Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata
Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata (Spanish pronunciation: known as Gimnasia or the acronym GELP, is a professional Argentine sports club based in the city of La Plata, Buenos Aires Province. Founded in 1887 as "Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima", the club is known for its football team, which plays in the Primera División, the first division of the Argentine football league system. Apart from football, GELP hosts other activities such as athletics, fencing, gymnastics, field hockey, martial arts, roller skating and volleyball; the "Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata" was founded on 3 June 1887 as a civil association, thus is the oldest surviving football club still participating in the Argentine league. The club claims to be the oldest football club in the Americas, despite other football clubs, such as Peruvian Lima Cricket F. C. have older foundation dates. Its foundation came five years after the creation of the City of La Plata in 1882; the first sports offered to its members were, as its Spanish name indicates and fencing.
Clubs supporting these sports were common among the upper classes at the end of the 19th century. On, other disciplines were added, including track and field, football and rugby; the institution changed name a few times: from April to December 1897 it was called a "Club de Esgrima" because fencing was the only activity practised at that moment. On 17 December 1897 it returned to its original name: "Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima". From July 1952 to 30 September 1955, the club was named "Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima de Eva Perón", because the city of La Plata itself had been renamed "Eva Perón" in 1952, after Eva Perón's death; the city returned to its previous name during the government of the "Liberating Revolution", so did the club. However, it remained unduly identified as "Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima de La Plata", a mistake, corrected on 7 August 1964 after the new statute was approved. Gimnasia y Esgrima was promoted to the first division after becoming champions of the División Intermedia of Argentine football in 1915.
In 1929, the club won its first Primera División championship. During successive years, Gimnasia became champion of Primera B in 1944, 1947 and 1952 and won the Copa Centenario de la AFA in 1994. Additionally, the squad has been a runner-up in the Primera División on five occasions; the club has remained at the top level of Argentine football for 73 seasons, giving it with Newell's Old Boys the eighth longest participation at this level. The Clásico Platense is the nickname given to the match between La Plata's two main football teams: Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata and Estudiantes de La Plata; the first official derby took place as part of the Primera División season on 27 August 1916. On that occasion, Gimnasia won 1–0 over Estudiantes, with an own goal by Ludovico Pastor; the first derby of the professional era took place on 14 June 1931. Between 12 August 1932 and 9 September 1934 Gimnasia won five consecutive La Plata derbies, the longest run of victories in that derby until Estudiantes emulated that feat in 2006–08.
On 25 June 1963 Gimnasia obtained a 5–2 victory, this being the best result so far against Estudiantes. On the other hand, Gimnasia's worst result was a 7–0 defeat on 15 October 2006. A curiosity among the derbies occurred on 5 April 1992, when Gimnasia won over Estudiantes 1–0 at the latter's stadium. On that date, as the stands erupted and Gimnasia's fans shouted in celebration at the goal being scored, the seismograph of the local Astronomical Observatory registered a low-intensity seismic event; that goal was scored by the Uruguayan José Perdomo on a freekick, it has been known since as "El gol del terremoto". Through more than 120 years of history, the Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata has had 56 Presidents, who are elected individuals who took on the responsibility of steering the Institution. Many of them contributed to the growth of the club over the years; some of them have remained more vivid in the fans' memory for their achievements or outstanding works. Saturnino Perdriel was the first president of Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata.
Perdriel was a merchant during the first few years of the city of La Plata, in addition to being a civil servant at the Treasury Department of the Province of Buenos Aires. He died prematurely after one year as Club president; the President of Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata is chosen by its associates, by means of general elections that take place every three years. Any club member over 18 years of age, with at least three years membership of the Club, have a right to vote. Members with over seven years membership have a right to be elected to the Club governmental body, the Management Commission or "Directory"; the current acting President of Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata is Daniel Onofri, following the July 2012 resignation of Héctor Delmar, nineteen months into his three-year term. Onofri was elected as club Vice-President on Delmar's ticket. Delmar's exit was caused by unrest among board members and affiliates, caused by the team's poor performance, Delmar's management style, the meddling of Delmar's daughter Graciela in club activities and finances.
Gimnasia's facilities include, besides its football stadium, a campus of 160 hectares, a campus for children's football, a sports center, a kindergarten, a primary school and one high school. There are dozens o
Włodzimierz'Włodek' Leonard Lubański is a former Polish football striker, the second all-time highest goal scorer for the Polish national team. For his national team, Lubański amassed 75 caps between 1963 and 1980, scoring 48 goals and being the second highest goalscorer in Poland's football history behind Robert Lewandowski. In 1972, he was awarded the title of Merited Master of Sport of the USSR. Lubański holds the position of vice-chairman at Polonia Warszawa
Božidar "Boško" Antić was Bosnian and Yugoslav football player and manager. Being drafted into the youth setup of FK Sarajevo from local side FK Pretis at the age of thirteen, he started his senior career with the maroon-whites in 1966. A young and polyvalent team made up of home grown players such as Mirsad Fazlagić, Boško Prodanović, Vahidin Musemić and Antić would clinch the Yugoslav First League title in 1967, in doing so become the first championship-winning side in the club's history. Antić was one of the most prolific members of said team, finding the back of the net on 14 separate occasions during the title-winning campaign, while scoring a total of 140 goals in 276 appearances for the club. A popular rhyme of the time was "Dva Boška na dva čoška, Musemija u sredini, za pobjedu ne brini". During his time with FK Sarajevo he was the team's top scorer in three seasons, while being the league top scorer during the 1967–68 campaign, netting in 53 goals in 53 appearances, he joined Ligue 1 side Angers in 1972, where he remained for three years, going on to score 44 goals in 103 matches for the French side, before joining AS Cannes in the summer of 1975.
After two more seasons on the French riviera, he retired from professional football in 1977. He was a member of the Yugoslavia team that won the silver medal at UEFA Euro 1968. After one year of managing the AS Cannes U-18 team, he moved back to Sarajevo where he spent the next five years as a youth team manager and coordinator. In 1983, he was named manager of FK Sarajevo with whom he clinched the Yugoslav title in the 1984–85 Yugoslav First League season, thus becoming the first person in the clubs history to win titles both as a player and as a manager. During the two seasons as first team manager, he was assisted by former teammate Mirsad Fazlagić. In 1987, he was named Togo national team manager - a position he held for eighteen months moving back to Sarajevo with the desire to retire from professional coaching. With the start of the Bosnian war and the Siege of Sarajevo in 1992, he had to leave for Belgrade where his wife was hospitalized for illness, sometime before the siege commenced and cut Sarajevo off the outside world.
Since the situations was lasting one, he stayed in Belgrade until his death. Indeed, while in Serbia he managed Sartid Smederevo and Radnički Niš, he died on 4 December 2007 in Belgrade, Serbia after a long illness at the age of 63. Sarajevo Yugoslav First League: 1966–67 Yugoslavia UEFA European Championship runner-up: 1968 Sarajevo Yugoslav First League: 1984–85 Boško Antić at Reprezentacija.rs In memoriam: Boško Antić, Večernje novosti, 4 December 2007
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Jean Edouard Marie Nicolas was a French international footballer who played as a striker. Born in Nanterre, Nicolas played club football for FC Rouen, appeared in the 1934 and 1938 World Cup squads for France, scored two goals in the 1938 edition of the tournament, he scored a total of 21 goals in 25 international games between 1933 and 1938, making him the twelfth-highest goalscorer for France. Profile on French federation official site
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under