South by Southwest
South by Southwest is an annual conglomerate of film, interactive media, music festivals and conferences that take place in mid-March in Austin, United States. It began in 1987, has continued to grow in both scope and size every year. In 2017, the conference lasted for 10 days with SXSW interactive lasting for five days, music for seven days and film running concurrently for nine days. SXSW is run by the company SXSW, LLC which organizes conferences, trade shows and other events. In addition to the three main South by Southwest festivals, the company runs other conferences: SXSW EDU, a conference on educational innovation, held in Austin, the me Convention, held in Frankfurt, Germany, in collaboration with Mercedes-Benz. Former conferences run by the SXSW organization were SXSW Eco, an environmental conference held in Austin from 2011 to 2016. SXSW Music is the largest music festival of its kind in the world, with more than 2,000 acts as of 2014. SXSW Music offers artist-provided music and video samples of featured artists at each festival via their official YouTube channel.
The music event has grown from 700 registrants in 1987 to over 28,000 registrants. SXSW Film and SXSW Interactive events have grown every year,bringing over 32,000 registrants to Austin in March 2013. Bands must cover their own expenses for lodging at the event. All performers are offered a cash payment or a wristband package that allows access to all music events. SXSW Film Conference spans five days of conference panels and sessions, welcomes filmmakers of all levels. Programming consists of keynote speakers, workshops, mentor sessions and more, with expert filmmakers and industry leaders. In 2015, the SXSW Film Conference programmed over 250 sessions with 735 speakers. Past speakers include Jon Favreau, Mark Duplass, Ava DuVernay, Ryan Gosling, Nicolas Cage, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Tilda Swinton, Amy Schumer, Sally Field, Joss Whedon, Christine Vachon, RZA, Matthew McConaughey, Danny Boyle, Seth MacFarlane, Catherine Hardwicke, Richard Linklater, David Gordon Green, Harmony Korine, Henry Rollins, Sarah Green and Robert Rodriguez.
Although the film festival highlights independently produced films and emerging directing talent with unique visions, the festival has long served studios as a starting point for their comedies, using enthusiastic fans as a barometer of how they might play in wide release. The SXSW Film Festival runs nine days with the SXSW Film Conference, celebrates raw innovation and emerging talent both behind and in front of the camera. Festival programming categories include: Special Events, Narrative Spotlight, Documentary Spotlight, Narrative Competition, Documentary Competition, Midnighters, 24 Beats Per Second, SXGlobal, Festival Favorites and Short Film Programs; the SXSW Film Awards, which occur on the last day of the Film Conference, honor films selected by the Feature and Short Film Juries. In 2015, the SXSW Film Festival programmed 150 feature films and 106 short films, selected from 7,361 submissions. Past notable world premieres include Furious 7, Chef, 21 Jump Street, The Cabin in the Woods and Insidious, the TV series Girls, Silicon Valley and Penny Dreadful.
SXSW Interactive is focused on emerging technology. The festival includes a trade show, parties, a startup accelerator. In July 1986, the organizers of the New York City music festival New Music Seminar contacted Roland Swenson, a staffer at the alternative weekly The Austin Chronicle, about organizing an extension of that festival into Austin after having announced that they were going to hold a "New Music Seminar Southwest"; the plans did not materialize, so Swenson decided to instead co-organize a local music festival, with the help of two other people at the Chronicle: editor and co-founder Louis Black, publisher Nick Barbaro. Louis Meyers, a booking agent and musician, was brought on board. Black came up with the name. While Southwest by South is an actual point on a compass, South by Southwest is not; the event was first held in March 1987. The organizers considered it a regional event and expected around 150 attendees to show up, but over 700 came, according to Black "it was national immediately."
Meyers left Austin and the festival in the early 1990s, but Black and Swenson remained the festival's key organizers as of 2010. Singer-songwriter Michelle Shocked was the keynote speaker at the 1992 South by Southwest, she caused controversy by delivering a speech, written by her then-husband Bart Bull, criticizing white musicians for stealing music from African American artists. In 1993, SXSW moved into the Austin Convention Center. In 1994, SXSW added a component for film and other media, named the "SXSW Film and Multimedia Conference". Johnny Cash was the keynote speaker; that year, the three brothers of the band Hanson were brought to SXSW by their father in order to perform impromptu auditions for music executives, in the hopes of getting industry attention. Among the people who heard them was A&R executive Christopher Sabec, who became their manager, would soon afterward get them signed to Mercury Records. In 1995, the SXSW Film and Multimedia Conference was split into two separate events, "SXSW Film" and "SXSW Multimedia".
In 1999, SXSW Multimed
Darío Grandinetti is an Argentine Emmy-winning actor. He is known for his numerous roles in television and film, where he participated in films by renowned directors such as Alejandro Doria, Pedro Almodovar and Damián Szifron. Darío Grandinetti was born in the city of Santa Fe, Argentina, his father worked in the Junta Nacional de Granos in streets of Sarmiento. When Darío Grandinetti was 17 years old he and his family moved to the small town of Las Rosas where they lived only one year and returned to Rosario. In Rosario he played in the inferior teams of Newells Old Boys football club, he began studying theater. For reasons of work, he moved to Argentina. Darío Grandinetti started as a television actor and moved towards cinema, his filmography is of Argentine production or co-productions with his country. His first work in a foreign production was the Bolivian El Día que murió el silencio of 1998, has worked in a number of Spanish films, participated as guest in Spanish TV series, he is considered one of the most important Argentine actors.
In 2012 he won an International Emmy Award for his role in Televisión por la Inclusión. In 1989 he formalized his relationship with Catalan artist Eulalia Lombarte Llorca with whom he had his first two children, María Eulalia and Juan; the couple ended their relationship in the year 1992 with much controversy and a legal battle for the possession of their children that ended up favoring Darío. In October 1993 he met ex-model and Argentine actress Marisa Mondino with whom he married in 1995 and had two daughters, Lucía was born in 1996 and died in 1997 of hydrocephalus and Laura; the couple ended their relationship in 2006. After several rumors that linkend them together in 2016 Darío Grandinetti made official his relationship with Spanish actress Pastora Vega ex-wife of the renowned Spanish actor Imanol Arias. Darío Grandinetti on IMDb Darío Grandinetti at Cinenacional.com
Che (2008 film)
Che is a two-part 2008 biographical film about Argentine Marxist revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara, directed by Steven Soderbergh and starring Benicio del Toro. Rather than follow a standard chronological order, the films offer an oblique series of interspersed moments along the overall timeline. Part One is entitled The Argentine and focuses on the Cuban Revolution from the landing of Fidel Castro and other revolutionaries in Cuba to their successful toppling of Fulgencio Batista's dictatorship two years later. Part Two is titled Guerrilla and focuses on Guevara's attempt to bring revolution to Bolivia and his demise. Both parts are shot in a cinéma vérité style, but each has different approaches to linear narrative and the visual look. Filmmaker Terrence Malick worked on a screenplay limited to Guevara's attempts to start a revolution in Bolivia; when financing fell through, Malick left the project, Soderbergh subsequently agreed to direct the film. He realized that there was no context for Guevara's actions in Bolivia and decided that his participation in the Cuban Revolution and his appearance at the United Nations in 1964 should be depicted.
Peter Buchman was hired to write the screenplay — the script was so long that Soderbergh decided to divide the film into two parts: one chronicling Cuba, the other depicting Bolivia. Soderbergh shot the installments back-to-back starting at the beginning of July 2007, with Guerrilla first in Spain for 39 days, The Argentine shot in Puerto Rico and Mexico for 39 days. Che was screened as a single film at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival. Del Toro won the Best Actor Award, the film received positive reviews. IFC Films, which holds all North American rights released the combined film for one week on 12 December 2008 in New York City and Los Angeles to qualify for the year's Academy Awards. Strong box office performance led to the "special roadshow edition" being extended in NYC and LA, expanded into additional markets, it was released as two separate films, titled Che Part 1: The Argentine and Che Part 2: Guerrilla, further distribution followed. The Independent Film Channel released the films via video on demand and on Region 1 DVD from Blockbuster.
As a whole, Che grossed USD$40.9 million worldwide, against a budget of USD$58 million. In Havana in 1964, Che Guevara is interviewed by Lisa Howard who asks him if reform throughout Latin America might not blunt the "message of the Cuban Revolution." In 1955, at a gathering in Mexico City, Guevara first meets Fidel Castro. He listens to Castro's signs on as a member of the July 26th Movement. There is a return to 1964 for Guevara's address before the United Nations General Assembly in New York City, where he makes an impassioned speech against American imperialism, defends the executions his regime has committed, declaring "this is a battle to the death." March 1957. Guevara deals with debilitating bouts of asthma as his group of revolutionaries meet up with Castro's. Together, they attack an army barracks in the Sierra Maestra on May 28, 1957. After that, they begin to win over the rural peasant population of Cuba and receive increasing support, while battling both the government and traitors in their midst.
However, the government loses control of most of the rural areas. Soon afterward, the July 26th Movement forges alliances with other revolutionary movements in Cuba, begin to assault towns and villages. Most fall to the rebels with little to no resistance. On October 15, 1958, the guerrillas approach the town of Las Villas; the Battle of Santa Clara is depicted with Guevara demonstrating his tactical skill as the guerrillas engage in street-to-street fighting and derail a train carrying Cuban soldiers and armaments. Near the film's end, they are victorious. With the Cuban Revolution now over, Guevara heads to Havana, remarking "we won the war, the revolution starts now." The second part begins on November 3, 1966 with Guevara arriving in Bolivia disguised as a middle-aged representative of the Organization of American States hailing from Uruguay, who subsequently drives into the mountains to meet his men. The film is organized by the number of days. On Day 26, there is solidarity among Guevara's men despite his status as a foreigner.
By Day 67, however, has been set up for betrayal. He tries to recruit some peasants only to be mistaken for a cocaine smuggler, the Bolivian Communist Party, led by Mario Monje, refuse to support the armed struggle. On Day 100, there is a shortage of food and Guevara exercises discipline to resolve conflicts between his Cuban and Bolivian followers. By Day 113, some of the guerrillas have deserted, upon capture, have led the Bolivian Army to the revolutionaries' base camp, which contained vast stockpiles of food, much-needed supplies, intelligence identifying much of the group as Cubans. Much to Che's disappointment Tamara "Tania" Bunke, Guevara's revolutionary contact has botched elaborate preparations and given away their identity. On Day 141, the guerrillas capture Bolivian soldiers that refuse to join the revolution and are free to return to their villages. CIA and US Army Special Forces advisers arrive to supervise anti-insurgent activity and to train the Bolivian Army. On Day 169, Guevara's visiting friend, the French intellectual Régis Debray, is captured at Muyupampa by the Bolivian Army along with two of Che's last contacts with the outside world.
A Bolivian airstrike occurs against Che's guerrillas on Day 219, driving them deeper into hiding. By this time, Che has split his forces. Guevara grows sick and by Day 280 can brea
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Havana is the capital city, largest city, major port, leading commercial center of Cuba. The city has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, it spans a total of 781.58 km2 – making it the largest city by area, the most populous city, the fourth largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean region. The city of Havana was founded by the Spanish in the 16th century and due to its strategic location it served as a springboard for the Spanish conquest of the Americas, becoming a stopping point for treasure-laden Spanish galleons returning to Spain; the King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592. Walls as well as forts were built to protect the old city; the sinking of the U. S. battleship Maine in Havana's harbor in 1898 was the immediate cause of the Spanish–American War. The city is the center of the Cuban government, home to various ministries, headquarters of businesses and over 90 diplomatic offices; the current mayor is Marta Hernández of the Communist Party of Cuba. In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country.
Contemporary Havana can be described as three cities in one: Old Havana and the newer suburban districts. The city extends westward and southward from the bay, entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbors: Mari melena and Antares; the sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. The city attracts over a million tourists annually. Old Havana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982; the city is noted for its history, culture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana experiences a tropical climate. Most native settlements became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining their original Taíno names. Conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founded Havana on August 25, 1515, on the southern coast of the island, near the present town of Surgidero de Batabanó, or more on the banks of the Mayabeque River close to Playa Mayabeque. All attempts to found. However, an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river.
Between 1514 and 1519 the Spanish established at least two different settlements on the north coast, one of them in La Chorrera, today in the neighborhoods of Vedado and Miramar, next to the Almendares River. The town that became Havana originated adjacent to what was called Puerto de Carenas, in 1519; the quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havana's harbor, warranted this change of location. Pánfilo de Narváez gave Havana – the sixth town founded by the Spanish on Cuba – its name: San Cristóbal de la Habana; the name combines patron saint of Havana. Shortly after the founding of Cuba's first cities, the island served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Havana began as a trading port, suffered regular attacks by buccaneers and French corsairs; the first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555. Such attacks convinced the Spanish Crown to fund the construction of the first fortresses in the main cities – not only to counteract the pirates and corsairs, but to exert more control over commerce with the West Indies, to limit the extensive contrabando that had arisen due to the trade restrictions imposed by the Casa de Contratación of Seville.
Ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the city's bay fueled Havana's agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food and other products needed to traverse the ocean. On December 20, 1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City. On, the city would be designated as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies" by the Spanish Crown. In the meantime, efforts to build or improve the defensive infrastructures of the city continued. Havana expanded in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed from the most abundant materials of the island wood, combining various Iberian architectural styles, as well as borrowing profusely from Canarian characteristics. In 1649, an epidemic of the fatal Yellow fever brought from Cartagena in Colombia affected a third of the European population of Havana. By the middle of the 18th century Havana had more than seventy thousand inhabitants, was the third-largest city in the Americas, ranking behind Lima and Mexico City but ahead of Boston and New York.
During the 18th century Havana was the most important of the Spanish ports because it had facilities where ships could be refitted and, by 1740, it had become Spain's largest and most active shipyard and only drydock in the New World. The city was captured by the British during the Seven Years' War; the episode began on June 6, 1762, when at dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000 men of the Royal Navy and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana. The British opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War; the treaty gave
The Glass Menagerie
The Glass Menagerie is a memory play by Tennessee Williams that premiered in 1944 and catapulted Williams from obscurity to fame. The play has strong autobiographical elements, featuring characters based on its author, his histrionic mother, his mentally fragile sister Laura. In writing the play, Williams drew on an earlier short story, as well as a screenplay he had written under the title of The Gentleman Caller; the play premiered in Chicago in 1944. After a shaky start it was championed by Chicago critics Ashton Stevens and Claudia Cassidy, whose enthusiasm helped build audiences so the producers could move the play to Broadway where it won the New York Drama Critics' Circle Award in 1945; the Glass Menagerie was Williams' first successful play. Amanda Wingfield A faded Southern belle, abandoned by her husband, trying to raise her two children under harsh financial conditions. Amanda yearns for the comforts of her youth and longs for her children to have the same comforts, but her devotion to them has made her—as she admits at one point—almost "hateful" towards them.
Tom Wingfield Amanda's son. Tom works at a shoe warehouse to support his family but is frustrated by his job and aspires to be a poet, he struggles to write, all the while being irritable. Yet, he escapes from reality through nightly excursions to the movies. Tom longs to escape, it is loosely implied that he is a closeted homosexual and his nightly visits to the movie theater are to have nightly encounters with other men. Laura Wingfield Amanda's daughter and Tom's elder sister. A childhood illness has left her with a limp, she has a mental fragility and an inferiority complex that have isolated her from the outside world, she has created a world of her own symbolized by her collection of glass figurines. The unicorn may represent Laura because it is fragile. Jim O'Connor An old high school acquaintance of Tom and Laura. Jim was a popular actor during his days at Soldan High School. Subsequent years have been less kind to Jim, his hope to shine again is conveyed by his study of public speaking and ideas of self-improvement that appear related to those of Dale Carnegie.
Mr. Wingfield Amanda's absentee husband, Laura's and Tom's father. Mr. Wingfield was a handsome man, full of charm, who worked for a telephone company and "fell in love with long distance," abandoning his family 16 years prior to the play's action. Although he does not appear onstage, Mr. Wingfield is referred to by Amanda, his picture is prominently displayed in the Wingfields' living room; this unseen character appears to incorporate elements of Williams' own father. The play is introduced to the audience by Tom, the narrator and protagonist, as a memory play based on his recollection of his mother Amanda and his sister Laura; because the play is based on memory, Tom cautions the audience that what they see may not be what happened. Amanda Wingfield, a faded Southern belle of middle age, shares a dingy St. Louis apartment with her son Tom, in his early twenties, his elder sister, Laura. Although she is a survivor and a pragmatist, Amanda yearns for the comforts and admiration she remembers from her days as a fêted debutante.
She worries about the future of her daughter Laura, a young woman with a limp and a tremulous insecurity about the outside world. Tom works in a shoe warehouse doing his best to support the family, he chafes under the banality and boredom of everyday life and struggles to write, while spending much of his spare time going to the movies — or so he says — at all hours of the night. Amanda is obsessed with finding a suitor for Laura, her daughter, whose crippling shyness has led her to drop out of both high school and a subsequent secretarial course, who spends much of her time polishing and arranging her collection of little glass animals. Pressured by his mother to help find a caller for Laura, Tom invites Jim, an acquaintance from work, home for dinner; the delighted Amanda spruces up the apartment, prepares a special dinner, converses coquettishly with Jim reliving her youth when she had an abundance of suitors calling on her. Laura discovers that Jim is the boy she was attracted to in high school and has thought of since, though the relationship between the shy Laura and the "most to succeed" Jim was never more than a distant, teasing acquaintanceship.
Laura is so overcome by shyness that she is unable to join the others at dinner, she claims to be ill. After dinner, however and Laura are left alone by candlelight in the living room, waiting for the electricity to be restored; as the evening progresses, Jim recognizes Laura's feelings of inferiority and encourages her to think better of herself. He and Laura share a quiet dance, in which he accidentally brushes against her glass menagerie, knocking a glass unicorn to the floor and breaking off its horn. Jim compliments Laura and kisses her. After Jim tells Laura that he is engaged to be married, Laura asks him to take the broken unicorn as a gift and he leaves; when Amanda learns that Jim is to be married, she turns her anger upon Tom and cruelly lashes out at him, although Tom did not know that Jim was engaged. In fact, Tom seems quite surprised by this, it is possible that Jim was only making up the story of the engagement as he felt