Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Puerto Ricans are people of ethnic origins in Puerto Rico, the inhabitants, citizens of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, their descendants. Puerto Rico is home to people of many different national origins as well; the culture held in common by most Puerto Ricans is referred to as mainstream Puerto Rican culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Spain, more Andalusia and the Canary Islands. Over 90% of Puerto Ricans descend from migrants from these two southern regions of Spain. Puerto Rico has been influenced by African culture, Afro-Puerto Ricans being a significant minority. Puerto Rico has received immigration from other parts of Spain such as Catalonia as well as from other European countries such as France, Ireland and Germany. Recent studies in population genetics have concluded that Puerto Rican gene pool is on average predominantly European, with a significant Sub-Saharan African and Indigenous American substrate, the latter two originating in the aboriginal people of the Canary Islands and Puerto Rico's pre-Hispanic Taíno inhabitants, respectively.
The population of Puerto Ricans and descendants is estimated to be between 8 and 10 million worldwide, with most living on the islands of Puerto Rico and in the United States mainland. Within the United States, Puerto Ricans are present in all states of the Union, the states with the largest populations of Puerto Ricans relative to the national population of Puerto Ricans in the United States at large are the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, with large populations in Massachusetts, California and Texas. For 2009, the American Community Survey estimates give a total of 3,859,026 Puerto Ricans classified as "Native" Puerto Ricans, it gives a total of 3,644,515 of the population being born in Puerto Rico and 201,310 born in the United States. The total population born outside Puerto Rico is 322,773. Of the 108,262 who were foreign born outside the United States, 92.9% were born in Latin America, 3.8% in Europe, 2.7% in Asia, 0.2% in Northern America, 0.1% in Africa and Oceania each.
The populations during Spanish rule of Puerto Rico were: The original inhabitants of Puerto Rico are the Taíno, who called the island Borikén. Besides miscegenation, the negative impact on the numbers of Amerindian people in Puerto Rico, was entirely the result of Old World diseases that the Amerindians had no natural/bodily defenses against, including measles, chicken pox, mumps and the common cold. In fact, it was estimated that the majority of all the Amerindian inhabitants of the New World died out due to contact and contamination with those Old World diseases, while those that survived were further reduced through deaths by warfare with each other and with Europeans. Both run-away and freed African slaves were in Puerto Rico; this interbreeding was far more common in Latin America because of those Spanish and Portuguese mercantile colonial policies exemplified by the oft-romanticized male conquistadors. Aside from the presence of slaves, some indication for why the Amerindian population was so diluted was the tendency for conquistadors to bring with them scores of single men hoping to serve God, country, or their own interests.
All of these factors would indeed prove detrimental for the Taínos in Puerto Rico and surrounding Caribbean islands. In the 16th century, a significant depth of Puerto Rican culture began to develop with the import of African slaves by the Spanish, as well as by the French, the Portuguese, the British, the Dutch. Thousands of Spanish settlers immigrated to Puerto Rico from the Canary Islands during the 18th and 19th centuries, so many so that whole Puerto Rican villages and towns were founded by Canarian immigrants, their descendants would form a majority of the population on the island. In 1791, the slaves in Saint-Domingue, revolted against their French masters. Many of the French escaped to Puerto Rico via what is now the Dominican Republic and settled in the west coast of the island in Mayagüez; some Puerto Ricans are of British heritage, most notably Scottish people and English people who came to reside there in the 17th and 18th centuries. When Spain revived the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 with the intention of attracting non-Hispanics to settle in the island, thousands of Corsicans during the 19th century immigrated to Puerto Rico, along with German immigrants as well as Irish immigrants who were affected by the Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s, immigrated to Puerto Rico.
They were followed by smaller waves from China. During the early 20th century Jews began to settle in Puerto Rico; the first large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German–occupied Europe in the 1930s and 1940s. The second influx of Jews to the island came in the 1950s, when thousands of Cuban Jews fled after Fidel Castro came to power; the native Taino population began to dwindle, with the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, through disease and miscegenation. Many Spaniard men took Taino and West African wives and in the first centuries of the Spanish colonial period the island was overwhelmingly racially mixed. "By 1530 there were 14 native women married to Spaniards, n
San Germán, Puerto Rico
San Germán is a municipality located in the southwestern region of Puerto Rico, south of Mayagüez and Maricao, north of Lajas, east of Hormigueros and Cabo Rojo, west of Sabana Grande. San Germán is spread over San Germán Pueblo, it is both a principal city of the San Germán–Cabo Rojo Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Mayagüez–San Germán–Cabo Rojo Combined Statistical Area. San Germán is the second oldest city of Puerto Rico, after San Juan; the island of Puerto Rico was once split between the San Germán municipalities. The latter covered the western half of Puerto Rico, extended from the western shores of the island to Arecibo in the north and Ponce in the south. Spanish settlement in the original city of San Germán occurred early in the conquest and colonization of Puerto Rico. After the destruction of a small early settlement near modern-day Añasco during a Taíno uprising which started in February 1511, the new settlement was built by Miguel Diaz at Guayanilla and named after Germaine of Foix, the new queen of King Fernando.
This town was attacked by French corsairs in August 1528, May 1538 and 1554. The construction of a small fort began in 1540, but work stopped in 1546 when the population of the town began moving inland to the current modern location. An early written reference to the new town occurs in 1573. A letter sent to Spain's king Philip II mentions a city with the names of Nueva Salamanca and San Germán. Spanish conquerors used the name Nueva Salamanca to honor the city of Salamanca in Spain. On May 12, 1570, the Royal Audience of Santo Domingo ordered that both the populations of San Germán and Santa María de Guadianilla be merged into a single city due to the constant attacks; the new city was built on the hills of Santa Marta, next to the Guanajibo River in 1573. Its official name was Nueva Villa de Salamanca, named after the city of Salamanca in Spain. However, the population would call the city San Germán el Nuevo and the Villa de San Germán. San Germán is known as the founding city of towns, given the fact that in 1514 the Spanish crown separated the island into two administrative territories.
The borders of the two partidos were established as the Camuy River to the north and the Jacagua river to the south. They were named the San Germán Partition. San Germán is in the southwest. Mountains in San Germán include Tetas de Cerro Gordo. San Germán has a number of rivers: Río Caín, Río Duey, Río Rosario, Río Guanajibo, Río Hoconuco Guamá and Rio El Brujo. Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017 triggered numerous landslides in San Germán with the significant amount of rain that fell. Like all municipalities of Puerto Rico, San Germán is subdivided into barrios. San Germán is the site of the Porta Coeli church, one of the earliest Spanish churches built in Latin America. Porta Coeli is still a major attraction that brings both domestic and international tourists every year. Puente de Bolas Casa Morales Ceiba de la Libertad Historic Gallery Lola Rodríguez de Tió Museum Casa Cruz de la Luna Ramírez de Arrellano y Rossell Museum Santo Domingo Plazuela Three Races and One Culture Mural San Germán Historic District Porta Coeli Inter-American University of Puerto Rico Church San Germán de Auxerre La Barrica, Original Spanish Tavern.
Circa 1847The urban center of San Germán is composed of Spanish colonial houses. Many have been restored and conserve their Spanish look while other houses are somewhat abandoned and in poor condition. There are ongoing projects employing public and private funding to preserve and restore many houses and monuments and to maintain San Germán's colonial era look. Patron Celebrations - July Festival de la Pana - July Anón Festival - September Christmas Festival - December Christmas Parade - Early December Patron Celebrations — Celebrated in San Germán's Ward, Rosario Poblado, which borders Mayagüez. San Germán is home to one of Puerto Rico's oldest basketball franchises, dating back to the 1930s, the San Germán Athletics, nicknamed "The Orange Monster". Many glories of Puerto Rican basketball have played in San Germán, a city, known as "The Crib of Puerto Rican Basketball"; some of those players are Arquelio Torres, José "Piculín" Ortiz, Eddie Casiano, Nelson Quiñones, Elías "Larry" Ayuso, Christian Dalmau, so many others.
Their home court is The Arquelio Torres Ramírez Court, which houses 5,000 fans. The Athletic's fan base is most referred to as their sixth man, or "The Orange Monster"; this is because for a visiting team it's hard to win in San Germán due to how vigorous and "into" the game the fans are. The Athletics have been to 26 National Superior Basketball Finals, of which one was cancelled due to confiscation because of a fight between players from San Germán and the Ponce Lions, giving birth to Puerto Rican basketball's most intense rivalry. Championships: 1932, 1936, 1939, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1985, 1991, 1994, 1997 Sub-Championships: 1931, 1933, 1936, 1938, 1940, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1965, 1986 The area around San Germán grows fruits and sugar cane on mid-scale. Dairy farms are present in small scale; some locals grow other produce on a small scale. Other industries in the municipality include Baxter Serum Mfg. Cordis, Wallace Silversmiths de Puerto Rico, General Electric
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Juan Morel Campos
Juan Morel Campos, sometimes erroneously spelled Juan Morell Campos, was a Puerto Rican composer, considered by many to be responsible for taking the genre of danza to its highest level. He composed over 550 musical works before he died unexpectedly at age 38. Morel Campos was born in Ponce, Puerto Rico, to Manuel Morel Araujo, from the Dominican Republic, Juana de Dios Campos Collazo, from Venezuela, he began to study music at the young age of eight in his hometown under the guidance of Antonio Egipciaco. Morel Campos was a student of Puerto Rican composer and pianist Gonzalo de J. Núñez, whose students included the internationally-known musicians and composers Manuel Gregorio Tavárez and Arístides Chavier Arévalo. Morel Campos learned to play every brass instrument and became one of the founders and directors of the "Ponce Firemen's Band"; the legendary Band was renamed the Ponce Municipal Band. Morel Campos became a student of the composer Manuel Gregorio Tavárez, "The Father of the Danza".
Campos' first danza composition was called "Sopapos". The influence of Tavárez, plus the particular style developed by Morel Campos can be listened to in his music today. Morel Campos had his own dance orchestra, "La Lira Ponceña." Most of his danzas were written for dancing. He modified his compositions so that they may be played on piano. Morel Campos is best known for his danza compositions, but he composed waltzes, symphonies and overtures. Women and the theme of love inspired most of his musical compositions, his great love was a lady named Mercedes Arias, but her family did not approve of their relationship. It was from that frustrated "love" that many of Morel Campos' beautiful danzas were born, "Maldito Amor" is an example. Among his best-known compositions are "Felices Dias', "No Me Toques", "Idilio," and "Maldito Amor"; the following is a list of some of Morel Campos' Danza's: Conversación Felices Días Idilio Maldito Amor No me toques Sin ti jamás Sí, te toco Sueño de Amor Ten Piedad Tormento Un conflicto Vano empeño Domingo Cruz "Cocolía" became director of the Firefighters' Band upon the untimely death of Morel Campos.
Juan Morel Campos suffered a stroke on 26 April 1896 during a concert in Ponce. He died of the stroke soon thereafter on 16 May, in Ponce. In December 1926, his remains were buried on the pedestal of his statue in Plaza Las Delicias, his wife was Secundina Beltrán Collazo. Their children were Olimpia, Belén, Plácido, Manuel; the Free School of Music Juan Morel Campos in Ponce was named for him, as was Juan Morel Campos Secondary School in Brooklyn, New York and a Jr. High School in Ponce; the Juan Morel Campos statue was erected in the Plaza Las Delicias in Ponce. A housing development in Ponce is named for him. In 1984, the Government of Puerto Rico declared May 16 to be celebrated annually as "Juan Morel Campos Day" and November 23 be known as "The Day of the Composer". In 2001, Morel Campos was posthumously inducted into the International Latin Music Hall of Fame, his nephew Pedro Albizu Campos became a noted leader of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party. Morel Campos is commemorated at the Ponce Park of the Illustrious Ponce Citizens.
List of Puerto Ricans List of composers by nationality List of Puerto Rican songwriters Juan Morel Campos Recordings Felices Días by Camerata Caribe Instituto de Musica Juan Morel Campos