Fabien Pierre Aurélien Dominique Gilot is a French Olympic and world champion swimmer. Gilot was born in France, to Michel and Yveline Gilot, he started before switching to swimming. He collected the large majority of his medals in freestyle and medley relay events, is the only swimmer featured in all the medalled French relay teams since 2003, he has been part of the French swimming team since the world championship of 2003 in Barcelona. In 2002, he became the European Junior Double Champion in the 100m freestyle, with a time of 50.47 seconds, the 200m freestyle, with a time of 1.52.30 minutes, in Linz, Austria. In 2003 he won a bronze medal as a member of the French 400m freestyle relay team at the World Aquatics Championships in Barcelona. In 2004 he won a bronze medal in the same event at the European Aquatics Championships in Madrid, he swam for France at the 2008 Olympics, where he was part of France's silver medal winning 4 × 100 m freestyle relay. That year he won a gold medal in the 200m freestyle relay at the European Championships.
In 2010, he won gold medals in the 200m freestyle relay at the European Aquatics Championships and the Short Course World Championships, a silver medal in the 100m freestyle at the Short Course World Championships in Dubai, a bronze medal in 50m freestyle race at the European Championships in Budapest. In 2011 he won silver medals in the 400m freestyle relay and the 800m freestyle relay at the World Aquatics Championships in Shanghai. In the London 2012 Summer Olympics he again swam for France, as part of France's team in the Men's 4 × 100 metre freestyle relay, shared in the team's gold medal. In his victory wave, Gilot revealed an underarm tattoo with three Hebrew words אני כלום בלעדיהם meaning: "I am nothing without them", which he explained was a tribute to his maternal grandmother's Jewish German-born husband Max Goldschmidt, an Auschwitz concentration camp Holocaust survivor. Gilot said that this quote had a special meaning for him, representing his family and three stars – one for each of his brothers, as well as for his Olympic appearances.
He described Goldschmidt as "a grandfather in every way". Goldschmidt died in 2012, but was able to see his grandson's tattoo and his swimming achievements, although not his Olympic gold. Starting in 2013, Gilot became the team captain of the French swimming team, at European Championships, at the Olympics. In 2013 Gilot became a double World Champion as a member of France’s 4×100 meter freestyle and medley relays at the FINA World Championships in Barcelona. In 2014, he won a silver medal in the 100m freestyle at the European Championships in Berlin. In 2015, he again won a gold medal at the FINA World Championships in the 4×100 meter freestyle, in Kazan, while his team won a bronze medal in the 4×100m medley relay. In the 2016 Rio Olympics and his 2015 world champion teammates won the silver medal in the 4×100m freestyle relay. Gilot will take part in the torch lighting ceremony at the 2017 Maccabiah Games on July 6, 2017. Fabien Gilot on Blogger Fabien Gilot at the International Olympic Committee Fabien Gilot at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Fabien Gilot at Beijing 2008 Olympics website at the Wayback Machine
Frédérick Bousquet is a freestyle and butterfly swimmer from France. He was the holder of the world record in the 50 m freestyle in a time of 20.94 in long course, set on 26 April 2009 at the final of the French Championships. Since the record was swum in a banned, performance-enhancing suit it remained in limbo whether the record stood until FINA approved it in July following a modification of his suit, he is the first swimmer to go under the 21-second mark in this distance. He held the record in the 50 m short course in a time of 21.10, set in 2004 at the Men's NCAA Division One Swimming and Diving Championships, for over two years. At the 2009 World Championships in Rome Bousquet competed in the 50 and 100 free, capturing a silver in the 50 and bronze in the 100. Bousquet did not qualify for the 2012 Olympics but his ex-partner Laure Manaudou and his brother-in-law Florent Manaudou did. Bousquet swam at Auburn University in the U. S. from 2001 to 2005. In 2005, his senior year and final year of competition, he won the 50-yard freestyle in NCAA and U.
S. Open record time of 18.74, shattering the previous record of 19.05 set by Tom Jager in 1990. Bousquet is the first man to swim the 50-yard freestyle in under 19 seconds, under 21 in the LC 50-meter freestyle; that time of 18.74 seconds was his personal best in the 50-yard freestyle until 13 February 2010 when he swam the fourth-fastest time in history, turning in a time of 18.67 seconds at the Auburn Masters Invitational. In April 2010, fellow world-class swimmer Laure Manaudou gave birth to her and Bousquet's daughter Manon; the couple has separated since then. Bousquet was given a two-month suspension in October 2010 after returning a positive test for heptaminol from the use of an over-the-counter ointment. World record progression 50m freestyle Official website Frédérick Bousquet at FINA Frédérick Bousquet at the International Olympic Committee
Ian James Thorpe, is a retired Australian swimmer who specialised in freestyle, but competed in backstroke and the individual medley. He has won the most won by any Australian. With three gold and two silver medals, Thorpe was the most successful athlete at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. At the age of 14, Thorpe became the youngest male to represent Australia, his victory in the 400 metre freestyle at the 1998 Perth World Championships made him the youngest-ever individual male World Champion. After that victory, Thorpe dominated the 400 m freestyle, winning the event at every Olympic, World and Pan Pacific Swimming Championships until his break after the 2004 Olympics in Athens. At the 2001 World Aquatics Championships, he became the first person to win six gold medals in one World Championship. Aside from 13 individual long-course world records, Thorpe anchored the Australian relay teams, numbering the victories in the 4 × 100 m and the 4 × 200 m freestyle relays in Sydney among his five relay world records.
His wins in the 200 m and 400 m and his bronze in the 100 m freestyle at the 2004 Summer Olympics made him the only male to have won medals in the 100–200–400 combination. He picked up the nickname "Thorpedo" because of his speed in swimming. Thorpe announced his retirement from competitive swimming in November 2006, citing waning motivation. In total, Thorpe has won eleven World Championship gold medals. Thorpe was the first person to have been named Swimming World Swimmer of the Year four times, was the Australian Swimmer of the Year from 1999 to 2003, his athletic achievements made him one of Australia's most popular athletes, he was recognised as the Young Australian of the Year in 2000. Born in Sydney, Thorpe hailed from a sporting family, his father Ken was a promising cricketer at junior level, representing Bankstown District Cricket Club in Sydney's district competition. A talented batsman, he once topped the season's batting averages ahead of former Australian captain Bob Simpson. However, paternal pressure detracted from Ken's enjoyment of cricket, he retired at the age of 26.
Thorpe's mother Margaret played A-grade netball. His elder sister Christina was advised to take up swimming to strengthen a broken wrist, so by chance, the five-year-old Thorpe followed her into the pool. Due to his unhappy experiences, Ken Thorpe regarded enjoyment as the most critical aspect of his children's participation in sport. A large baby, Thorpe measured 59 cm in length at birth; as a young child, Thorpe was sidelined by an allergy to chlorine. As a result, he did not swim in his first race until a school carnival at the age of seven; the allergy forced Thorpe to swim with his head out of the water. Thorpe overcame the ailment and progressed to the captaincy of New South Wales for the Australian Primary Schools Championships in 1994, he subsequently won nine individual gold medals at the New South Wales Short Course Age Championships in September of the same year. In 1995, Thorpe started his secondary education at East Hills Boys Technology High School and switched coaches to swim alongside his sister under the tutelage of Doug Frost.
It was a busy year for the family. Now six feet tall, Ian competed at his first Australian Age Championships, winning bronze medals in the 200 m and 400 m freestyle, he won all ten events at the New South Wales Age Championships. Thorpe competed at the 1996 Australian Age Championships in Brisbane, winning five gold, two silver and two bronze medals, his times in the 400 m freestyle and 200 m backstroke qualified him for the Australian Championships, which doubled as selection trials for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Frost knew that Thorpe had no realistic chance of making the top two in any event, which would have meant Olympic selection at only 13 years and six months, he sent Thorpe to Sydney to gain competition experience at senior national level. As expected, Thorpe missed selection. At the end of the year, Thorpe qualified for the Australian Short Course Championships, it was another chance to gain national selection, as the event served as the selection trials for the 1997 FINA World Swimming Championships.
Thorpe qualified in second place in the heats of the 400 m individual medley and reached his first national final. However, he swam more in the final and missed selection. At the New South Wales Championships in January 1997, Thorpe's time of 3 min 59.43 s in the 400 m was eight seconds faster than his previous personal best. Ranked fourth for the event countrywide, Thorpe went into the Australian Championships in Adelaide as a serious contender for selection in the national team for the 1997 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships in Fukuoka, Japan. With a top-three finish and a specific qualifying time required for selection, Thorpe focused on the 400 m freestyle after injuries to world record holder Kieren Perkins and Daniel Kowalski. Thorpe went on to win bronze behind 16-year-old Queenslander Grant Hackett, setting a new personal best of 3 min 53.44 s. The time was a world record for his age group and the race was the first of many battles with Hackett. Aged 14 ye
Havana is the capital city, largest city, major port, leading commercial center of Cuba. The city has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, it spans a total of 781.58 km2 – making it the largest city by area, the most populous city, the fourth largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean region. The city of Havana was founded by the Spanish in the 16th century and due to its strategic location it served as a springboard for the Spanish conquest of the Americas, becoming a stopping point for treasure-laden Spanish galleons returning to Spain; the King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592. Walls as well as forts were built to protect the old city; the sinking of the U. S. battleship Maine in Havana's harbor in 1898 was the immediate cause of the Spanish–American War. The city is the center of the Cuban government, home to various ministries, headquarters of businesses and over 90 diplomatic offices; the current mayor is Marta Hernández of the Communist Party of Cuba. In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country.
Contemporary Havana can be described as three cities in one: Old Havana and the newer suburban districts. The city extends westward and southward from the bay, entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbors: Mari melena and Antares; the sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. The city attracts over a million tourists annually. Old Havana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982; the city is noted for its history, culture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana experiences a tropical climate. Most native settlements became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining their original Taíno names. Conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founded Havana on August 25, 1515, on the southern coast of the island, near the present town of Surgidero de Batabanó, or more on the banks of the Mayabeque River close to Playa Mayabeque. All attempts to found. However, an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river.
Between 1514 and 1519 the Spanish established at least two different settlements on the north coast, one of them in La Chorrera, today in the neighborhoods of Vedado and Miramar, next to the Almendares River. The town that became Havana originated adjacent to what was called Puerto de Carenas, in 1519; the quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havana's harbor, warranted this change of location. Pánfilo de Narváez gave Havana – the sixth town founded by the Spanish on Cuba – its name: San Cristóbal de la Habana; the name combines patron saint of Havana. Shortly after the founding of Cuba's first cities, the island served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Havana began as a trading port, suffered regular attacks by buccaneers and French corsairs; the first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555. Such attacks convinced the Spanish Crown to fund the construction of the first fortresses in the main cities – not only to counteract the pirates and corsairs, but to exert more control over commerce with the West Indies, to limit the extensive contrabando that had arisen due to the trade restrictions imposed by the Casa de Contratación of Seville.
Ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the city's bay fueled Havana's agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food and other products needed to traverse the ocean. On December 20, 1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City. On, the city would be designated as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies" by the Spanish Crown. In the meantime, efforts to build or improve the defensive infrastructures of the city continued. Havana expanded in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed from the most abundant materials of the island wood, combining various Iberian architectural styles, as well as borrowing profusely from Canarian characteristics. In 1649, an epidemic of the fatal Yellow fever brought from Cartagena in Colombia affected a third of the European population of Havana. By the middle of the 18th century Havana had more than seventy thousand inhabitants, was the third-largest city in the Americas, ranking behind Lima and Mexico City but ahead of Boston and New York.
During the 18th century Havana was the most important of the Spanish ports because it had facilities where ships could be refitted and, by 1740, it had become Spain's largest and most active shipyard and only drydock in the New World. The city was captured by the British during the Seven Years' War; the episode began on June 6, 1762, when at dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000 men of the Royal Navy and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana. The British opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War; the treaty gave
The butterfly is a swimming stroke swum on the chest, with both arms moving symmetrically, accompanied by the butterfly kick. While other styles like the breaststroke, front crawl, or backstroke can be swum adequately by beginners, the butterfly is a more difficult stroke that requires good technique as well as strong muscles, it is the newest swimming style swum in competition, first swum in 1933 and originating out of the breaststroke. The peak speed of the butterfly is faster than that of the front crawl, or freestyle due to the synchronous pull/push with both arms and legs, done quite fast, yet since speed drops during the recovery phase, it is overall slower than front crawl over longer distances. Another reason it is slower is because of the different physical exertion it puts on the swimmer compared to the freestyle, its name was taken from the butterfly. The breaststroke and front crawl can all be swum even if the swimmer's technique is flawed; the butterfly, however, is unforgiving of mistakes in style.
Many swimmers and coaches consider it the most difficult swimming style. The main difficulty for beginners is the synchronous over-water recovery when combined with breathing, since both arms, the head and part of the chest have to be lifted out of the water for these tasks. Once efficient technique has been developed, it becomes a fast stroke. Australian Sydney Cavill, son of the "swimming professor" Frederick Cavill, was 220 yards amateur champion of Australia at the age of 16 and is credited as the originator of the butterfly stroke, he followed his famous brothers to America and coached notable swimmers at San Francisco's Olympic Club. In late 1933 Henry Myers swam a butterfly stroke in competition at the Brooklyn Central YMCA; the butterfly style evolved from the breaststroke. David Armbruster, swimming coach at the University of Iowa, researched the breaststroke considering the problem of drag due to the underwater recovery. In 1934 Armbruster refined a method to bring the arms forward over the water in a breaststroke.
He called this style "butterfly". While the butterfly was difficult, it brought a great improvement in speed. One year in 1935, Jack Sieg, a swimmer from the University of Iowa, developed a kick technique involving swimming on his side and beating his legs in unison, similar to a fish tail, modified the technique afterward to swim it face down, he called. Armbruster and Sieg found that combining these techniques created a fast swimming style consisting of butterfly arms with two dolphin kicks per cycle. Richard Rhodes claims that Volney Wilson invented the'Dolphin' after studying fish, used it to win the 1938 US Olympic Trials, earning him a disqualification; the entire style is referred to as butterfly, but sometimes still called dolphin when referring to the dolphin kick. This new style was faster than a regular breaststroke. Using this technique Jack Sieg swam 100 yards in 1:00.2. However, the dolphin fishtail kick violated the breaststroke rules was not allowed. Therefore, the butterfly arms with a breaststroke kick were used by a few swimmers in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin for the breaststroke competitions.
In 1938 every breaststroke swimmer was using this butterfly style, yet this stroke was considered a variant of the breaststroke until 1952, when it was accepted by FINA as a separate style with its own set of rules. The 1956 Summer Olympics were the first Olympic games where the butterfly was swum as a separate competition, 100 m and 200 m; the butterfly technique with the dolphin kick consists of synchronous arm movement with a synchronous leg kick. Good technique is crucial to swim this style effectively; the wave-like body movement is very significant in creating propulsion, as this is the key to easy synchronous over-water recovery and breathing. In the initial position, the swimmer lies on the breast, the arms are stretched to the front, the legs are extended to the back; the butterfly stroke has three major parts, the pull, the push, the recovery. These can be further subdivided. From the initial position, the arm movement starts similarly to the breast stroke. At the beginning the hands sink a little bit down with the palms facing outwards and down at shoulder width the hands move out to create a Y.
This is called catching the water. The pull movement follows a semicircle with the elbow higher than the hand and the hand pointing towards the center of the body and downward to form the traditionally taught "keyhole"; the push pushes the palm backward through the water underneath the body at the beginning and at the side of the body at the end of the push. The swimmer only pushes the arms 1/3 of the way to the hips, making it easier to enter into the recovery and making the recovery shorter and making the breathing window shorter; the movement increases speed throughout the pull-push phase until the hand is the fastest at the end of the push. This step is crucial for the recovery; the speed at the end of the push is used to help with the recovery. The recovery swings the arms sideways across the water surface to the front, with the elbows straight; the arms should be swung forward from the end of the underwater movement, the extension of the triceps in combination with the butterfly kick will allow the arm to be brought forwards relaxed yet quickly.
In contrast to the front crawl recovery, this arm recovery is a ballistic shot. The only other way of lifting th
Lars Arne Frölander is a Swedish swimmer. He has competed in six consecutive Olympic Games. Frölander was born in Boden, he grew up in Ornäs in Borlänge Municipality. In the 1992 Summer Olympics, he competed in the 4 × 200 metre freestyle relay along with Christer Wallin, Anders Holmertz and Tommy Werner; the Swedish team finished second behind the Unified Team. In the 1996 Summer Olympics, Frölander again finished second in the 4 × 200 metre freestyle relay with the Swedish team; the team consisted of Anders Holmertz, Frölander, Anders Lyrbring. This time the United States was the winning team. Frölander competed in the 100 metre freestyle, where he finished ninth in the heats but scratched the B-final, in the 100 metre butterfly event, where he finished 19th; the highlight of his career was when he won the gold in the 100 metre butterfly event at the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000. A couple of months earlier he twice broke the world record in the men's 100 m butterfly. Frölander was awarded the Svenska Dagbladet Gold Medal in 2000 as a result of his gold medal victory in Sydney.
At the 2012 Summer Olympics, Frölander, age 38, posted a 52.47 in the opening heats of the 100 m butterfly, less than 1 second slower than top qualifier Chad le Clos, but 0.12 s too slow to advance to the semifinals. Borlänge SS Sundsvalls SS Linköpings ASS Profile at FINA Lars Frölander at Swimrankings.net
Alain Bernard is a former French swimmer from Aubagne, Bouches-du-Rhône. Bernard won a total of four medals at two Olympic Games, he won numerous medals at the World Championships and European Championships. Bernard held the world record for the 50 metres freestyle and the 100 metres freestyle. Bernard has a shark tattoo on his right hip. Bernard won the European Championships 2008 100 m freestyle final in a new world record time of 47.50 seconds on 22 March 2008. He had beaten the world record the previous day, finishing in 47.60 seconds in the semi-finals. On 23 March 2008 Bernard broke Eamon Sullivan's 50 m freestyle world record in the semi-finals of the same championships, setting a new world record of 21.50 seconds. Bernard would go on to win the 50m freestyle final in 21.66 seconds. But Bernard's 21.50-second world record only stood for four days. At the French national championships, Bernard qualified for the Olympic Games in Beijing in the 50 m freestyle and 100 m freestyle. Before the 4 × 100 m freestyle relay, Bernard taunted.
Bernard claimed to a newspaper that he and his French teammates, favorite to win the relay, "were going to smash the American team. That's what we came here for", but the French team ended up in second place behind the American team by.08 seconds. Bernard, who had a lead going into the final leg of less than a body length, was caught in the final strokes by Jason Lezak, whose final leg of 46.06 seconds was the fastest relay leg in history. The close defeat left Bernard "wounded," according to his coach. However, he rebounded to win the men's 100 metres freestyle gold medal. Bernard had one day earlier set a new 100 metres freestyle long course world record of 47.20 s in the semi-finals. Bernard became only the second Frenchman to win an Olympic gold medal in swimming, after Jean Boiteux, who won the 400 m freestyle at the 1952 Helsinki Games, he finished third in the men's 50 metres freestyle final behind César Cielo Filho of Brazil and Amaury Leveaux of France, making it the first time in Olympic history that France had produced two medallists in a swimming final.
Bernard failed to qualify for the 50 m freestyle and 100 m freestyle events of the 2012 Summer Olympics in London by finishing only fifth in both events during the French swimming championships in March 2012. He was in the French 4 × 100 m freestyle relay team in the heats at the Olympics, but was not included in the team for the final. France won the event, he announced his retirement from swimming shortly after the 2012 Olympic Games. On 9 March 2015, as a part of a group of French sports stars participating in reality-television show Dropped, Bernard was on the ground as ten people died when two helicopters collided in mid-air during the filming in northwestern Argentina. Bernard was chosen as the 2008 L'Équipe Champion of Champions by L'Équipe, he was chosen as the 2008 RTL Champion of Champions by RTL,a French commercial radio network. This annual sports award was inaugurated in 2008. On 1 January 2013, Bernard was made an Officer of the French National Order of Merit; the 100m long course time was not admissible as a world record because it was swum in a non-approved swimsuit.
Alain Bernard has been a volunteer in the Gendarmerie since 2008 and was until attached to the Groupement blindé de gendarmerie mobile based in Versailles-Satory in the Yvelines department. World record progression 50 metres freestyle World record progression 100 metres freestyle Official website Alain Bernard at Swimrankings.net Alain Bernard at the International Olympic Committee Alain Bernard at the Comité National Olympique et Sportif Français Alain Bernard at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Fiche de Bernard, website of the sports daily L'Équipe "Alain Bernard", n°29 on Time’s list of "100 Olympic Athletes To Watch"