A1 Grand Prix
A1 Grand Prix was a'single make' open wheel auto racing series that ran from 2005 until 2009. It was unique in its field in that competitors represented their nation as opposed to themselves or a team, the usual format in most formula racing series; as such, it was promoted as the "World Cup of Motorsport". The series was ratified by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and races were held in the traditional Formula One off-season, the northern hemisphere winter; the nation-based A1GP concept was founded by Sheikh Maktoum Hasher Maktoum Al Maktoum of Dubai in 2003. After a successful first season of A1GP, it was announced on 29 September 2006 that Maktoum was to sell his position as Chairman & Director of A1GP; the transfer of his share in the organisation of A1 Grand Prix to RAB Capital was finalized in December 2006. Tony Teixeira took control of the series in 2006, leading it to liquidation by 2009; the nation-based A1GP concept was founded by Sheikh Maktoum Hasher Maktoum Al Maktoum of Dubai in 2003.
Once the series had received the backing of the FIA, a management structure including new executive directors Brian Menell and Tony Teixeira were appointed to oversee the sale of franchises for the operation of international teams. Thirty franchises were made available. Twenty-five of the franchises were purchased in time for the 2005–06 A1 Grand Prix season, which began on 25 September 2005 with the A1 Grand Prix of Nations Great Britain at the Brands Hatch circuit in Kent, United Kingdom; the first season was planned for 12 rounds. Nelson Piquet, Jr. won the inaugural race of the series for A1 Team Brazil. Their winning form was not to continue. Wins at Estoril and Malaysia saw A1 Team France build up a sizeable gap. By the start of the winter break, France had run away with the lead with A1 Team Switzerland 28 points behind. At the final race of the season in Shanghai, A1 Team France were crowned the first-ever A1 Grand Prix world champions with 172 points. Switzerland were second with A1 Team Great Britain third with 97 points.
Katherine Legge was the first woman to drive A1 Grand Prix cars during test session in December 2005 on Dubai Autodrome. Changes were made for the 2006–07 season to race durations and distances to improve the spectacle for attendees and TV viewers; the 2006–07 schedule was released on 7 July 2006, with the first race at Circuit Park Zandvoort on 1 October 2006, the last race at Brands Hatch on 29 April 2007. New teams Team Singapore and Team Greece joined the competition but Team Turkey failed to secure funding for the season. Team Austria, Team Japan, Team Portugal and Team Russia did not return for the second season. However, after securing funding Team Portugal competed in the final four rounds of the second season in South Africa, Mexico and Britain. Team Germany won the series with 128 points, 35 points lead ahead of Team New Zealand. On 29 September, Sheikh Maktoum announced he was resigning his position as chairman and chief executive of the series, seeking to have his place taken by increased shareholder interests: Maktoum announced his intended resignation in September and his exit from the organisation was confirmed in December.
The 2007–08 season was the final season that used the Lola-Zytek A1GP car, with rule changes including two mandatory pit-stops in the Feature Race and an introduction of E30 biofuel as the cars' fuel. Team Switzerland was the winning team with Neel Jani behind the wheel. In what proved to be the series' final season, the 2008–09 season was the only season in which the "Powered by Ferrari" A1GP car was used. According to 2007–08 champion Neel Jani, 90% of teams in the paddock warned Teixeira ahead of time that this car change was untimely and an inefficient use of funds. Rule changes included shorter qualifying sessions, a pit-stop during the now longer Sprint Race, removal of limits on Friday test drivers, reduced Sprint Race points scoring. Throughout the season, three rounds were cancelled for various reasons, a proposed race in Brazil fell through; the opening round of the season, scheduled as part of the well established Nikon SuperGP race meeting, was cancelled five days before practice was due to begin.
With cars and series infrastructure still tied up in London and no comment forthcoming from A1GP, organisers in Australia were forced to announce the series would not appear at what had been a high-profile addition to the A1 Grand Prix calendar. The event was underwritten by the Queensland state government, who mentioned the possibility of taking legal recourse against A1 Grand Prix; the series was thrown into further doubt as more races were cancelled, with an announcement made on 5 November 2009 stating that the races in China and Malaysia would not be taking place. The last race, to be held in the season, the Dutch round, was switched for Superleague Formula; this put an end to the hopes the season would start and put the future of the series in doubt. Each A1 Grand Prix team represented a nation. Drivers must have the same nationality as the team; the team car should represent the country. The team owner and crew, did not need to have the same nationality as the team. Twenty-nine nations started one race in A1GP – as in the table below: A1 Grands Prix of Nations took place over a three-day period, from Friday to Sunday.
The teams were given five sets of dry weather slick tires, two sets of wet weather treaded tires per weekend. However, if
Autódromo Miguel E. Abed
The Autódromo Internacional Miguel E. Abed is a racing track located in the town of Amozoc, 30 kilometres east of the city of Puebla in the Mexican state of the same name; the track has a capacity for 42,500 People. It was considered to be one of Mexico's premier racing facilities, it features a 1.25 miles oval. The track held three World Touring Car Championship events in 2005, 2006 and 2008; the FIA WTCC Race of Mexico was a round of the World Touring Car Championship, held at the Autódromo Miguel E. Abed near the city of Puebla in Mexico; the race was first run in the first season of the revived series. This year, the race was cancelled because circuit was not ready to hold a competition, it was run every year between 2005 and 2009 except in the 2007 season, when the planned event was cancelled due to problems with the Puebla circuit, although these problems were addressed for 2008. The event was run in June in 2005, in July in 2006, in April in 2008 and in March in 2009; the 2010 running was cancelled due to budget fears in the region.
The annual 24 Hours of Mexico race is held at the track since 2006. The circuit facilities are the most important of the country, it opens to every kind of events including: Test Driving, Driving Experiences, Track Days, 0 to 60 series, Helicopter Experience, Corporate Events, Driving School and Go-Kart circuit. The track has 18 possible layouts, several has been used for different events. WTCC used one configuration in 2005 and 2006, other in 2007 and 2008. NASCAR Corona Series has used the oval in other configuration one time. LATAM Challenge Series has used several layouts for this circuit; this is a counter-clockwise paperclip oval with two long straights of 650 m, curves with a radius of 118 m. The main event in this track is a race of the NASCAR PEAK Mexico Series. For the 2018 season, Puebla is on the discussion for a possible IndyCar Series race. Autódromo Internacional Miguel E. Abed is based on an American style oval with long banked turns and a twisty, technical infield, similar to Autódromo Internacional de Curitiba with an rough surface.
It has no camber worth noticing on the infield elevation change. There is a compromise to the setup of the touring car on the touring car circuit whether it goes fast on the infield or goes fast on the oval part. Touring car winning on this circuit requires smart driving as much as sheer speed, tyre wear control and strategy. On June 14, 2009 during the 97th lap of a 100-lap NASCAR Mexico Series race at Autódromo Miguel E. Abed in Amozoc, Carlos Pardo was hit by Jorge Goeters, which caused him to lose control of his car and he crashed sideways into the end of a lower retaining wall at over 200 km/h; the car was destroyed on impact. He was transported to a local hospital by helicopter, he was declared the winner of the race since he was leading the race at the last completed lap before the accident occurred, beating Goeters by 0.044 seconds. Pardo, driving for Motorcraft team, had started the race from the last row, he is survived by wife Ana, an infant child
The Ford Taurus is an automobile, manufactured by Ford in the United States from model years 1986–2019, by Changan Ford in China since model years 2016. Produced in six generations for the North American market, the Taurus was introduced in 1985 for the 1986 model year, had remained in near-continuous production for more than three decades, it has a Mercury-branded twin, the Sable, as well as a performance variant, the Ford Taurus SHO. It was a front-wheel drive mid-size car until 2007, has been a "global" full-size car since 2007, available in front- or all-wheel drive since 2007; the original Taurus was a milestone for Ford and the entire American automotive industry, being the first automobile at Ford designed and manufactured using the statistical process control ideas brought to Ford by W. Edwards Deming, a prominent statistician consulted by Ford to bring a "culture of quality" to the enterprise; the Taurus had an influential design that brought many new features and innovations to the marketplace.
Since its launch in 1985, Ford had built 7,519,919 Tauruses through the 2007 model year, making it the fifth-best-selling North American nameplate in Ford's history. However, between 1992 and 1996 the Taurus was the best-selling car in the United States losing the title to the Toyota Camry in 1997; the 1986–1995 Taurus was built on the DN-5 platform, the 1996–1999 Taurus was built on the DN101 platform. The 2000–2007 Tauruses were built on the D186, a modified DN 101 platform. All generations of the Taurus have been built at the Chicago Assembly, they were produced at the Atlanta assembly plant until it was closed. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, sales of the Taurus declined as it lost market share to Japanese midsize sedans and as Ford shifted resources towards developing SUVs, it was discontinued in 2006, with production ending on October 27, 2006, 2007 being the last model year. Ford had decided to replace the Taurus with the fullsize Five Hundred and midsize Fusion sedans, as well as replacing the Taurus wagon with the Freestyle crossover SUV.
However, Ford revived the Taurus name during the 2007 Chicago Auto Show a few months by renaming two new models, intended to be updated versions of the Five Hundred and the Freestyle, the "2008 Taurus" and "2008 Taurus X", respectively. A new model of fullsize Taurus was released for the 2010 model year, the 2013 mid-generational refresh was unveiled at the New York Auto Show with minor exterior changes and interior technology options; the Taurus was the first car resulting from introduction of a new quality culture at Ford. Between 1979 and 1982, Ford had incurred $3 billion in losses. In the Spring of 1980, Ford Chairman Donald E. Peterson initiated a new "team" approach to the design and manufacture of automobiles at Ford, that resulted in the creation of the Ford Taurus. Ford's newly appointed Corporate Quality Director, Larry Moore, was charged with recruiting the famous statistician, W. Edwards Deming to help jump-start a quality movement at Ford. Deming told Ford that management actions were responsible for 85% of all problems in developing better cars.
Based on Deming's advice, Ford management was charged with primary responsibility for automobile quality. Ford adopted a quality culture employing statistical process control across all aspects of automobile design and manufacture; the Ford Taurus was the first Ford model resulting from this statistical approach to manufacture. In a letter to Autoweek, Donald Petersen Ford chairman, said, "We are moving toward building a quality culture at Ford and the many changes that have been taking place here have their roots directly in Deming's teachings." This new emphasis on quality in the manufacture of the Ford Taurus was reflected in Ford's advertising and marketing. The New York advertising firm Wells, Greene took on the Ford account in 1979 and Robert Cox was assigned to the Ford account and by the summer of 1981, “Quality is Job 1” became Ford’s calling card in marketing; this emphasis on quality was used in marketing of the Ford Taurus. The first-generation Taurus was launched in 1985 as a 1986 model to strong fanfare and sales, replacing the slow-selling mid-size Ford LTD.
The release of the Ford Taurus was one of the most anticipated mostly because it was a first in car design and the start of new quality standards for Ford. At the time of the Taurus's debut, Ford had been producing rear-wheel drive cars, Chrysler and General Motors were offering more front-wheel drive vehicles up to midrange including the Chrysler K platform and A-body Chevrolet Celebrity. With the introduction of the Escort and Tempo, Ford was making a transition to front-wheel drive; the Taurus displayed a rounder shape than its contemporaries likened to a'jelly bean' or'flying potato', inspired by the design of the Audi 5000 and Ford's European sedan, the Ford Sierra, an updated appearance of a styling approach used in the late 1940s to early 1960s called "ponton" styling. Instead of a grille, the Taurus mainstreamed the smooth grille-less'bottom breather' nose; the aerodynamic design of the Taurus made the car more fuel efficient, allowing Ford to meet more stringent corporate average fuel economy standard applied by the United States government.
The Taurus's success led to an American automobile design revolution.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Go Bowling at The Glen
The Go Bowling at The Glen is a 90-lap, 220.86-mile annual Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series stock car race held at Watkins Glen International in Watkins Glen, New York, on the 2.45-mile road course. It is one of three road course races on the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series schedule, with the others being the Toyota/Save Mart 350 at Sonoma Raceway and the Bank of America Roval 400 at Charlotte Motor Speedway; when NASCAR returned in 1986, they utilized the 1971 Six Hours course. In the 1991 race, J. D. McDuffie was killed in a crash in the Outer Loop, at the end of the backstretch. Following that crash, another serious crash by IMSA driver, Tommy Kendall, the Inner Loop bus stop chicane was added just before the Outer Loop. NASCAR has since utilized this 2.45-mile "short course," and has never utilized the "Boot" as the Indy Racing League has. Drivers, have been pushing for the use of the full course. During a 2011 Mobil Oil "Car Swap" at Watkins Glen using the course, Tony Stewart pushed for using the Grand Prix course after driving demonstration laps in both his Chevrolet Impala and the majority of his laps in a McLaren MP4-23 as part of the event with Lewis Hamilton.
ESPN at one time broadcast the race. NBC had the rights to broadcast the 2015 edition, aired on NBCSN, In 2016, the race was put on USA Network because of the 2016 Summer Olympics airing on NBC and NBCSN. In 2015, more than 95,000 people watched the race. 1987, 2009, & 2011: Race postponed from Sunday to Monday due to rain. 1992: Race shortened due to rain. 2005 & 2011: Race extended due to a NASCAR Overtime finish. 2010: Montoya's second career win made him the first foreign-born driver to have multiple wins in NASCAR Cup Series history. 2011: Ambrose's first career win made him the first Australian driver to win a NASCAR Cup Series race. Track length notes 1957–1965: 2.3-mile mile course 1986–1991: 2.428-mile mile course 1992–present: 2.45-mile mile course with the addition of the Inner Loop chicane 1986: The true inaugural running of this race, resulted in Geoff Bodine leading the most laps. Tim Richmond won the race. 1991: Ernie Irvan won the race but the race was overshadowed by the death of NASCAR pioneer J. D. McDuffie during a crash on lap 5.
1992: Rain pushed back the start of the race more than three hours, with rain expected to move back into the area, teams expected the race to be a sprint to the halfway point. Kyle Petty won a heated battle for the lead with Ernie Irvan between laps 32–36. After a caution, the race was restarted on lap 44, one lap before the halfway point. Petty brushed off then-leader Dick Trickle on lap 45 and on lap 46, the skies opened. After five laps under caution, the race was red-flagged. 1995: Wally Dallenbach Jr. appeared to have had the win wrapped up, but a caution with 9 laps to go resulted in him being passed by former teammate Mark Martin on a final restart. 1996: Two weeks after suffering a broken collarbone and sternum in a crash at Talladega, one week after stepping out of the car at Indianapolis, Dale Earnhardt won the pole position with a track record of 120.733 mph. Earnhardt was quoted as saying "It hurt so good." Earnhardt led 54 laps. Bodine pitted early, with newer tires, made up track position while everyone else pitted to hold the lead.
It was Earnhardt's final career pole, Bodine's final career win. 1999: Jeff Gordon started on pole, led the most laps and held off Ron Fellows for the win. 2000: After Jeff Gordon and Tony Stewart tangled early, Jeff Gordon's hopes to win a consecutive Watkins Glen race ended. Steve Park won his first Cup series race. 2001: Jeff Gordon got redemption from his 2000 heartbreak by winning the race. Road expert Robby Gordon led the most laps and had the winning car but a pit road fire ended his hopes for his first Cup series victory. 2002: A week after nearly being fired by his team for an incident in the Brickyard 400, Tony Stewart led the most laps alongside Robby Gordon and won the race. The race ended in controversy. 2004: A sick Tony Stewart gutted through a sinus infection, food poisoning and stomach pains, held off Ron Fellows to win the race. 2007: Jeff Gordon led the most laps, but spun out with 2 laps to go, handing the win to Stewart. 2008: Michael McDowell punted David Gilliland into the barriers on the frontstretch and caused a huge melee including Sam Hornish Jr. hitting the sand barriers and Bobby Labonte hitting the armco hard and going to the hospital for a hand injury.
Kyle Busch won the 8th and final of the 2008 campaign. 2009: Tony Stewart won his record 5th Watkins Glen race. The race was marred by a huge accident involving Sam Hornish Jr. Jeff Gordon, Jeff Burton, Joey Logano. 2010: Juan Pablo Montoya ended a 113 race winless streak and won in dominating fashion, beating Marcos Ambrose for the win, thus making him the first foreign-born driver to win multiple NASCAR Cup races. 2011: Marcos Ambrose's first career Cup series victory over Brad Keselowski and Kyle Busch. David Reutimann flipped over violently after hitting the armco barrier head on into the fence. 2012: Oil dropped on the track by Bobby Labonte led to a dramatic finish after the caution was not called. Leader Kyle Busch lost control and spun off the bumper of Brad Keselowski in the Esses on the final lap, leaving Keselowski and Ambrose to battle both each other and the adverse track conditions, banging off of and passing each other several times during the lap. Ambrose won the race after Keselowski got loose in the oil off turn eleven and backed out of the throttle.
2014: A. J. Allmendinge
Grand-Am Road Racing
Grand-Am Road Racing or Grand-Am was an auto racing sanctioning body, established in 1999 to organize road racing competitions in North America. Its primary focus was an endurance racing championship series, it sanctioned five auto racing series. The series announced in September 2012 that it would be merging with the American Le Mans Series, Grand-Am's main US competitor since its inception; the two series merged in 2014 under the banner of the TUDOR United SportsCar Championship, with the International Motor Sports Association. The Grand American Road Racing Association was established in 1999 and was located in Daytona Beach, near the homes of NASCAR, International Speedway Corporation, Daytona International Speedway. Although originated by some members of the NASCAR community, Grand-Am centers on different styles of racing including sports car racing and touring car racing on road racing circuits throughout North America. On September 4, 2008, NASCAR Holdings announced their buyout of the Grand American Road Racing Association in an attempt to merge communications and marketing resources into a single entity, while allowing each organization to continue to control their own racing series.
On September 5, 2012 the series announced that they would be merging with Braselton, Georgia-based American Le Mans Series. Both series stayed current in 2013 and began a combined series in 2014; the premiere series of Grand-Am was the Rolex Sports Car Series which originated in 2000 as a successor to the defunct United States Road Racing Championship. Combining classes of Sports Racing Prototypes and Grand Touring-style production-based cars, the series was centered on the Rolex 24 At Daytona but included a wide variety of American and Mexican tracks. In 2003, the series replaced its Sports Racing Prototypes with new Daytona Prototypes, a custom-built class built for the Rolex Series; these cost-effective race cars offer a economical racing environment in which technology is controlled to ensure close racing and approximate parity between different chassis and engines. For the 2012 season, the Rolex series rolled out Gen-III prototypes with new bodies and chassis; these new chassis were designed to keep costs low while creating body shapes with more brand characteristics.
The new chassis were headlined by new Ford prototypes. The GT classes were simplified over the years, allowing for a variety of American and Japanese manufacturers to participate including Audi, Ferrari, BMW, Porsche and Mazda. Rules allowed tuned production cars or custom tube frame chassis to be used, letting participants save cost if necessary. In 2013 the GX class were introduced running with alternative fuel and new technology, not in use in GT cars; the contending manufacturers were Mazda and Lotus. Daytona Prototypes and GTs shared the track although do race separately at shorter circuits. Based on a Canadian series before being acquired by Grand-Am, the Continental Tire Sports Car Challenge is a production-based touring car series; the series is split into two classes known as Grand Sport, intended for large capacity GT-style cars, Street Tuner, consisting of smaller sedans and coupes, some of which are front-wheel drive. The Continental Tire Sports Car Challenge until 2013 supported some Rolex Series races but headlined some of its own dates.
This series continues with the TUDOR United SportsCar Championship The series is somewhat comparable to the old Trans Am Series. Grand-Am was the sanctioning body behind the North American arm of the international Ferrari Challenge series. Using identical race-tuned Ferraris, the series ran the F355 switched to the 360 Modenas before switching to new F430s in 2006 and the 458 Italia in 2010. Tied together with the Ferrari Challenge series, the Shell Historic Challenge is a series consisting of older Ferrari and Scuderia Ferrari-run Alfa Romeo models. Although a racing series, the competition is more of an exhibition of the classic machinery than a true race. Grand-Am sanctioned an online racing series through the racing simulator iRacing.com. This series raced digital versions of a Riley Daytona Prototype and the McLaren MP4-12C, mirroring the Rolex series. Grand-Am sanctioned the North American arm of the Formula Renault series under the 2.0 Litre formula. However the series was reorganized and came under the control of the National Auto Sport Association where it runs under the Formula TR name.
The Ford Racing Mustang Challenge for the Miller Cup was a series which started in 2008. A one-make series similar to the Ferrari Challenge, this series used identical Ford Mustang FR500S cars co-developed by Ford Racing and Larry H. Miller, owner of Miller Motorsports Park; the series featured amateur drivers in 45 minute sprint events. The series held its final event September 2010 at Miller Motorsports Park. In the announcement, the series predicted that the FR500S Mustang "will continue to be eligible for competition in a variety of series." The FR500S chassis are now eligible for competition in the GTS class of the SCCA Pro Racing World Challenge, with several modifications to bring their level of performance equal with the other cars in the class. Six Mustang Challenge competitors entered their first event as GTS cars at the Mid Ohio race August 7 and August 8, 2010; the only motorcycle series run by Grand-Am, the SunTrust Moto-ST Series was an endurance racing series launched in 2007 for production-based motorcycles.
Races ranged from three hours to eight hours. Motorcycles were four-stroke, two cylinder m
NASCAR Xfinity Series
The NASCAR Xfinity Series is a stock car racing series organized by NASCAR. It is promoted as NASCAR's "minor league" circuit, is considered a proving ground for drivers who wish to step up to the organization's top level circuit, the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series. NXS events are held as a support race on the day prior to a Cup Series event scheduled for that weekend; the series was called the Budweiser Late Model Sportsman Series in 1982 and 1983, the NASCAR Busch Grand National Series from 1984 through 2002, the NASCAR Busch Series from 2003 through 2007, the NASCAR Nationwide Series from 2008 through 2014. It is sponsored by Comcast via its consumer cable brand Xfinity; the series emerged from NASCAR's Sportsman division, formed in 1950 as NASCAR's short track race division. It was NASCAR's fourth series; the sportsman cars were not current model cars and could be modified more, but not as much as Modified series cars. It became the Late Model Sportsman Series in 1968, soon featured races on larger tracks such as Daytona International Speedway.
Drivers used obsolete Grand National cars on larger tracks but by the inception of the touring format in 1982, the series used older compact cars. Short track cars with small 300 cubic inch V-8 motors were used. Drivers used smaller current year models featuring V6 motors; the modern-day Xfinity Series was formed in 1982, when Anheuser-Busch sponsored a newly reformed late-model sportsman series with its Budweiser brand. The series switched sponsorship to Busch in 1984, it was renamed in 1986 to the Busch Grand National Series. Grand National was dropped from the series' title in 2003 as part of NASCAR's brand identity. Anheuser-Busch dropped the sponsorship in 2007; the Nationwide sponsorship was a seven-year contract, did not include the banking and mortgage departments of Nationwide. The sponsorship carried a $10 million commitment for 2008, with 6% annual escalations thereafter. On September 3, 2014, it was announced that Comcast would become the new title sponsor of the series via its cable television and internet brand Xfinity, renaming it the Xfinity Series.
In 2016, NASCAR implemented a seven-race Chase system similar to the one used in the NASCAR Cup Series. On August 23, 2018 NASCAR announced that the field size of the NXS will be cut from 40 to 38. On March 6, 2005, the series held its first race outside the United States, the Telcel-Motorola 200; the race was held in Mexico City, Mexico at the Autodromo Hermanos Rodriguez, a track that has held Formula One and Champ Car races in the past. It was won by Martin Truex Jr. On August 4, 2007, the series held its second race outside the United States, at the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve in Montreal, another road course, it was won by Kevin Harvick. In July 2008, NASCAR announced that the Nationwide Series would not return to Mexico City in 2009, in 2012 they announced that it would not be returning to Montreal in 2013. In 2016, the NXS and the NASCAR Camping World Truck Series adopted a playoff format similar to the NASCAR Cup Series Chase for the Championship. Unlike the NASCAR Cup Series, whose Chase consists of four rounds, the Xfinity Series and Truck Series both use a three-round format.
After each of the first two rounds, the four Chase grid drivers with the fewest season points are eliminated from the grid and Chase contention. The best-placed driver overall from the four Dash 4 Cash races advances to the Chase. Round of 12 Begins with 12 drivers who qualify for the Chase grid with 2,000 points Round of 8 Begins with 8 drivers, each with 3,000 points Championship 4 The last four drivers in contention for the season title will have their points reset to 4,000 points, with the highest finisher in the race winning the NXS title. In the 1980s, races were sparsely shown by ESPN if they were covering the cup race at the same track. Starting in 1990, more races began to be shown. By the mid-1990s, all races were shown. Most standalone races were aired on TNN, which helped grow coverage of the series, while races that were companion races with Winston Cup dates aired on the network airing the Cup race. TNN aired some of these races, which aired on CBS, NBC, ESPN, ABC and TBS. From 2001 until 2006, Fox Sports covered the entire first half of the Busch Grand National season, while NBC and TNT both aired races during the second half, with Turner Sports producing all the coverage for both networks.
However, in numbered years, coverage was changed, with the opening race at Daytona airing on NBC in 2004, on TNT in 2002 and 2006 and the track's July race airing on FX. Large portions of Fox's coverage aired on sister network FX, with a few marquee events on the network itself. From 2007 until 2014, ESPN was the home of the renamed Nationwide Series. Four races per season aired on ABC, with the remainder on ESPN, ESPN2, ESPNews. Early in ESPN's run, ESPN Classic was used for NNS overflow, however with less carriage of that network, this practice ended. Fox Sports did make a return to the series, airing the 2011 Bubba Burger 250 at Richmond on Speed Channel, due to ESPN giving up its exclusive rights to the race because of programming conflicts. In 2015, the NXS returned to FOX Sports during the first half of the season. Like the previous time Fox held righ