all reached high on both the R&B and Pop charts, while Funkadelic was experiencing significant mainstream success.
Parliament scored the #1 R&B singles "Flash Light" in 1977 and "Aqua Boogie" in 1978. The expanding ensemble of musicians and singers in the Parliament-Funkadelic enterprise, as well as Clinton's problematic management practices, began to take their toll by the late 1970s. Original Parliaments members Fuzzy Haskins, Calvin Simon, Grady Thomas, with Clinton since the barbershop days in the late 1950s, departed acrimoniously in 1977, after disputes over Clinton's management. Other important group members like singer/guitarist Glenn Goins and drummer Jerome Brailey left Parliament-Funkadelic in 1978 after disputes over Clinton's management. Two further Parliament albums, Gloryhallastoopid and Trombipulation were less successful than the albums from the group's prime 1975-1978 period. In the early 1980s, with legal difficulties arising from the multiple names used by multiple groups, as well as a shakeup at Casablanca Records, George Clinton dissolved Parliament and Funkadelic as recording and touring entities.
However, many of the musicians in versions of the two groups remained employed by Clinton. Clinton continued to release new albums sometimes under his own name and sometimes under the name George Clinton & the P-Funk All-Stars; the P-Funk All-Stars continued to record and tour into the 1990s and 2000s, perform classic Parliament songs. Parliament reformed in January 2018 and released the song "I’m Gon Make U Sick O’Me", which features the rapper Scarface; this was the first new Parliament release in 38 years. Clinton announced the title of a new Parliament album, Medicaid Fraud Dogg, released on May 22, 2018. Most of the 23 tracks on the album were written by Clinton in collaboration with his son, Tracey Lewis. Guest musicians on the album include former long-time James Brown collaborators Fred Wesley and Alfred "Pee Wee" Ellis. Liner notes to Music For Your Mother by Rob Bowman, 1992; the Motherpage. History of Parliamen
New Edition is an American R&B group from the Roxbury neighborhood of Boston, formed in 1978. The group reached its height of popularity in the 1980s. During the group's first experience with fame in 1983, its members were Ricky Bell, Michael Bivins, Bobby Brown, Ronnie DeVoe and Ralph Tresvant. Early hits included "Candy Girl," "Cool It Now," and "Mr. Telephone Man". Tresvant was the lead singer on most of the songs. Brown was embarked on a solo career; the group continued for a time with its remaining four members, but recruited singer Johnny Gill, who would be introduced on their 1988 album Heart Break. The group went on hiatus in 1990, while its various members worked on side projects, such as the group Bell Biv DeVoe. Gill and Tresvant recorded successful solo albums. All six members of New Edition reunited in 1996 to record the group's sixth studio album Home Again. During the ill-fated Home Again Tour, both Bobby Brown and Michael Bivins quit the group, forcing the remainder of the tour to be canceled.
Various reunions have occurred since with the 1987-1990 lineup, though also including Brown. Their last studio album was 2004's One Love. On May 3, 2011, New Edition issued a press release on their official website announcing that all six members were reuniting as New Edition to kick off the 30th anniversary celebration of Candy Girl with their fans, they received their star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on January 23, 2017. On January 24, 2017, a three-part docuseries, The New Edition Story, premiered on BET about the group's career and personal life, it was announced that all six members will reunite to record another album and go on tour. In 1978, Bobby Brown, Michael Bivins, Ricky Bell started a vocal group; the group had included two other friends Travis Pettus and Corey Rackley. All five kids lived in the Orchard Park Projects in Boston, they met Brooke Payne, a local manager and choreographer, who encountered the boys at a local talent show in Roxbury. After an audition for Payne, he gave them the name New Edition to signify they were a new edition of the Jackson 5.
Rackley left the group and was replaced by another neighborhood friend Ralph Tresvant, whom Bell and Brown were acquainted with and who sang with Ricky in a group called Ricky & Ralph. Travis Pettus would leave the group as well. Payne brought in his nephew Ronnie DeVoe to replace Pettus as the group's fifth member; the group scored its big break in 1981, performing at the local Hollywood Talent Night held at Boston's Strand Theatre by singer/producer Maurice Starr. The first prize was a recording contract. Though the group came in second place, an impressed Starr decided to bring the group to his studio the following day to record what would become their debut album, Candy Girl. Released in 1983 on New York producer Arthur Baker's Levi Belt Streetwise Records, the album featured the hits: "Is This The End", "Popcorn Love", "Jealous Girl", the title track, which went to number one on both the American R&B singles chart and the UK singles chart. Returning from their first major concert tour, the boys were dropped off back at their homes in the projects and were given a check in the amount of $1.87 apiece for their efforts.
Tour budget and expenses were given as the explanation as to. Due to these financial reasons, New Edition parted company with Starr in 1984. Meanwhile, the group hired the law firm of Steven and Martin Machat and sued Streetwise for release from a contract, unenforceable as well as materially breached by Streetwise; the Machats won the legal game and secured the group a bigger recording deal with major label MCA Records, which won the bidding war among various other major labels. In need of management, the group signed with Steven Machat and his two management partners Rick Smith and Bill Dern; the management company, AMI, proceeded to escalate the group's profile in both the urban and pop music worlds. Through the production affiliate of AMI, Jump and Shoot, MCA released the group's self-titled second album the same year. Eclipsing their debut album, New Edition spun off the top five hit "Cool It Now" and the top twenty "Mr. Telephone Man", went on to be certified double platinum in the United States.
While promoting their second album, the group was dismayed to realize that they weren't signed to MCA Records, but instead with the production company Jump and Shoot, which had its own deal with MCA. To buy themselves out of the stifling production deal, each of the five members borrowed $100,000 from MCA. Though it separated the group from Jump and Shoot and allowed them to sign a new contract to record for MCA directly, they were now in mortgage to the label; as a result, the group would be forced to continually record and tour during this period in order to pay off its debt. New Edition's third album, All for Love, was released in the latter half of 1985. While not duplicating the success of its predecessor, the album was certified platinum, spawned the hits "Count Me Out", "A Little Bit Of Love", "With You All the Way"; the growing popularity of the group led to a guest appearance in the 1985 film Krush Groove, performing "My Secret". Toward the year's end, Christmas All Over The World, a holiday EP, was released as well as an oldies album of tunes from the'50s sung by the group with an'80s production style Under pressure from MCA and their management, the group voted Bobby Brown
Hip hop or hip-hop, is a culture and art movement that began in the Bronx in New York City during the early 1970s. The origin of the word is disputed, it is argued as to whether hip hop started in the South or West Bronx. While the term hip hop is used to refer to hip hop music, hip hop is characterized by nine elements, of which only four elements are considered essential to understand hip hop musically; the main elements of hip hop consist of four main pillars. Afrika Bambaataa of the hip hop collective Zulu Nation outlined the pillars of hip hop culture, coining the terms: "rapping", a rhythmic vocal rhyming style. Other elements of hip hop subculture and arts movements beyond the main four are: hip hop culture and historical knowledge of the movement; the fifth element, although debated, is considered either street knowledge, hip hop fashion, or beatboxing. The Bronx hip hop scene emerged in the mid-1970s from neighborhood block parties thrown by the Black Spades, an African-American group, described as being a gang, a club, a music group.
Brother-sister duo Clive Campbell, aka DJ Cool Herc, Cindy Campbell additionally hosted DJ parties in the Bronx and are credited for the rise in the genre. Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world; these elements were adapted and developed particularly as the art forms spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s and subsequent decades. As the movement continues to expand globally and explore myriad styles and art forms, including hip hop theater and hip hop film, the four foundational elements provide coherence and a strong foundation for Hip Hop culture. Hip hop is a new and old phenomenon. Sampling older culture and reusing it in a new context or a new format is called "flipping" in hip hop culture. Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted musical genres such as blues, rag-time and disco to become one of the most practiced genres worldwide. In 1990, Ronald "Bee-Stinger" Savage, a former member of the Zulu Nation, is credited for coining the term "Six elements of the Hip Hop Movement" by being inspired by Public Enemy's recordings.
The "Six Elements Of The Hip Hop Movement" are: Consciousness Awareness, Civil Rights Awareness, Activism Awareness, Political Awareness, Community Awareness in music. Ronald Savage is known as the Son of The Hip Hop Movement. In the 2000s, with the rise of new media platforms and Web 2.0, fans discovered and downloaded or streamed hip hop music through social networking sites beginning with Myspace, as well as from websites like YouTube, SoundCloud, Spotify. Keith "Cowboy" Wiggins, a member of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, has been credited with coining the term in 1978 while teasing a friend who had just joined the US Army by scat singing the made-up words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers. Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into his stage performance; the group performed with disco artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them "hip hoppers." The name was meant as a sign of disrespect but soon came to identify this new music and culture.
The song "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins with the phrase "I said a hip, the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, you don't stop". Lovebug Starski — a Bronx DJ who put out a single called "The Positive Life" in 1981 — and DJ Hollywood began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. Bill Alder, an independent consultant, once said, "There was hardly a moment when rap music was underground, one of the first so-called rap records, was a monster hit. Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa credits Love-bug Starski as the first to use the term "hip hop" as it relates to the culture. Bambaataa, former leader of the Black Spades did much to further popularize the term; the words "hip hop" first appeared in print on September 21, 1982, in The Village Voice in a profile of Bambaataa written by Steven Hager, who published the first comprehensive history of the culture with St. Martins' Press. In the 1970s, an underground urban movement known as "hip hop" began to form in the Bronx, New York City.
It focused on emceeing over neighborhood block party events, held outdoors. Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities police and prisons. Hip hop arose out of the ruins of a post-industrial and ravaged South Bronx, as a form of expression of urban Black and Latino youth, whom the public and political discourse had written off as marginalized communities. Jamaican-born DJ Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell pioneered the use of DJing percussion "breaks" in hip hop music. Beginning at Herc's home in a high-rise apartment at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement spread across the entire borough. On August 11, 1973 DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at
Vibe is an American music and entertainment magazine founded by producer Quincy Jones. The publication predominantly features R&B and hip hop music artists and other entertainers. After shutting down production in Summer 2009, Vibe was purchased by the private equity investment fund InterMedia Partners and is now issued bi-monthly with double covers, with a larger online presence; the magazine's target demographic is predominantly urban followers of hip hop culture. In 2014, the magazine moved online-only; the magazine owed its success to featuring a broader range of interests than its closest competitors The Source and XXL which focus more narrowly on rap music, or the rock and pop-centric Rolling Stone and Spin. Quincy Jones launched Vibe in 1993, in partnership with Time Inc; the publication had been called Volume before co-founding editor, Scott Poulson-Bryant gave it the name Vibe. Though hip hop mogul Russell Simmons was rumored to be an initial partner, publisher Len Burnett revealed in a March 2007 interview that Simmons clashed with editor-in-chief Jonathan Van Meter.
Miller Publishing bought Vibe in 1996, shortly afterward bought Spin. Private equity firm, Wicks Group, bought the magazine in 2006. Jonathan Van Meter's successors were Alan Light, Danyel Smith, Emil Wilbikin, Mimi Valdes, Danyel Smith again. On June 30, 2009, it was announced that Vibe was shutting its doors and ceasing publication although according to Essence, Quincy Jones has stated he would like to keep it alive online. After shutting down, private equity investment fund InterMedia Partners bought Vibe magazine, they added Uptown magazine to Vibe Holdings. Ronald Burkle and Magic Johnson invested in the company. Vibe Holdings merged with BlackBook Media to form Vibe Media in 2012. On April 25, 2013 it was announced that Vibe magazine along with vibe.com and vibevixen.com had been sold to Spin Media for an undisclosed sum. Spin Media was thought to shut down Vibe's print magazine by the end of 2013, which a representative stating: "We're still trying to find a print model that makes economic sense in the digital age."
Instead, they cut the magazine's frequency to quarterly. In December 2016, Eldridge Industries acquired SpinMedia via the Hollywood Reporter-Billboard Media Group for an undisclosed amount. Vibe magazine was known for the creative direction of their covers. R&B singer Mary J. Blige made the cover of Vibe, with countless articles following her career. Trio TLC were photographed for the cover in firefighters' gear, referencing the fact that member Lisa Lopes burned down the house of then-boyfriend and NFL star Andre Rison; the first non-photograph cover of Vibe was an illustration of late singer Aaliyah by well-known artist/illustrator Alvaro. Other famous cover subjects are, Trey Songz, Snoop Dogg, Mariah Carey, Beyoncé, Jennifer Lopez, Keyshia Cole, Janet Jackson, Lil Wayne, The Fugees, Eminem, T. I. R. Kelly, Michael Jackson, who appeared on the cover numerous times and rap legend Tupac Shakur's famous cover story in which he reveals important details about his non-fatal 1994 NYC shooting. Electro-rapper Kesha made Vibe history when she appeared on the cover in October 2012, earning her the honor of being the first white female artist to appear on the cover as a solo act.
Featured segments included the back page list 20 Questions, the Boomshots column about reggae and Caribbean music by Rob Kenner. The magazine devoted several pages to photo spreads displaying high-end designer clothing as well as sportswear by urban labels such as Rocawear and Fubu. Vibe made a consistent effort to feature models of all ethnicities in these pages. Former editor Emil Wilbikin was credited with styling those pages and keeping fashion in the forefront of the magazine's identity during the early 2000s. Many clothing brands created or linked to hip hop celebrities, such as Sean Combs' Sean John, Nelly's Apple Bottoms, G-Unit by 50 Cent found plenty of exposure in Vibe's pages. In the September 2003 issue commemorating ten years of publication, the magazine created different covers using black and white portraits of its most popular cover subjects, it contained "The Vibe 100: The Juiciest People and Things of the Year". Many successful writers and editors contributed to the publication, including Alan Light, Jeff Chang, Dream Hampton, Cheo Hodari Coker, Kevin Powell, Erica Kennedy, Sacha Jenkins, Noah Callahan-Bever and Miles Marshall Lewis.
Mark Shaw was the magazine's art director. In addition to the magazine, Vibe publishes books on hip hop culture. To celebrate the magazine's tenth anniversary, it published VX: Ten Years of Vibe Photography, which featured a bare-chested 50 Cent on the cover; the volume includes photos of Alicia Keys, RZA from the Wu-Tang Clan, Chuck D of Public Enemy, Run-D. M. C. Works by prominent photographers Albert Watson, Ellen von Unwerth, David LaChapelle, Sante D'Orazio are among the 150 photographs in the hardcover edition. Other books published under the Vibe banner cover the history of hip hop, the women of hip hop, rappers Tupac Shakur and The Notorious B. I. G. Additionally, the magazine published a spin-off publication, Vibe Vixen, from 2004 to 2007. Aimed at Vibe's female multicultural demographic, Vibe Vixen included features on beauty and female entertainers. R&B starlet Ciara appeared on the inaugural issue's cover. Spencer
Warner Bros. Records
Warner Bros. Records Inc. is an American record label owned by Warner Music Group and headquartered in Burbank, California. It was founded in 1958 as the recorded music division of the American film studio Warner Bros. and was one of a group of labels owned and operated by larger parent corporations for much of its existence. The sequence of companies that controlled Warner Bros. and its allied labels evolved through a convoluted series of corporate mergers and acquisitions from the early 1960s to the early 2000s. Over this period, Warner Bros. Records grew from a struggling minor player in the music industry to one of the top record labels in the world. In 2004, these music assets were divested by their owner Time Warner and purchased by a private equity group; this independent company traded as the Warner Music Group and was the world's last publicly traded major music company before being bought and privatized by Access Industries in 2011. Warner Music Group is the smallest of the three major international music conglomerates that include Universal Music Group and Sony Music Entertainment.
Max Lousada oversees recorded music operations of the company. Notable artists signed to Warner Bros. Records have included Prince, Kylie Minogue, Goo Goo Dolls, Sheryl Crow, Lil Pump, Green Day, Adam Lambert, Bette Midler, Duran Duran, Fleetwood Mac, Liam Gallagher, Fleet Foxes, Jason Derulo, Lily Allen and Sara, Dua Lipa, Linkin Park, Nile Rodgers, Red Hot Chili Peppers, the Black Keys, My Chemical Romance, Mr. Bungle, Regina Spektor, Van Halen. At the end of the silent movie period, Warner Bros. Pictures decided to expand into publishing and recording so that it could access low-cost music content for its films. In 1928, the studio acquired several smaller music publishing firms which included M. Witmark & Sons, Harms Inc. and a partial interest in New World Music Corp. and merged them to form the Music Publishers Holding Company. This new group controlled valuable copyrights on standards by George and Ira Gershwin and Jerome Kern and the new division was soon earning solid profits of up to US$2 million every year.
In 1930, MPHC paid US$28 million to acquire Brunswick Records, whose roster included Duke Ellington, Red Nichols, Nick Lucas, Al Jolson, Earl Burtnett, Ethel Waters, Abe Lyman, Leroy Carr, Tampa Red and Memphis Minnie, soon after the sale to Warner Bros. the label signed rising radio and recording stars Bing Crosby, Mills Brothers, Boswell Sisters. For Warner Bros. the dual impact of the Great Depression and the introduction of broadcast radio harmed the recording industry—sales crashed, dropping by around 90% from more than 100 million records in 1927 to fewer than 10 million by 1932 and major companies were forced to halve the price of records from 75c to 35c. In December 1931, Warner Bros. offloaded Brunswick to the American Record Corporation for a fraction of its former value, in a lease arrangement which did not include Brunswick's pressing plants. Technically, Warner maintained actual ownership of Brunswick, which with the sale of ARC to CBS in 1939 and their decision to discontinue Brunswick in favor of reviving the Columbia label, reverted to Warner Bros.
Warner Bros. sold Brunswick a second time, this time along with the old Brunswick pressing plants Warner owned, to Decca Records in exchange for a financial interest in Decca. The studio stayed out of the record business for more than 25 years, during this period it licensed its film music to other companies for release as soundtrack albums. Warner Bros. returned to the record business in 1958 with the establishment of its own recording division, Warner Bros. Records. By this time, the established Hollywood studios were reeling from multiple challenges to their former dominance—the most notable being the introduction of television in the late 1940s. Legal changes had a major impact on their business—lawsuits brought by major stars had overthrown the old studio contract system by the late 1940s. Pictures sold off much of its film library in 1948 and, beginning in 1949, anti-trust suits brought by the US government forced the five major studios to divest their cinema chains. In 1956, Harry Warner and Albert Warner sold their interest in the studio and the board was joined by new members who favoured a renewed expansion into the music business—Charles Allen of the investment bank Charles Allen & Company, Serge Semenenko of the First National Bank of Boston and investor David Baird.
Semenenko in particular had a strong professional interest in the entertainment business and he began to push Jack Warner on the issue of setting up an'in-house' record label. With the record business booming - sales had topped US$500 million by 1958 - Semnenko argued that it was foolish for Warner Bros. to make deals with other companies to release its soundtracks when, for less than the cost of one motion picture, they could establish their own label, creating a new income stream that could continue indefinitely and provide an additional means of exploiting and promoting its contract actors. Another impetus for the label's creation was the brief music career of Warner Bros. actor Tab Hunter. Although Hunter was signed to an exclusive acting contract with the studio, it did not prevent him from signing a recording contract, which he did with Dot Records, owned at the time by Paramount Pictures. Hunter scored several hits for Dot, including the US #1 single, "Young Love", to Warner Bros.' chagrin, reporters were asking about the hit record, rather than
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
A&M Records was an American record label founded as an independent company by Herb Alpert and Jerry Moss in 1962. Due to the success of the discography A&M released, the label garnered interest and was acquired by PolyGram in 1989 and began distributing releases from Polydor Ltd. from the UK. Throughout its operations, A&M housed well-known acts such as Joe Cocker, Procol Harum, Captain & Tennille, Sergio Mendes, Ozark Mountain Daredevils, Bryan Adams, Burt Bacharach, Liza Minnelli, The Carpenters, Paul Williams, Janet Jackson, Cat Stevens, Peter Frampton, Elkie Brooks, Carole King, Extreme, Amy Grant, Joan Baez, the Human League, The Police, CeCe Peniston, Blues Traveler, Soundgarden and Sheryl Crow. PolyGram was acquired by Seagram and dissolved into Universal Music Group in 1998, A&M's operations were ceased in January 1999 when it was merged with Geffen Records and Interscope Records to form the record company Interscope Geffen A&M Records. In 2007, Interscope Geffen A&M announced that A&M was revived as trademark and brand and was to be merged with Octone Records to form A&M Octone Records, which operated until 2013, when A&M Octone was folded into Interscope.
Today, A&M's catalog releases are managed by Verve Records, Universal Music Enterprises and Interscope. A&M Records was formed in 1962 by Jerry Moss, their first choice for a name was Carnival Records, under which they released two singles before discovering that another label had taken the Carnival name. The company was subsequently renamed Moss's initials. From 1966 to 1999, the company's headquarters were on the grounds of the historic Charlie Chaplin Studios at 1416 North La Brea Avenue, near Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, A&M had such acts as Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass, Baja Marimba Band, Burt Bacharach, Sérgio Mendes & Brasil ’66, the Sandpipers, Boyce & Hart, We Five, the Carpenters, Chris Montez, Elkie Brooks, Lee Michaels and Tennille, the Flying Burrito Brothers, Quincy Jones, Lucille Starr, Stealers Wheel and Lyle, Barry DeVorzon, Perry Botkin, Jr. Marc Benno, Liza Minnelli, Rita Coolidge, Gino Vannelli, Wes Montgomery, Paul Desmond, Bobby Tench, Toni Basil, Paul Williams.
Folk artists Joan Baez, Phil Ochs and Gene Clark recorded for the label during the 1970s. Billy Preston joined the label in 1971, followed by Andre Popp and Herb Ohta in 1973. In the late 1960s, through direct signing and licensing agreements, A&M added several British artists to its roster, including Cat Stevens, Joe Cocker, Procol Harum, Humble Pie, Fairport Convention, the Move and Spooky Tooth. In the 1970s, under its manufacturing and distribution agreement with Ode Records, A&M released albums by Carole King and the comedy duo Cheech & Chong. Other notable acts of the time included Nazareth, Y&T, the Tubes, Supertramp, Joan Armatrading and James, Chris de Burgh, Rick Wakeman, the Ozark Mountain Daredevils, Chuck Mangione and Peter Frampton. On March 10, 1977, A&M signed the Sex Pistols after the band had been dropped by EMI. However, A&M dropped the band within a week. A&M sustained its success during the 1980s with a roster of noted acts that included Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, Henry Badowski, Janet Jackson, the Police, the Brothers Johnson, Atlantic Starr, the Go-Go's, Bryan Adams, Suzanne Vega, Brenda Russell, Jeffrey Osborne, Oingo Boingo, the Human League, Ozark Mountain Daredevils, Lois & Bram, Annabel Lamb, Jim Diamond, Vital Signs, Joe Jackson, Scottish rock band Gun.
They through a deal with Christian music label Myrrh, distributed back catalog recordings of Amy Grant as well as her new recordings, starting with 1985's Unguarded, to the mainstream marketplace, a vital component in her subsequent breakthrough as a mainstream artist. Within a decade of its inception, A&M became the world's largest independent record company. A&M releases were issued in the United Kingdom by EMI's Stateside Records label, under its own name by Pye Records, who released the first Herb Alpert records on the Pye International label before issuing the records on the A&M label until 1967. From 1969, A&M set up its own UK base appointing John Deacon as General Manager - a post he held until 1979. Several A&R men were recruited including Larry Yaskiel and Derek Green and major UK acts such as the Police, Rick Wakeman, Gallagher & Lyle, Elkie Brooks, the Strawbs and Peter Frampton as well as many others were all signed to the UK label. A&M releases were issued in Australia through Festival Records until 1989.
A&M Records Ltd. was established in 1970, with distribution handled by other labels with a presence in Europe. A&M Records of Canada Ltd. was formed in 1970, A&M Records of Europe in 1977. In 1979, A&M entered a distribution agreement with RCA Records in the US, with CBS Records in many other countries. Over the years, A&M added specialty imprints: Almo International for middle of the road. A&M was bought by PolyGram in 1989. Alpert and Moss continued to manage the label until 1993. In 1998, Alpert and Moss sued PolyGram for breach of the integrity clause settling for an additional $200 million payment. In 1991, A&M launched Perspective Records as a joint venture with producing team Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis. Jam and Lewis stepped down as CEOs of the imprint in 1997. In 1999, t