Anne Teresa Enright FRSL is an Irish author. She has published novels, short stories and one non-fiction book. A Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, her novel The Gathering won the 2007 Man Booker Prize, she has won the 1991 Rooney Prize for Irish Literature, the 2001 Encore Award and the 2008 Irish Novel of the Year. Before winning the Man Booker Prize, Enright had a low profile in Ireland and the United Kingdom, although her books were favourably reviewed and praised, her writing explores themes such as family relationships and sex, Ireland's difficult past and its modern zeitgeist. Anne Enright was educated at St Louis High School, Rathmines, she was awarded a BA in English and Philosophy at Trinity College Dublin. She won an international scholarship to Lester B. Pearson United World College of the Pacific in Victoria, British Columbia, where she studied for an International Baccalaureate for two years, she began writing in earnest. She won a Chevening Scholarship to the University of East Anglia's Creative Writing Course, where she studied under Angela Carter and Malcolm Bradbury and earned an M.
A. Enright was a television producer and director for RTÉ in Dublin for six years and produced the RTÉ programme Nighthawks for four years, she worked in children's programming for two years and wrote on weekends. Enright began writing full-time in 1993, her full-time career as a writer came about when she left television due to a breakdown remarking: "I recommend it having a breakdown early. If your life just falls apart early on, you can put it together again. It's the people who are always on the brink of crisis who don't hit bottom who are in trouble."Enright lives in Bray, County Wicklow. She is married to Martin Murphy, director of the Pavilion Theatre in Dún Laoghaire, they have a son and daughter. Enright's early work has been compared by critics to that of Flann O'Brien; the Portable Virgin, a collection of her short stories, was published in 1991. Angela Carter called it "elegant, scrupulously poised, always intelligent and, not least, original."Enright's first novel, The Wig My Father Wore, was published in 1995.
The book explores themes such as love, Roman Catholicism, sex. The narrator of the novel is Grace, who works for a tacky game show, her father wears a wig. An angel called Stephen who committed suicide in 1934 and has come back to earth to guide lost souls moves into Grace's home and she falls in love with him. Enright's next novel, What Are You Like?, is about twin girls called Marie and Maria who are separated at birth and raised apart from each other in Dublin and London. It looks at ironies between family members, it was short-listed in the novel category of the Whitbread Awards. The Pleasure of Eliza Lynch is a fictionalised account of the life of Eliza Lynch, an Irish woman, the consort of Paraguayan president Francisco Solano López and became Paraguay's most powerful woman in the 19th century, her book Making Babies: Stumbling into Motherhood is a collection of candid and humorous essays about childbirth and motherhood. Enright's fourth novel, The Gathering, was published in 2007. Enright's writings have appeared in several magazines, including The New Yorker, The Paris Review, the London Review of Books, The Dublin Review and the Irish Times.
She was once a regular contributor to BBC Radio 4, now reviews for The Guardian and RTÉ. The 4 October 2007 issue of the London Review of Books published her essay, "Disliking the McCanns", about Kate and Gerry McCann, the British parents of three-year-old Madeleine McCann, who disappeared in suspicious circumstances while on holiday in Portugal in May 2007; the essay was criticised by some journalists. In 2011, the Irish Academic Press published a collection of essays on Enright's work, edited by Claire Bracken and Susan Cahill, her work is discussed and illustrated in the video "Reading Ireland."In 2015, Enright was appointed as the inaugural Laureate of Irish Fiction by Taoiseach Enda Kenny. During her time as Laureate for Irish Fiction, Enright promoted people's engagement with Irish literature through public lectures and creative writing classes, she spent one semester at one semester at New York University. Beginning September 2018, she joined the University College Dublin School of English as Professor of Fiction.
What are you like? The Pleasure of Eliza Lynch The Wig my Father Wore The Gathering The Forgotten Waltz The Green Road CollectionsThe Portable Virgin Taking Pictures Yesterday's Weather Stories Making Babies: Stumbling into Motherhood 1991 Rooney Prize for Irish Literature for The Portable Virgin 2001 Encore Award for What Are You Like? 2004 Davy Byrne's Irish Writing Award 2007 Man Booker Prize for The Gathering 2008 Irish Novel of the Year for The Gathering 2010 Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature 2012 Orange Prize for Fiction shortlist for The Forgotten Waltz 2012 Carnegie Medal for Excellence in Fiction for The Forgotten Waltz 2012 Honorary Degree from Goldsmiths College, University of London 2016 Kerry Group Irish Fiction Award for The Green Road Anne Enright's top 10 slim volumes, The Guardian, 21 March 2001 Transcript of interview with Ramona Koval on The Book Show, ABC Radio National, 15 September 2008, recorded at Edinburgh International Book Festival 2008 Audio and video interviews with Anne Enright at RTÉ.ie.
2002 interview with Anne Enright in The Sunday Business Post. Podcast of Anne Enright discussing her Man Booker Prize at the Shanghai International Literary F
Rádio e Televisão de Portugal
Rádio e Televisão de Portugal is the public service broadcasting organisation of Portugal. It operates four national television channels and three national radio channels, as well as several satellite and cable offerings; the company came into effect on 31 March 2004 with the merger of two separate companies Radiodifusão Portuguesa and Radiotelevisão Portuguesa. RTP is a state-owned corporation funded by television advertising revenues, government grants, the taxa de contribuição audiovisual, incorporated in electricity bills; the Emissora Nacional de Radiodifusão was established on 4 August 1935 as the public national radio broadcaster, inheriting the previous broadcasting operations of the national postal service, Telégrafos e Telefones. Five years ENR became independent of the CTT. ENR was one of the 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950. Following the Carnation Revolution, ENR was reorganised and in 1976 changed its name to Radiodifusão Portuguesa.
During this process, several private radio stations – such as Rádio Clube Português – were nationalised and integrated into RDP. In 1979, the RCP network was rebranded as Rádio Comercial, was privatised in 1993. At the same time, RDP launched the youth-oriented radio station Antena 3 and abolished advertising from all of its stations, so that the aforementioned broadcasting contribution tax became its sole source of funding. Radiotelevisão Portuguesa's television service was established on 15 December 1955. Experimental broadcasts began in September 1956 from the Feira Popular studios in Lisbon. Twenty monitors were installed in the park; the broadcast was received within a range of about 20 km. Around 1,000 TV sets are sold within a month. Regular broadcasting, did not start until 7 March 1957, by which time coverage had reached 65% of the Portuguese population. By the end of 1958 the total number of sets in Portugal was around 32,000. RTP was accepted as a full active member of the EBU in 1959.
By the mid-1960s, RTP had become available throughout the country. Robert Farnon's "Derby Day" was extensively used as RTP's fanfare to open the programming since the first day, over the decades it has become RTP's official anthem. 25 December 1968 saw the opening of a second television channel, RTP2. Two new regional channels were created in 1972 and 1975, for the Portuguese archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores. Before the Carnation Revolution, RTP was a mouthpiece of the regime, famously opened the newscast of 20 July 1969 – the day of the first moon landing – with a segment showing president Américo Thomaz opening a concrete factory. However, like many other broadcasters, it did broadcast live the landing of the man on the moon during the night; the first colour broadcast was made in 1975, with the live coverage of the first parliamentary elections after the carnation revolution. But, due to the political turmoil and the economic situation of the country, the colour regular broadcast was delayed several times for nearly 5 years.
During that time RTP started to purchase some colour equipment and make the occasional colour recording. But the pressure kept going as the black and white equipment was getting old and hard to repair, so in 1978 and 1979 a massive investment supported by a foreign loan, gave RTP the opportunity to replace all the B/W to increase the current amount of equipment and to be updated with the most advanced broadcast technologies available at the time. Despite this, only in February 1980, the government authorised the regular colour broadcast and two weeks after, on the 7th of March RTP started the regular colour broadcast, with more than 70% of the programmes being in colour. RTP moved its headquarters to a brand new building; the building was built to be converted to a hotel, but the owner decided to leave it untouched and reached an agreement with RTP for the purchase and converted the interior for office use. RTP moved to more adequate headquarters and sold the building in 2003 and the new owner converted into what is today the VIP Grand Lisboa.
Until 1991, RTP owned its transmitter network, transferred to a state-owned enterprise which, through a series of mergers, became part of Portugal Telecom. RTP held the television monopoly until 1992, the year. Over the years, RTP's audience share has reduced in favour of the private channels. 2007 was an exception to this tendency, RTP1 became the second channel most watched in Portugal, only behind TVI, a rarity which occurred again in 2009 and 2010. In 2004, RTP and RDP merged and became part of a larger state-owned holding, named Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, inaugurated the new headquarters near Parque das Nações, in Lisbon. In the same year, the second channel was rebranded as'2:', promoting itself as the civil society service. In March 2007, 2: became'RTP2' again. Due to the current financial crisis Portugal is facing, RTP was to be restructured as part of the Portuguese government's austerity plan and would have included the sale of one of the free to air channel licenses. Pressure from the public and other organisations stopped the planned sales though the restructuring plans are expected to be in presented soon and include a redundancy plan, financing for new equipment.
RTP has 16 regional offices spread all over the country, as well as international bureaus in Washington D. C. Brussels, Moscow and several other locations. RT
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Silviculture is the practice of controlling the growth, composition and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. The name comes from the Latin silvi- + culture; the study of forests and woods is termed silvology. Silviculture focuses on making sure that the treatment of forest stands are used to preserve and to better their productivity. Silviculture is the science and art of growing and tending forest crops, based on a knowledge of silvics, i.e. the study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors. More silviculture is the theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition and growth of forests. No matter how forestry as a science is constituted, the kernel of the business of forestry has been silviculture, as it includes direct action in the forest, in it all economic objectives and technical considerations converge; the focus of silviculture is regeneration, but more recreational use of forestland has challenged silviculture as the primary income generation from forests, due to increasing recognizance of forestland's use for leisure and recreation.
Some of the distinction between forestry and silviculture is that silviculture is applied at the stand level and forestry is broader. For example, John D. Matthews says "complete regimes for regenerating and harvesting forests" are called "silvicultural systems". Adaptive management is common in silviculture, where forestry can include natural, conserved land without a stand level management and treatment being applied. A common taxonomy divides silviculture into regenerating and harvesting techniques; the origin of forestry in German-speaking Europe has defined silvicultural systems broadly as high forest, coppice with standards and compound coppice, short rotation coppice, coppice. There are other systems as well; these varied silvicultural systems include several harvesting methods, which are wrongly said to be a silvicultural systems, but may be called rejuvenating or regenerating method depending on the purpose. The high forest system is further subdivided in German: High forest Age class forest Even-aged forestry Clear cutting Shelterwood cutting Seed-tree method Uneven-aged forestry The Femel selection cutting Strip selection cutting Shelterwood wedge cutting Mixed-form regeneration methods Continuous cover forestry Uneven-aged forestry Selection forest Target diameter harvesting These names give the impression is that these are neatly defined systems, but in practice there are variations within these harvesting methods in accordance with to local ecology and site conditions.
While location of an archetypal form of harvesting technique can be identified, broad generalizations can be made, these are rules of thumb rather than strict blueprints on how techniques might be applied. This misunderstanding has meant that many older English textbooks did not capture the true complexity of silviculture as practiced where it originated in Mitteleuropa; this silviculture was culturally predicated on wood production in temperate and boreal climates and did not deal with tropical forestry. The misapplication of this philosophy to those tropical forests has been problematic. There is an alternative silvicultural tradition which developed in Japan and thus created a different biocultural landscape called satoyama. After harvesting comes regeneration, which may be split into natural and artificial, tending, which includes release treatments, pruning and intermediate treatments, it is conceivable that any of these 3 phases may happen at the same time within a stand, depending on the goal for that particular stand.
Regeneration is basic to the continuation of forested, as well as to the afforestation of treeless land. Regeneration can take place through self-sown seed, by artificially sown seed, or by planted seedlings. In whichever case, the performance of regeneration depends on its growth potential and the degree to which its environment allows the potential to be expressed. Seed, of course, is needed for all regeneration modes, both for natural or artificial sowing and for raising planting stock in a nursery. Natural regeneration is a "human-assisted natural regeneration" means of establishing a forest age class from natural seeding or sprouting in an area after harvesting in that area through selection cutting, shelter harvest, soil preparation, or restricting the size of a clear-cut stand to secure natural regeneration from the surrounding trees; the process of natural regeneration involves the renewal of forests by means of self-sown seeds, root suckers, or coppicing. In natural forests, conifers rely entirely on regeneration through seed.
Most of the broadleaves, are able to regenerate by the means of emergence of shoots from stumps and broken stems. Any seed, self-sown or artificially applied, requires a seedbed suitable for securing germination. In order to germinate, a seed requires suitable conditions of temperature and aeration. For seeds of many species, light is necessary, facilitates the germination of seeds in other species, but spruces are not exacting in their light requirements, will germinate without light. White spruce seed germinated at 35
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma