San Miguel de Tucumán
San Miguel de Tucumán is the capital of the Tucumán Province, located in northern Argentina 1,311 kilometres from Buenos Aires. It is the fifth-largest city of Argentina after Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Mendoza and the most important of the northern region; the Spanish Conquistador Diego de Villarroel founded the city in 1565 in the course of an expedition from present-day Peru. Tucumán moved to its present site in 1685; the city is bordered on the north by Las Talitas, on the east by Banda del Río Salí and Alderetes, on the west by the city of Yerba Buena, on the south by Lules. The city is located on the slopes of the Aconquija mountains, the easternmost mountain range before the large Chaco-Pampean flats, it is the commercial center of an irrigated area that produces large quantities of sugarcane, rice and fruit, giving the province its nickname, the Garden of the Republic. The National University of Tucumán and the Saint Thomas Aquinas University of the North are in the city. On July 9, 1816, a congress gathered in Tucumán declared independence from Spain, which did not recognize it until 1862.
The meeting place of the congress, the House of Tucumán, has been reconstructed as a national monument. After the national government broke down in 1820, the town was capital of the short-lived Republic of Tucumán, its telephone code is 0381, its postal codes are T4000, T4001, T4002 and T4003. The first foundation of "San Miguel de Tucumán y Nueva Tierra de Promisión" was on May 31, 1565 by Diego de Villarroel in the Campos de Ibatín, 60 kilometres to the southwest from where the current city is located nowadays; the city was moved to "La Toma" in 1685, due to the low quality of Ibatín water. On September 24, 1812, the Battle of Tucumán took place near the city, when the Spanish army coming from the Alto Perú were defeated by the army led by Manuel Belgrano. Belgrano had been committed to step back to Córdoba by the government of Buenos Aires, but the Tucumán inhabitants requested him to resist another Spanish invasion. With his troops unarmed and tired but reinforced with local gauchos, Belgrano attacked the Spanish army from their backs, defeating them and ensuring the Independence of Argentina.
After the battle of Tucumán, the same army led by Belgrano would achieve another victory in Salta. After those battles, Belgrano established a circle-shaped fortress known as "La Ciudadela", located 1 kilometre from the current Plaza de la Independencia; because it had patriot barracks and was located on an intermediate point between the Río de la Plata and the Alto Perú and Santa Cruz de la Sierra, San Miguel de Tucumán was designated as city venue for the Congress of the Independence. On July 9, 1816, the Independence of Argentina was declared, not only of Spain but any other foreign domination; the act of the Independence was signed at the Casa de Tucumán named "Casa Histórica" or "Casa de la Independencia". By 1850 the city had increased its population overpassing the estimated registers; because of that, in 1870 it was proposed that the city be expanded. During those years, the first railway line reached the city, built by British-owned Córdoba Central Railway; the immigrants arriving in the region influenced the architectural style that adapted to those new cultures, leaving the original colonial style behind.
Therefore, new buildings in the city were made in Neoclassical and picturesque styles. During the first years of the 20th Century the city added 400 hectares for recreational uses, therefore the first great park was built. By 1930 the city doubled its population; the House of Government of Tucumán was built in Art Nouveau style at the end of 19th century. The White Room is used to receive notable people who visit the city. In the city downtown, the San Miguel de Tucumán Cathedral still preserves some colonial elements and other elements from Italian architecture; the Basílica de San Francisco, the Parroquia de San Roque, Basílica del Santísimo Sacramento, Basílica de Nuestra Señora de la Merced and the Iglesia Nuestra Señora de Lourdes are some of the most important churches of the city. The Casa de Tucumán, as the site of the declaration of independence of Argentina, is the most significant building in the city. After the Congress of Tucumán various people lived in the house and deterioration became visible over the years, evident in the famous photo taken by Angel Paganelli in 1869.
The Government of Argentina acquired the historic house in 1874 with a view to its serving as a post office. Starting in the 1880s celebrations took place in the building to commemorate Independence; the government did not remodel the house until 1903, when it was demolished completely due to its poor condition. The only room, preserved from demolition was the room where the Independence was declared by the congressists. In 1942 the house was rebuilt, based on the original plans and the picture taken by Paganelli in 1869. For that purpose, the same kind of bricks and baldosas were used. Other notable buildings of San Miguel include the Teatro San Martín, the Correo Central, made in a mix of styles and a tower inspired in the palaces of Florence (speciall
Radomsko pronounced is a town in central Poland with 46,583 inhabitants. It is situated on the Radomka river in the Łódź Voivodeship, having been in Piotrków Trybunalski Voivodeship, it is the capital of Radomsko County. Radomsko received town privileges from Duke Leszek II the Black of Sieradz in 1266, it is the site of a Franciscan monastery built on behalf of Bona Sforza, the queen consort of King Sigismund I of Poland. Following the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, Radomsko was taken over by the Wehrmacht on 3 September 1939. In April 1940 a Nazi ghetto was set up in the Przedborze district for local Polish Jews; the ghetto was liquidated in two stages during the Holocaust. The first deportation action took place in early October 1942 with prisoners sent aboard freight trains to Treblinka. On 12 October 9,000 Jews were deported. A small group of Jewish slave labour was allowed to stay behind, they were sent to Treblinka in January 1943. Radomsko was declared Judenfrei. In retaliation, the unit of Armia Krajowa ambushed and shot the Chief of Gestapo Willy Berger and his deputy Johann Wagner on 27 May 1943.
The German pacification action took place on 3 August 1943 in Rejowice. The settlement was levelled; the Nazi prison in Radomsko, located at the historic Ratusz, was attacked by AK on the night of 7–8 August 1943. The attack was led by Porucznik Stanisław "Zbigniew" Sojczyński. To eliminate the "Polish bandits" in the vicinity of Radomsko, some 1,000 SS and Wehrmacht soldiers were called in by the German administration; the battle was fought on 1 June 1944 near Krzętów, against about 80 AK partisans led by Florian "Andrzej" Budniak. The German army, unfamiliar with the local forest, retreated; the second battle was launched on 12 September 1944 near Ewina. It was one of the biggest battles of the Polish underground in World War II, fought for several hours; the 3rd Brigade of Armia Ludowa with 600 partisans, stood against the German force ten times larger. The losses of the enemy were estimated at 100 killed and 200 wounded; the Polish losses amounted to 12 killed partisans, 11 wounded, several missing.
The battles earned Radomsko the Nazi German nickname of'Banditenstadt', meaning'the City of Bandits'. The town has access to the railway line from Warsaw to Katowice operated by the Polish State Railways, it can be reached by the national road No.1, the future A1 autostrada from Gdańsk to Gliwice at the Radomsko junction. RKS Radomsko Football Club, founded in 1979 Radomsko is twinned with: Makó, Hungary Lincoln, United Kingdom Voznesensk, Ukraine Kiryat Bialik, Israel Mariusz Czerkawski, ice hockey player Zbigniew Dłubak, artist José Ber Gelbard, born here. Mayor of Kiryat Bialik was asked to submit the text of his speech ahead of time.
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Venezuela the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas, it has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, 99,889 km2 of continental shelf; this marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species.
There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American territories to declare independence, not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia, it gained full independence as a country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993.
A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution. The revolution began with a 1999 Constituent Assembly, where a new Constitution of Venezuela was written; this new constitution changed the name of the country to Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District, federal dependencies. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, a 159,500-square-kilometre tract dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America. Oil was discovered in the early 20th century, today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil; the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil came to dominate exports and government revenues.
The 1980s oil glut led to a long-running economic crisis. Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995 as per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak; the recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave. The Venezuelan government under Hugo Chávez established populist social welfare policies that boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, temporarily reducing economic inequality and poverty in the early years of the regime. However, such populist policies became inadequate, causing the nation's collapse as their excesses—including a uniquely extreme fossil fuel subsidy—are blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy; the destabilized economy led to a crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression, shortages of basic goods and drastic increases in unemployment, disease, child mortality and crime. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan Migrant Crisis where more than three million people have fled the country.
By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies. In 2018, the country's economic policies led to extreme hyperinflation, with estimates expecting an inflation rate of 1,370,000% by the end of the year. Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, OAS, UNASUR, ALBA, Mercosur, LAIA and OEI. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, an expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast; the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, Italy, so he named the region Veneziola, or "Little Venice". The Spanish version of Veneziola is Venezuela. Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that the crew found indigenous people who called themselves the Veneciuela. Thus, the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from the native word; the official name was Estado de Venezuela, República de Venezuela, Estados Unidos de Venezuela, a
1973 oil crisis
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo. The embargo was targeted at nations perceived as supporting Israel during the Yom Kippur War; the initial nations targeted were Canada, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States with the embargo later extended to Portugal and South Africa. By the end of the embargo in March 1974, the price of oil had risen from US$3 per barrel to nearly $12 globally; the embargo caused an oil crisis, or "shock", with many short- and long-term effects on global politics and the global economy. It was called the "first oil shock", followed by the 1979 oil crisis, termed the "second oil shock." By 1969, American domestic output of oil could not keep pace with increasing demand. Oil started to replace coal as a preferred fuel source — it was used to heat homes and generate electricity, it was the only fuel that could be used for air transport. In 1920, American oilfields accounted for nearly two-thirds of global oil production.
In 1945, US production had increased to just over two-thirds. The US had been able to meet its own energy needs independently in the decade between 1945 and 1955, but was importing 350 million barrels per year by the late 1950s from Venezuela and Canada. In 1973, US production had declined to 16.5% of global output. The costs of producing oil in the Middle East were low enough that companies could turn a profit despite the US tariff on oil imports; this hurt domestic oil producers in places like Texas and Oklahoma, selling oil at tariff-supported prices and now had to compete with cheap oil from the Persian Gulf region. The first American firms to take advantage of low production costs in the Middle East were Getty, Standard Oil of Indiana, Continental Oil and Atlantic Richfield. In 1959, President Dwight D. Eisenhower said "As long as Middle Eastern oil continues to be as cheap as it is, there is little we can do to reduce the dependence of Western Europe on the Middle East." At the behest of independent American producers, Eisenhower imposed quotas on foreign oil that would stay in place between 1959 and 1973.
Critics called it the "drain America first" policy. Some scholars believe the policy contributed to the decline of domestic US oil production in the early 1970s. While US oil production declined, domestic demand was increasing at the same time leading to inflation and a rising consumer price index between 1964 and 1970. US surplus production capacity had declined from 4 million bpd to around 1 million bpd between 1963 and 1970, increasing American dependence on foreign oil imports; when Richard Nixon took office in 1969, he assigned George Shultz to head a committee to review the Eisenhower-era quota program — Shultz's committee recommended that the quotas be abolished and replaced with tariffs but Nixon decided to keep the quotas due to vigorous political opposition. Nixon imposed a price ceiling on oil in 1971 as demand for oil was increasing and production was declining, which increased dependence on foreign oil imports as consumption was bolstered by low prices. In 1973 Nixon announced the end of the quota system.
Between 1970 and 1973 US imports of crude oil had nearly doubled, reaching 6.2 million barrels per day in 1973. Until 1973, an abundance of oil supply had kept the market price of oil lower; the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, was founded by five oil producing countries at a Baghdad conference on September 14, 1960. The five founding members of OPEC were Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. OPEC was organized after the oil companies slashed the posted price of oil, but the posted price of oil remained higher than the market price of oil between 1961 and 1972. In 1963, the Seven Sisters controlled 86% of the oil produced by OPEC countries, but by 1970 the rise of "independent oil companies" had decreased their share to 77%; the entry of three new oil producers—Algeria and Nigeria—meant that by 1970 eighty-one oil companies were doing business in the Middle East. In the early 1960s Libya and Qatar joined OPEC. OPEC was regarded as ineffective until political turbulence in Libya and Iraq strengthened their position in 1970.
Additionally, increasing Soviet influence provided oil producing countries with alternative means of transporting oil to markets. Under the Tehran Price Agreement of 1971 the posted price of oil was increased and, due to a decline in the value of the US dollar relative to gold, certain anti-inflationary measures were enacted. In September 1973 Richard Nixon said, "Oil without a market, as Mr. Mossagedh learned many, many years ago, does not do a country much good," referring to the 1951 nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, but between October 1973 and February 1974 the OPEC countries raised by posted price fourfold to nearly $12. On August 15, 1971, the United States unilaterally pulled out of the Bretton Woods Accord; the US abandoned the Gold Exchange Standard whereby the value of the dollar had been pegged to the price of gold and all other currencies were pegged to the dollar, whose value was left to "float". Shortly thereafter, Britain followed; the other industrialized nations followed suit with their respective currencies.
Anticipating that currency values would fluctuate unpredictably for a time, the industrialized nations increased their reserves in amounts far greater than before. The result was a depreciation
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
Héctor José Cámpora
Héctor José Cámpora was a dentist and Peronist politician. A major figure of left-wing Peronism Cámpora served as the 38th President of Argentina from 25 May until 13 July 1973 in order to arrange for Perón to run for president in an election he subsequently won. Cámpora, affectionately known as el Tío, was born as Héctor José Cámpora Demaestre on March 26, 1909, in the city of Mercedes, in the Province of Buenos Aires, he earned a degree in dentistry in Córdoba University and practiced his profession in his hometown before moving to nearby San Andrés de Giles. Cámpora knew General Juan Perón when the latter visited San Andrés de Giles as minister of labour in 1944. After Perón was elected president in 1946, Cámpora led an independent coalition of labourists and radicals and won a seat in the house of representatives, which he presided during the period 1948–1952, he was commissioned for a diplomatic trip through 17 countries as plenipotentiary ambassador in 1953. He was arrested and indicted for corruption and embezzlement by the Revolución Libertadora which overthrew Perón in 1955.
After fleeing the country in 1956, he returned three years when all the charges were dropped. Perón chose him as his "personal delegate" in 1971, he ran for president in 1973 to circumvent the veto on Perón's participation in the election, issued by Argentine dictator General Alejandro Lanusse. His running-mate was Vicente Solano Lima. Despite Cámpora's own left-leaning tendencies, Solano Lima belonged to the Popular Conservative Party. Cámpora won the March 1973 election with 49.6% of the votes. The Radical leader, Ricardo Balbín, had arrived second with 21.3%, but it was enough to include him in the runoff with Cámpora, as absolute majority was necessary to avoid a second ballot. However, he resigned his right in order to avoid a political crisis, recognized his defeat. Cámpora assumed his functions on 25 May 1973, in the presence of Chilean President Salvador Allende and Cuban President Osvaldo Dorticós. A million persons gathered on the Plaza de Mayo to acclaim the new President. One of Cámpora's first presidential actions was a granting of amnesty to members of terrorist organizations who had carried out political assassinations and terror attacks against military and police personnel and, tried and sentenced to prison by judges.
On 28 May Argentina restored diplomatic relations with Cuba, which received Argentine aid – such as food and industrial products – to break the United States embargo against Cuba. During Cámpora's first months of government, approximatively 600 social conflicts and factory occupations had taken place; the revolutionary left had however suspended armed struggle, joining itself to the participatory democracy process, which created alarms in the Peronist right-wing bureaucracy. Cámpora's ideology set him against the right-wing tendencies of Peronism; when Perón returned to Argentina on June 20, 1973, his plane had to be redirected to a military airport because of fighting between armed Peronist factions that had massed to greet his arrival at Buenos Aires's main airport. This event, known as the Ezeiza Massacre, left more than 300 wounded. José Ber Gelbard, president of the CGE, a small and medium-sized enterprise association, was designated as minister of economics. Gelbard tried to establish a "social pact" among the CGT workers and the "National Bourgeoisie", including a price freeze and widespread salary hikes.
On July 13, 1973, Cámpora resigned to allow Juan Perón to return to power. New elections were held on September twelve days after the Chilean coup. Cámpora was designated as Argentine ambassador to México. After the March 1976 coup d'état that displaced Perón's successor, wife Isabel Martínez, Cámpora sought refuge at the Mexican embassy in Buenos Aires. Three years after being diagnosed with cancer, he was allowed to fly to México. Cámpora died in Cuernavaca a few months after his arrival, in December 1980. Peronism Montoneros Movimiento Nacionalista Tacuara Ezeiza massacre Enciclopedia Libre Universal en Español - Héctor José Cámpora. Original version in Spanish, released under GNU FDL