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Eneolithic, Aeneolithic
or Copper Age
Stone Age

Near East

Ghassulian culture, Naqada culture, Uruk period


Yamna culture, Corded Ware
Cernavodă culture, Decea Mureşului culture, Gorneşti culture, Gumelniţa–Karanovo culture, Petreşti culture, Coțofeni culture
Remedello culture, Gaudo culture, Monte Claro culture

Central Asia

Yamna culture, Botai culture, BMAC culture, Afanasevo culture

South Asia

Periodisation of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Bhirrana culture, Hakra Ware culture, Kaytha culture, Ahar-Banas culture
Savalda Culture, Malwa culture, Jorwe culture


Metallurgy, Wheel,
Domestication of the horse
Bronze Age

Jorwe (Marathi जोर्वे) is a village and an archaeological site located on the Pravara, a tributary of the Godavari River in Sangamner taluka of Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra state in India.[1] This site was excavated in 1950-51 under the direction of Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia and Shantaram Bhalchandra Deo.

It has historical background in Indian independence movement. Bhausaheb Thorat, known freedom fighter and milestone of Late Bhausaheb Thorat Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd, Sangamner.


In the middle of the second millennium (c. 1500 BCE), the Jorwe culture, a Deccan Chalcolithic culture, derived from the name of this site in Ahmednagar district where it was first discovered, flourished in the whole of Maharashtra, except the districts in Konkan and certain parts of Vidarbha. As in the preceding culture, it was characterised by a distinct type of painted pottery, a blade-flake industry of chalcedony, as well as tools and ornaments of copper. However, due to the scarcity of the metal, copper was used sparingly, their mixed economy was based on agriculture, stock-raising, hunting and fishing. They cultivated a variety of crops, including cereals, they practised crop rotation because it gave them the facility of irrigation - clear evidence of that has been unearthed at Inamgaon, near Pune.

The people of Jorwe lived in large rectangular houses with wattle and daub walls and thatched roofs, they stored grain in bins and pit silos, cooked food in two armed chulas (hearths) inside the house and roasted animals in a large fire pit in the courtyard. They worshipped a mother goddess associated with fertility and another headless deity, who was probably connected with the welfare of children, they believed in life after death, and therefore interred the dead inside the house under the floor. Children were buried in two urns that were joined mouth-to-mouth and set horizontally in the pit, while adults were placed in a supine position with the head towards the North, before the ceremonial burial, the feet were chopped off, possibly because of the fear of the dead turning into ghosts.

The Jorwe people shared many characteristics with their housing with other great civilizations like the most popular Maya in Mesoamerica despite being thousands of miles apart from another. Multiple houses that have been found at the Jorwe have been larger, rectangle shaped houses with some even featuring a courtyard, something that many don't always think about when we think about ancient civilizations and their housing because it seems too modern.[2]  Also found at the site of Jorwe is evidence of a water drainage system in some of the houses; this system was meant to be used to capture rain water, moving the water along the houses that had curved walls for this purpose and the courtyard themselves to a storage area. This practiced was used by many other civilizations that survived in areas where rain fall was not common and any rain water that could be saved for later dry seasons would be treated very carefully and seen as a gift from the gods (This practice was also seen in the Maya civilization as well). [2]

The people of Jorwe were also known to trade with other cultures in the surrounding area by evidence of finding their style of pottery in other sites, sites including Navdatoli, Ghargaon, and another site near Sangamner. [3]  This pottery was made of clay, and most of the time was painted with a maximum of two colors, most of the time consisting of black paint. Some pottery that was found had a spout, meant for pouring water and other kinds of liquids.[3]  It wasn't just pottery that has evidence of being traded but also fabrics and possible clothing articles have been found at the site of Jorwe and at other Chalcolithic sites in the area, these sites also existing during the same time period known as the Late Stone Age. [4]

Other artifacts found in the Jorwe sites include jewelry, most made out of clay but sometimes made of copper, including bracelets and bangles with intricate designs that have been hypothesized to be a design of a "Mother Goddess" [2]. Copper was a very treasured material to the Jorwe civilization, and would have been used sparingly, the fact that jewelry made of copper had been worn would have meant that the person wearing it would have been of high standing, or considered an Elite of the civilization like a king, queen, or maybe a lord or lady. This also brings in the aspect of the religion and the belief system of the Jorwe Civilization, the concept of a "Mother Goddess" implements that there was commonly shared creation story consisting of multiple gods and goddesses, a common belief among many early civilizations in Asia and other areas.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Dhavalikar, M. K. (1985). "Genesis of the Jorwe Culture". In S. B. Deo and M. K. Dhavalikar (ed.). Studies in Indian Archaeology. Bombay: Popular Prakashan. pp. 32–41. ISBN 0-86132-088-3. 
  2. ^ a b c Deshpande, M.N (1970–71). "Indian Archaeology 1970-71 -A Review" (PDF). Indian Archaeology Review. 
  3. ^ a b Ghosh, A. (1953–54). "Indian Archaeology 1953-54-A Review" (PDF). Indian Archaeology- A Review. 
  4. ^ Ghosh, A. (1961–1962). "Indian Archaeology 1961-62-A Review" (PDF). Indian Archaeology-A Review.