National Library of São Tomé and Príncipe
The National Library of São Tomé and Príncipe is located in the capital city of São Tomé in São Tomé and Príncipe. It is responsible for the technical coordination of public libraries and the promotion of books and reading, it is the legal deposit of the country, according to a law created in 1952 during colonial rule. Before independence in 1975, the library of the São Tomé town hall was the most important library in the colony housing about 5,000 books. Since independence, more services were housed in the town hall, as a result, the library fell in decay and was closed; the gap this left was filled by the Francisco José Tenreiro Reading Room, the only public library in the country for over a decade. Since the 1990s, libraries have emerged in the district capitals with international aid; the itinerant libraries set up by the Portuguese Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in 2000 brought books to more communities. In 1994, the library of the National Assembly was established, its initial collection was based on the former collection of the town hall library.
The public National Library was opened in May 2002, financed by China. In March 2015, the National Library began a cooperation with the University of Minas Gerais from Belo Horizonte, began its project to promote reading for children and teenagers. International children's and youth literature in the Portuguese language are driven in vans and taken to villages and made available in small villages
Aurélio Pires Quaresma Martins is a São Toméan journalist and politician, who until May 2018 was leader of the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe/Social Democratic Party. Martins started his career as a journalist at São Tomé and Príncipe's National Radio between 1984 and 1985, worked at Angola's National Radio from 1999 to 2007, he is the head of construction and security company Gibela Group and president of FAMA. Martins was elected to the National Assembly of São Tomé and Príncipe for the Lobata District in the 2010 legislative election and afterwards became president of the Humans Rights and Gender Commission in the National Assembly, he was elected President of the MLSTP/PSD on the party's ordinary congress in January 2011. Aurélio Martins was his party's candidate in the 2011 presidential election, but got only 4.06% of the votes and lost to former and MLSTP leader Manuel Pinto da Costa. He was suspended from the party in mid-May 2018 due to backing the government's dismissal of three supreme court justices who had ruled in favour of handing over the Rosema Brewery in Neves - controlled by the party's largest donor Antonio Monteiros and his brother Domingos Monteiros, who were both MPs for the party - to an Angolan businessman.
He was replaced as party president with Jorge Bom Jesus at an extraordinary congress on 30 June. Martins was elected Figura do Ano in 2007, 2008 and 2009
Evaristo do Espírito Santo Carvalho is a São Toméan politician, President of São Tomé and Príncipe since 3 September 2016. He was the Prime Minister of the country on two occasions, he was Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe from 7 July 1994 to 25 October 1994 and again from 26 September 2001 to 28 March 2002. He is a member of the Independent Democratic Action party. Carvalho contested the 2011 São Toméan presidential election, while he was the speaker for the National Assembly, he had been supported in his campaign by current Prime Minister Patrice Trovoada. Carvalho finished second in the first round with 21.8 percent of the vote, behind former president, Manuel Pinto da Costa. Costa was victorious in the two person runoff election, with 52.9 percent of the vote. Carvalho subsequently became vice president of the ADI. In the July 2016 presidential election, Carvalho won the most votes but fell short of a majority with 49.8 percent, so a second round runoff was held a few weeks later. However, the incumbent president, withdrew from the 7 August runoff poll, alleging fraud in the July election.
This handed the presidency to Carvalho. He was inaugurated into the role on 3 September; the election process was well received internationally, with a United States Department of State press release stating that "This election is a yet another demonstration of Sao Tome and Principe’s long-standing commitment to democratic values. Through their exemplary conduct, the people of Sao Tome and Principe continue to serve as a beacon of democracy for other countries."
António Luís Santos da Costa GCIH is a Portuguese lawyer and politician serving as the 119th and current Prime Minister of Portugal since 26 November 2015. He was Minister of Parliamentary Affairs from 1997 to 1999, Minister of Justice from 1999 to 2002, Minister of State and Internal Administration from 2005 to 2007, Mayor of Lisbon from 2007 to 2015, he was elected as Secretary-General of the Socialist Party in September 2014. Costa was born in 1961 in São Sebastião da Pedreira, the son of writer Orlando da Costa. Costa graduated from the Faculty of Law of the University of Lisbon in the 1980s, when he first entered politics and was elected as a Socialist deputy to the municipal council, he completed the mandatory military service in 1987 and practiced law from 1988, before entering politics full-time. Costa's first role in a Socialist government was as Minister of Parliamentary Affairs under Prime Minister António Guterres between 1997 and 1999, he was Minister of Justice from 1999 to 2002.
Costa was a Member of the European Parliament for the Socialist Party, heading the list for the 2004 European elections after the dramatic death of top candidate António de Sousa Franco. On 20 July 2004 he was elected as one of the 14 Vice-Presidents of the European Parliament, he served on the Committee on Civil Liberties and Home Affairs. Costa resigned as an MEP on 11 March 2005 to become Minister of State and Internal Administration in the government of José Sócrates following the 2005 national elections. António Costa resigned all government offices in May 2007 to become his party's candidate for the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal's capital city, he was elected as Lisbon's mayor on 15 July 2007 and reelected in 2009 and 2013, with a bigger majority each time. In April 2015 he resigned his duties as a mayor, while he was the Secretary General of the Socialist Party and the party's candidate for Prime Minister, so that he could prepare his campaign for the October 2015 general elections.
In September 2014, the Socialist Party chose Costa as its candidate to be Prime Minister of Portugal in the 2015 national elections. By April 2015, he stepped down as mayor to focus on his campaign. During the campaign, Costa pledged to ease back on austerity and give more disposable income back to households, he proposed to boost incomes and growth in order to cut the budget deficits while scrapping austerity measures and cutting taxes, asserting that would still allow deficits to reduce in line with the Euro convergence criteria. He pledged to roll back a hugely unpopular hike in value added tax on restaurants and reinstate some benefits for civil servants. On 4 October 2015, the conservative Portugal Ahead coalition that had ruled the country since 2011 came first in the elections winning 38.6% of the vote, while the Socialist Party came second with 32.3%. Passos Coelho was reappointed Prime Minister the following days, but António Costa formed an alliance with the other parties on the left, which altogether constitute a majority in Parliament, toppled the government on 10 November.
After toppling the conservative government, Costa was chosen as the new Prime Minister of Portugal by President Cavaco Silva on 24 November and assumed office on 26 November. Since coming to power, Costa’s government has managed to combine fiscal discipline with measures to support growth, while reversing most of the austerity policies imposed by the previous center-right administration during the 2010-13 debt crisis. By March 2017, polls put support for Costa's Socialists at 42 percent, up 10 points from their share of the vote in the 2015 election and close to a level that would give them a majority in parliament were the country to vote again. In the 2017 local elections, Costa further consolidated power in Portugal as his party captured a record haul of 158 town halls out of the country’s 308 cities and towns. During his tenure, Portugal experienced its deadliest wildfires firstly in Pedrogão Grande in June 2017 and across the country in October 2017. In October 2017, the opposition People's Party launched a motion of no-confidence in Costa’s government over its failure to prevent the loss of human lives in the lethal Iberian wildfires, the second such disaster in four months.
In early 2019, Costa's government survived another opposition motion of no confidence lodged over a wave of public sector strikes. In 1987, Costa married a teacher; the couple have a daughter. Costa is an avid Benfica fan, being a frequent attendant to the games as Lisbon mayor, as opposed to Sporting Lisbon's, he accompanied Benfica to both Europa League finals, in 2013 and 2014. Grand-Cross of the Order of Prince Henry, Portugal Grand-Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit, Norway Third Class of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, Estonia Grand-Cross of the Order for Merits to Lithuania, Lithuania Grand-Cross of the Order of Merit, Chile Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Gregory the Great, Holy See Grand-Cross of the Order pro meri
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
Gabriel Arcanjo Ferreira da Costa is a Santoméan politician, Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe from 12 December 2012 to 25 November 2014. He served as Prime Minister in 2002. Costa was Ambassador to Portugal from 2000 to 2002, he was appointed as Prime Minister to lead a coalition government in April 2002. However, he was sacked from that post on 27 September 2002 by President Fradique de Menezes after army unrest over two controversial promotions. On 3 December 2012, he was again appointed as Prime Minister by President Manuel Pinto da Costa, following the dismissal of Patrice Trovoada, who had lost his parliamentary majority
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island country in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. It consists of two archipelagos around the two main islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, about 140 kilometres apart and about 250 and 225 kilometres off the northwestern coast of Gabon, respectively; the islands were uninhabited until their discovery by Portuguese explorers in the 15th century. Colonised and settled by the Portuguese throughout the 16th century, they collectively served as a vital commercial and trade center for the Atlantic slave trade; the rich volcanic soil and close proximity to the Equator made São Tomé and Príncipe ideal for sugar cultivation, followed by cash crops such as coffee and cocoa. Cycles of social unrest and economic instability throughout the 19th and 20th centuries culminated in peaceful independence in 1975. São Tomé and Príncipe has since remained one of Africa's most democratic countries. With a population of 199,910, São Tomé and Príncipe is the second-smallest African sovereign state after Seychelles, as well as the smallest Portuguese-speaking country.
Its people are predominantly with most practising Roman Catholicism. The legacy of Portuguese rule is visible in the country's culture and music, which fuse European and African influences. São Tomé and Príncipe is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe were uninhabited when the Portuguese arrived sometime around 1470. The islands were discovered by João de Pêro Escobar. Portuguese navigators explored the islands and decided that they would be good locations for bases to trade with the mainland; the dates of discovery are sometimes given as 21 December 1471, for São Tomé. Príncipe was named Santo Antão, changing its name in 1502 to Ilha do Príncipe, in reference to the Prince of Portugal to whom duties on the island's sugar crop were paid; the first successful settlement of São Tomé was established in 1493 by Álvaro Caminha, who received the land as a grant from the crown. Príncipe was settled in 1500 under a similar arrangement.
Attracting settlers proved difficult and most of the earliest inhabitants were "undesirables" sent from Portugal Jews. In time these settlers found the volcanic soil of the region suitable for agriculture the growing of sugar. By 1515, São Tomé and Príncipe had become slave depots for the coastal slave trade centered at Elmina; the cultivation of sugar was a labour-intensive process and the Portuguese began to enslave large numbers of Africans from the mainland. By the mid-16th century the Portuguese settlers had turned the islands into Africa's foremost exporter of sugar. São Tomé and Príncipe were taken over and administered by the Portuguese crown in 1522 and 1573, respectively. However, competition from sugar-producing colonies in the Western Hemisphere began to hurt the islands; the large enslaved population proved difficult to control, with Portugal unable to invest many resources in the effort. Sugar cultivation thus declined over the next 100 years, by the mid-17th century, the economy of São Tomé had changed.
It was now a transit point for ships engaged in the slave trade between the West and continental Africa. In the early 19th century, two new cash crops and cocoa, were introduced; the rich volcanic soils proved well suited to the new cash crop industry, soon extensive plantations, owned by Portuguese companies or absentee landlords, occupied all of the good farmland. By 1908, São Tomé had become the world's largest producer of cocoa, which remains the country's most important crop; the roças system, which gave the plantation managers a high degree of authority, led to abuses against the African farm workers. Although Portugal abolished slavery in 1876, the practice of forced paid labour continued. Scientific American magazine documented in words and pictures the continued use of slaves in São Tomé in its 13 March 1897 issue. In the early 20th century, an internationally publicized controversy arose over charges that Angolan contract workers were being subjected to forced labour and unsatisfactory working conditions.
Sporadic labor unrest and dissatisfaction continued well into the 20th century, culminating in an outbreak of riots in 1953 in which several hundred African laborers were killed in a clash with their Portuguese rulers. This "Batepá Massacre" remains a major event in the colonial history of the islands, its anniversary is observed by the government. By the late 1950s, when other emerging nations across the African Continent demanded their independence, a small group of São Toméans had formed the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe, which established its base in nearby Gabon. Picking up momentum in the 1960s, events moved after the overthrow of the Caetano dictatorship in Portugal in April 1974; the new Portuguese regime was committed to the dissolution of its overseas colonies. In November 1974, their representatives met with the MLSTP in Algiers and worked out an agreement for the transfer of sovereignty. After a period of transitional government, São Tomé and Príncipe achieved independence on 12 July 1975, choosing as the first president the MLSTP Secretary General