2007 Argentine general election
Argentina held national presidential and legislative elections on Sunday, October 28, 2007, elections for provincial governors took place on staggered dates throughout the year. For the national elections, each of the 23 provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires are considered electoral districts. Voter turnout was 76.2%. Elections for a successor to President Néstor Kirchner were held in October. Kirchner had declined to run for a second term. In addition to the President, each district elected a number of members of the Lower House proportional to their population, eight districts elected members to the Argentine Senate, where each district is entitled to three senators. In most provinces, the national elections were conducted in parallel with local ones, whereby a number of municipalities elect legislative officials and in some cases a mayor; each provincial election follows local regulations and some, such as Tucumán, hold municipal elections on other dates in the year. According to the rules for elections in Argentina, to win the presidential election without needing a "ballotage" round, a candidate needs either more than 45% of the valid votes, or more than 40% of the valid votes with a margin of 10 points from the runner-up.
Following months of speculation, despite high approval ratings, President Kirchner confirmed his decision to forfeit the 2007 race, the ruling Front for Victory, a center-left Peronist Party, nominated the First Lady, Senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, on July 19. Acknowledging the support of a growing number of UCR figures to the populist policies advanced by Kirchnerism, the FpV nominated Mendoza Province Governor Julio Cobos as her running mate; the ideologically diverse field included former Economy Minister Roberto Lavagna, Elisa Carrió, numerous conservatives and socialists. The UCR, for the first time since it first ran in a presidential campaign in 1892, joined a coalition rather than nominate its own candidate; the President, who had maintained high approval ratings throughout his term on the heels of a strong recovery in the Argentine economy, was beset by controversies during 2007, including Commerce Secretary Guillermo Moreno's firing of Graciela Bevacqua, allegations of Planning Minister Julio de Vido's involvement in a Skanska bribery case, the "suitcase scandal."
These controversies, did not overshadow positive consumer sentiment and a high presidential job approval. The Front for Victory's candidate and First Lady Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, maintained a comfortable lead in polling during the campaign, her opponents focused on denying her the vote share needed to win outright. However, with 13 challengers splitting the vote, Fernández won a decisive first-round victory with 45.3% of the valid votes, more than 22 percent ahead of runner-up Carrió. She won in every province or district except San Luis, Córdoba, the City of Buenos Aires. Carrió, who obtained 23%, made history as the first runner-up to another woman in a national election in the Americas. A total of 14 candidates were on the presidential ballot, although only 3 or 4 garnered statistically significant amounts of support in polls; the candidates were as follows: Cristina Fernández de Kirchner: A leftist peronist, wife of current president Néstor Kirchner and his chosen successor, since he declined to run for reelection.
She won the presidency in the first round with about 45% of the vote. Elisa Carrió: A former Radical Civic Union lawmaker who left the party after President Fernando de la Rúa abandoned his left-wing allies, she reached fifth place. Close to the influential Catholic Church, she ran a center-left platform with running mate Rubén Héctor Giustiniani and came in second with about 23% of the vote. Roberto Lavagna: Former Minister of Economy under Néstor Kirchner, who broke ranks with the president in late 2005, he received support from moderate Peronists and was endorsed by the centrist Radical Civic Union, in lieu of putting forth a candidate themselves. He came in third, with 17 % of the vote, his running mate was Gerardo Rubén Morales. Alberto Rodríguez Saá: Governor of San Luis Province, he represented conservative Peronists opposed to Néstor Kirchner. His running mate was Héctor María Maya. Fernando Solanas: The renowned film maker represented the Authentic Socialist Party. Running mate: Ángel Francisco Cadelli.
Jorge Omar Sobisch: Governor of Neuquén Province. Representing various conservative regional parties. Running mate: Jorge Asís. Ricardo López Murphy: Representing the center-right Recreate for Growth party, in alliance with the Republican Proposal party of newly elected Buenos Aires mayor Mauricio Macri, he ran in the 2003 election, reaching third place. Running mate: Esteban Bullrich. Vilma Ripoll: Running mate: Héctor Bidonde, both longtime Socialists. Néstor Pitrola: Representing the Trotskyist Workers' Party. Running mate: Gabriela Adriana Arroyo. José Alberto Montes: A Trotskyite who opposed privatizations under Carlos Menem, his running mate was Héctor Antonio Heberling. Luis Alberto Ammann: Representing the Humanist Party-led Broad Front Towards Latin American Unity Alliance. Running mate: Rogelio Deleonardi. Raúl Castells: A piquetero (pove
Neuquén is a province of Argentina, located in the west of the country, at the northern end of Patagonia. It borders Mendoza Province to the north, Rio Negro Province to the southeast, Chile to the west, it meets La Pampa Province at its northeast corner. The Neuquén Province receives its name from the Neuquén River; the term "Neuquén" derives from the Mapudungun word "Nehuenken" meaning drafty, which the aborigines used for the river. The word is a palindrome. Lácar Department in Neuquén Province has the southernmost known remains of maize before the diffusion of associated with the Inca Empire; the site where maize remains were found Melinquina lies at 40°19' S the maize being found in Melinquina, the maize being found inside pottery datet to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP. This maize was brought across the Andes from Chile. In that location maize remains were found inside pottery date to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP; this maize was brought across the Andes from Chile. Inhabited by Tehuelches and Pehuenche, the territory was explored by conquistadores coming from Chile.
In 1670 a Jesuit priest established in Chiloé Archipelago, Nicolás Mascardi, founded the Jesuit mission Nuestra Senora de Nahuel Huapi. The Jesuit missions lasted few years and the last mission in Neuquén was destroyed in 1717; the suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1767 halted further missionary activity. The Neuquén area came under Argentine influence after explorer Perito Francisco Moreno made several trips to Patagonia and made accurate descriptions of the area in his book "Viaje al Pais de las Manzanas", reaching Nahuel Huapi lake in 1875. In 1879 Julio Argentino Roca started the Conquest of the Desert that broke the aboriginal resistance. In 1884 Patagonia's political divisions were restructured and the Territory of Neuquén acquired its current boundaries; the capital of the province moved several times to Norquín, Campana Mahuida, Chos Malal, Confluencia known as Neuquén. At the beginning of the 20th century the railway reached the city of Neuquén, a new irrigation system was finished, facilitating the production and transportation of crops.
Petroleum was found in Plaza Huincul in 1918. Local politics have long been dominated by a single political party, the MPN or Movimiento Popular Neuquino founded by Elias Sapag, a prosperous businessman born in Lebanon. Migrating to Argentina, the Sapag family arrived in Neuquén Territory around 1910 with the railroad making their home in Zapala, whose dry, fertile mountain valleys and orchards were reminiscent of their native Lebanon. Neuquén is rich in natural resources such as natural gas, virgin forests and water resources suitable for electric power and tourism alike; these resources were managed by the central National Government, which resulted in little local benefit at the time. Because of social unrest, Elias Sapag and two younger brothers and Amado, started the MPN, an active political movement rooted in federalism and greater local rights over the territory and its resources; the territory was made a province on June 15, 1955, its constitution promulgated on November 28, 1957. Felipe Sapag soon became politically prominent.
Although he was elected governor in 1962 representing the Movimiento Popular Neuquino, a coup against progressive President Arturo Frondizi that March prevented Sapag from taking office. Becoming governor in 1963-66 and 1973–76, he presided over one of Argentina's fastest-growing provinces; the national government established the University of Neuquén in 1964 incorporated into the new National University of Comahue in 1971. Removed as governor following the violent March 1976 coup against Isabel Perón, Felipe Sapag was returned to office in 1983-87 and 1995-99, his emphasis on public works and political independence from Buenos Aires have helped him and his successors with the MPN win every province-wide election since. His brother Elias Sapag became senator in 1963-66, 1973–76 and from 1983 until his death in 1993, becoming the longest-serving senator in national history; the MPN elected Governors Pedro Salvatori, Jorge Sobisch and current Governor Jorge Sapag. Neuquén has, since 1955, become a prosperous province with a high impact on the national energy supply and, as a growing tourist destination, outperforming most other provinces in the Patagonia region and in Argentina.
The province's limits are the Colorado River to the northeast, separating it from the Mendoza Province, the Limay River to the southeast toward the Río Negro Province, the Andes mountains to the west, separating it from Chile. There are two main distinctive landscapes; the lacustrine system includes other less-important rivers such as the Aluminé River, the Malleo, the Picún Leufú River, a series of lakes including Nahuel Huapi Lake, shared with Río Negro Province, Aluminé Lake, Lácar Lake, Huechulaufquen Lake, Lolog Lake, Hermoso, Quillén, Ñorquinco and Falkner. The province is home to the magnificent Arrayanes forest at the Los Arrayanes National Park. Other National parks include Lanín National Park and the Lanín extinct volcano, the Nahuel Huapí National Park shared with Río Negro Province, the Laguna Blanca National Park. Neuquén Province, being far away from both the Atlantic coast and the Pacific ocean by the Andes mountai
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Jorge Asís is an Argentine writer and politician born 3 March 1946 in Avellaneda, Buenos Aires province. Asís was born in Avellaneda, a working/middle-class suburb of Buenos Aires, to a family of Syrian immigrants. From his youth he was drawn to literature and political activism. Among his first major books is Los reventados, a novella about sundry characters seeking to make easy money in the context of Juan Perón's return to Argentina in 1973; some characters witness the 20 June 1973 Ezeiza massacre, narrated from their point of view. During the 1970s, Asís published a daily column in the daily Clarín, in the tradition of Roberto Arlt. In 1978, he reported from the South American rally. Asís rose to fame in 1980 with Flores robadas en los jardines de Quilmes, where he relates the adventures of several young people experimenting with sex and politics in 1970s Argentina, centered around the narrator's relationship with a young woman from Quilmes, who decides to leave the country; the book was dedicated to Haroldo Conti, a "desaparecido" at the time, included bolder than accepted political statements in the era of the military junta's dictatorship.
That book became the first part of a trilogy named Canguros that dealt with everyday life in Greater Buenos Aires, sometimes from a lumpenproletariat perspective. In 1984, Asís released a roman à clef about his days in Clarín. Major newspapers were not thrilled to have their inner conflicts aired in public, boycotted Asís and his work for several years. During the 1980s, Asís became more involved in politics, he attended meetings with intelligence operatives, which became the basis for the 1987 novel Partes de inteligencia. During Raúl Alfonsín's presidency, Asís gravitated towards the Justicialist Party, supported presidential candidate Carlos Menem; when Menem became President of Argentina in 1989, Asís was appointed to several government and diplomatic posts, including ambassador to UNESCO, Secretary of Culture, ambassador to Portugal. After Menem's ten years as president, Asís remained in politics, became a sought-after commentator in print, radio and TV, where his rich language and his flamboyancy set him apart from the more formal tone of most politicians.
In the 2007 presidential election, Asís ran for vice president sharing a ticket with Jorge Sobisch, a former governor of Neuquén province. The ticket attained 1.6% of the national vote, finishing in sixth place. The social realism of his earlier works was seen by some critics as "collaborationism" with the dictatorship, owing to the success of Flores robadas en los jardines de Quilmes during the regime, his style has been judged to resemble the nineteenth-century realistic novel. La manifestación Don Abdel Zalim, El burlador de Domínico La familia tipo Los reventados Flores robadas en los jardines de Quilmes Carne Picada La calle de los caballos muertos Canguros Diario de la Argentina El pretexto de París Partes de inteligencia Cuaderno del acostado El cineasta y la partera La línea de Hamlet o la ética de la traición Lesca, el fascista irreductible Del Flore Al Montparnasse Excelencias de la NADA Cuentos Completos La manifestación Fe de ratas Señorita vida El Buenos Aires de Oberdán Rocamora La Ficción Política La Marroquinería Política El Descascaramiento La elegida y el elegidor Asís's commentary blog
A football team is a group of players selected to play together in the various team sports known as football. Such teams could be selected to play in a match against an opposing team, to represent a football club, state or nation, an all-star team or selected as a hypothetical team and never play an actual match. There are several varieties of football, notably association football, gridiron football, Australian rules football, Gaelic football, rugby league and rugby union; the number of players selected for each team within these varieties and their associated codes can vary substantially. Sometimes, the word "team" is limited to those who play on the field in a match and does not always include other players who may take part as replacements or emergency players. "Football squad" may be used to be inclusive of these reserve players. The term football club is the most used for a sports club, an organised or incorporated body with a president, committee and a set of rules responsible for ensuring the continued playing existence of one or more teams which are selected for regular competition play.
The oldest football clubs date back to the early 19th century. The words team and club are sometimes used interchangeably by supporters, although they refer to the team within the club playing in the highest division or competition; the number of players that take part in the sport thus forming the team are: Association football: 11Indoor soccer: 6 Futsal, beach soccer, five-a-side football: 5 American football: 11 Arena football: 8 Canadian football: 12 Rugby league: 13 Rugby union: 15 Rugby sevens: 7 Gaelic football: 15 Australian rules football: 18 List of association football clubs List of men's national association football teams List of women's association football clubs List of women's national association football teams List of Australian rules football clubs
Neuquén is the capital city of the Argentine province of Neuquén and of the Confluencia Department, located in the east of the province. It occupies a strip of land west of the confluence of the Limay and Neuquén rivers which form the Río Negro making it part of the Microregion of Alto Valle del Río Negro; the city and surrounding area have a population of more than 340,000, making it the largest city in Patagonia. Along with the cities of Plottier and Cipolletti, it is part of the Neuquén – Plottier – Cipolletti conurbation. Founded in 1904, it is the newest provincial capital city in Argentina. Neuquén is both an important agricultural center, surrounded by fertile lands irrigated by the waters of the Limay and Neuquén rivers in an otherwise arid province, a petrochemical industrial center that receives oil extracted from different points of the province, it belongs economically and geographically to the Alto Valle region that produces apples and other fruits. With the discovery of the Vaca Muerta oil fields west of the city, it has begun to experience a boom in real estate and construction.
It is expected that over the next few years the city will experience unprecedented growth as it is the only significant city in the region National Route 22 divides the city into two-halves. The Presidente Perón Airport is eight kilometers away from the city and serves regular flights to Buenos Aires, San Carlos de Bariloche, Comodoro Rivadavia, Río Gallegos, Río Grande and San Martín de los Andes; the first inhabitants of the area were mobile and moved according to the seasons of the year, climatic conditions, the abundance of food and game. Around the 16th century the people living in different areas of the province began to be assimilated by the Mapuche people. One of the most important trails used by the Mapuches passed through the area of the confluence of the Limay and Neuquén rivers. In the 17th century European explorers arrived in the area of the confluence. In 1604, Hernando Arias de Saavedra decided to explore the trails to Patagonia. With the support of the ranchers of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Corrientes, he departed from Buenos Aires and passed through the mountains of the Sierra de la Ventana.
He reached what is now the city of Neuquén and continued on passing through what is today Auca Mahuida. In 1782, departing from Carmen de Patagones, Basilio Villarino traveled upstream on the Río Negro. On 23 January 1783, he arrived at the confluence of the Limay and Neuquén Rivers, camping on an island, he followed the Limay to the confluence of the Collón Curá from there to the Chimehuin River. In 1885, the lands of what was at that time called. Shortly after the Conquest of the Desert campaign conducted by the military over Patagonia, the Tehuelche and Pehuenche tribes that inhabited the province of Neuquén were either killed or pushed out of these lands. Since there was no defined border with Chile, the Argentine government reached an agreement with the British-owned Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway company, constructing a railway network in Buenos Aires Province, to build an extension to the town in exchange for lands, in order to populate it. In 1899, the railroad reached Cipolletti in Río Negro province, three years after the construction of the bridge, arrived at Neuquén.
Neuquén was founded on 12 September 1904, the capital of the territory was transferred from Chos Malal to the young town. The name "Neuquén" derives from the Mapudungun word nehuenken, meaning drafty, which the native people used in reference to this river. By 1930, the town had only 5,000 inhabitants. In the 1960s, it acquired a new importance when oil deposits were found in the province by the state company YPF; the 1970s and 1980s saw massive demographic growth, accompanied by improvements such as the creation of the National University of Comahue in 1971. Neuquén has an arid climate. Precipitation is low, averaging 200 millimetres per year, evenly distributed throughout the year; the mean annual temperature is between 14 to 15 °C. During December and January, the mean temperature in these months is about 23 °C while in July, it reaches below 6 °C. Being located far away from any major bodies of water, the thermal amplitude is high along with a large diurnal range, which indicates continental characteristics of the climate of the city.
Winds are moderately strong throughout the year. Most of the wind comes from the southwest, both of which occur 40 -- 50 % of the time. Summers tend to be windier than winters with average wind speeds ranging from a low of 8 km/h in July to a high of 16 km/h in December. Mean daily sunshine hours range from a high of 11 hours/day in January to a low of 3 hours/day in June; the highest temperature recorded was 42.3 °C on 21 January 1980 while the lowest temperature recorded was −12.8 °C on 13 June 1961. The Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, designed by Mario Roberto Alvarez, opened in 2004; the museum showcases both international artists. The building consists of four halls which include both the temporary and the permanent collection, as well as an auditorium and theater. Neuquén hosted the 2001 FIBA Americas Championship, where the city's basketball fans supported Argentina's national basketball team to win the gold medal. All games were played in the 8,000 seat Esta
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i