Montmartre is a large hill in Pariss 18th arrondissement. It is 130 m high and gives its name to the surrounding district, Montmartre is primarily known for the white-domed Basilica of the Sacré-Cœur on its summit and as a nightclub district. The other, church on the hill is Saint Pierre de Montmartre, Montmartre is the setting for several hit films. This site is served by metro, with line 2 stations at Anvers and Blanche and line 12 stations at Pigalle, Lamarck - Caulaincourt, texts from the 8th century cite the name of mons Mercori, and a 9th-century text speaks of Mount Mars. Excavations in 1975 north of the Church of Saint-Pierre found coins from the 3rd century, earlier excavations in the 17th century at the Fontaine-du-But found vestiges of Roman baths from the 2nd century. According to Hilduin, Denis collected his head and carried it as far as the fontaine Saint-Denis, descended the slope of the hill. Hilduin wrote that a church had built in the place formerly called Mont de Mars. In 1134, king Louis VI purchased the Merovingian chapel and built on the site the church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre and he founded The Royal Abbey of Montmartre, a monastery of the Benedictine order, whose buildings and fields occupied most of Montmartre.
He built a chapel, called the Martyrium, at the site where it was believed that Saint Denis had been decapitated. It became a pilgrimage site. In the 17th century, a priory called abbaye den bas was built at that site, the abbey was destroyed in 1790 during the French Revolution, and the convent demolished to make place for gypsum mines. The church of Saint-Pierre was saved, at the place where the chapel of the Martyrs was located, an oratory was built in 1855. By the 15th century, the north and northeast slopes of the hill were the site of a surrounded by vineyards and orchards of peach. The first mills were built on the slope in 1529, grinding wheat, barley. The siege eventually failed when a relief force approached and forced Henry to withdraw. In 1790, Montmartre was located just outside the limits of Paris and that year, under the revolutionary government of the National Constituent Assembly, it became the commune of Montmartre, with its town hall located on place du Tertre, site of the former abbey.
The main businesses of the commune were wine making, stone quarries, the mining of gypsum had begun in the Gallo-Roman period, first in open air mines and underground, and continued until 1860. The gypsum was cut into blocks, ground, sold as montmartarite, it was used for plaster, because of its resistance to fire and water
Imperial Academy of Fine Arts (Brazil)
The Academia Imperial de Belas Artes was an institution of higher learning in the arts in Rio de Janeiro, established by Dom João VI. Despite facing many difficulties, the Academy was established and took its place at the forefront of Brazilian arts education in the second half of the nineteenth century. The Academy became the center of the diffusion of new aesthetic trends and it eventually became one of the principal arts institutions under the patronage of Emperor Dom Pedro II. With the Proclamation of the Republic, it known as the National School of Fine Arts. It became extinct as an independent institution in 1931, when it was absorbed by the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and became known as the UFF School of Fine Arts, which still operates today. The foundation of art schools in Brazil came from, according to Rafael Denis, Francophile initiatives headed by the ministry of Dom João and these schools were seen as necessary for the formation of specialized professionals to serve the State and its nascent industries.
In the early century, the educational system was practically non-existent. It was thought that, by contracting foreign professors from places like Paris, contact was made with Joaquim Lebreton at the Institut de France in the area of Fine Arts and a group of educators was assembled. However, the origins of the school are debated among historians and it is unclear whether Dom João, the Marquis of Marialva, Lebreton, or French artist Nicolas-Antoine Taunay came up with the idea of bringing arts education to Brazil. In any case, Lebreton ultimately took charge of the project, within the group, there was a naval architect, a mechanical engineer, a master ironsmith and various artisans in addition to traditional artists. The most famous member of the group was painter, Jean-Baptiste Debret, both Montigny and Taunay had won the prestigious Prix de Rome. They arrived in Rio de Janeiro on 26 March 1816 aboard the Calpe, a few brought their families and servants or sent for them later. This expatriate group formed a colony that came to be known as the Missão Artística Francesa.
The Mission strengthened the human and conceptual resources that structured the Escola Real de Ciências, the first institute of its kind in Brazil, the Real School was founded by royal decree on 12 August 1826. The educational program was outlined by Lebreton, according to a letter his sent to Dom João on 12 June of the same year, detailed painting and sculpting with the use of live models and study in the worships of master artists. Architecture students had a system divided by theory and practice. He expanded the official art collection and balanced the budget. Lebreton was fundamental in the formation of another institution, the Escola de Desenho para Artes e Ofícios, whose curriculum was equally rigorous
Caipira (Portuguese pronunciation, is a inhabitant of rural or remote areas of Brazil. It can be considered pejorative when used to describe others, in the traditional festas juninas people who are not otherwise considered as such dress up as stereotypical Caipiras. It is used as a name for a group of dialects of Portuguese in the states of São Paulo and neighboring areas in Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, the south of Minas Gerais, and part of Paraná. By extension, the term caipira can be applied to the different cultural manifestations of the caipiras, the diminutive form derived from the caipira noun, caipirinha, is known as a cocktail worldwide. Os parceiros do Rio Bonito Sp, José Olympio,1957, urupês, Editora Monteiro Lobato e Cia.1923. Música Caipira, da roça ao rodeio, Editora 34,1999, Caipiras Negros no Vale do Ribeira, Editora da USP,1983 Pires, Cornélio. Conversas ao pé do fogo - IMESP, edição fac-similar,1984
Empire of Brazil
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and Uruguay. Its government was a parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I. João VI returned to Portugal, leaving his eldest son and heir, Pedro, to rule the Kingdom of Brazil as regent. On 7 September 1822, Pedro declared the independence of Brazil and, after waging a war against his fathers kingdom, was acclaimed on 12 October as Pedro I. The new country was huge but sparsely populated and ethnically diverse, the empires bicameral parliament was elected under comparatively democratic methods for the era, as were the provincial and local legislatures. This led to an ideological conflict between Pedro I and a sizable parliamentary faction over the role of the monarch in the government. The unsuccessful Cisplatine War against the neighboring United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in 1828 led to the secession of the province of Cisplatina. In 1826, despite his role in Brazilian independence, he became the king of Portugal, two years later, she was usurped by Pedro Is younger brother Miguel.
Unable to deal with both Brazilian and Portuguese affairs, Pedro I abdicated his Brazilian throne on 7 April 1831, Pedro Is successor in Brazil was his five-year-old son, Pedro II. As the latter was still a minor, a regency was created. The power vacuum resulting from the absence of a monarch as the ultimate arbiter in political disputes led to regional civil wars between local factions. Brazil was victorious in three international conflicts under Pedro IIs rule, and the Empire prevailed in other international disputes. With prosperity and economic development came an influx of European immigration, including Protestants and Jews, which had initially been widespread, was restricted by successive legislation until its final abolition in 1888. Brazilian visual arts and theater developed during time of progress. Although heavily influenced by European styles that ranged from Neoclassicism to Romanticism, the next in line to the throne was his daughter Isabel, but neither Pedro II nor the ruling classes considered a female monarch acceptable.
Lacking any viable heir, the Empires political leaders saw no reason to defend the monarchy, the territory which would come to be known as Brazil was claimed by Portugal on 22 April 1500, when the navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed on its coast. Permanent settlement followed in 1532, and for the next 300 years the Portuguese slowly expanded westwards until they had reached all of the borders of modern Brazil. In 1808, the army of French Emperor Napoleon I invaded Portugal, forcing the Portuguese royal family—the House of Braganza and they re-established themselves in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, which became the unofficial seat of the Portuguese Empire
Piracicaba is a city located in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. The population is 391,449 in an area of 1378.07 km² and it is at an elevation of 547 m above sea level. The place name comes from a word in the Tupi language that means place where the fish stops, the name arises from the fact that the waterfalls of the Piracicaba River, which bisects the city, is a point at which piracema—fish swimming upstream to reproduce. Larger fish species such as the dourados can still be observed, in 1766, Antonio Correa Barbosa, charged with the task of establishing a settlement on the estuary of Piracicaba river, opted for a location about 90 km from it. The settlement was founded on August 1,1767, as a povoação subordinated to the vila of Itu. In 1784, Piracicaba gets emancipated from Itu, becoming a freguesia, in 1821, the freguesia is promoted to vila, known as Vila Nova da Constituição. In 1856, Vila Nova da Constituição is promoted to city status and in 1877 it is officially named Piracicaba, following a law by the councilman, in 1944, the city was made the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Piracicaba.
Piracicaba is home to the oldest agricultural university in Brazil, the Luiz de Queiroz School of Agriculture of the University of São Paulo, founded in 1901, the school is located on a farm with a large collection of trees and plants. It is recognized as a leader in the field of precision agriculture, other universities based in Piracicaba are the Methodist University of Piracicaba and the University of Campinas School of Dentistry. Piracicaba is famous for sugarcane plantations, traditional cachaça production, in particular, its economy, as of this year, is fueled by the cultivation of sugarcane. The harvest of sugarcane produces many products, including sugar, copersucar, a large company that has a center of research on genetic improvement of sugarcane participates in this growing industry. Another characteristic economic feature is the presence of industries, where the main ones are Caterpillar, ArcelorMittal. Temperatures through the year vary from 37. 5° Celsius maximum to 16. 0° Celsius minimum, the area of the city is 1,378 square kilometers, making it the 19th largest city in the State of São Paulo.
The urban area of Piracicaba is approximately 158 square kilometers, the population in 2015 was 391,449. The Human Development Index for the city was 0.710 in 2000, as of 2010, water and power are supplied at a level approaching 100% of the households. As of 2013 there were approximately 164 telephones, and 333 cars, South Korea José Altafini, known as Mazola, a Brazilian footballer. André Cypriano, documentary photographer Evaristo Conrado Engelberg and inventor Marcos Pizzelli-Brazilian footballer, rubens Ometto Silveira Mello, owner of Cosan
Victor Meirelles de Lima was a Brazilian painter who is best known for his works relating to his nations culture and history. His parents were recent immigrants from Portugal and he displayed an early talent for art, producing his first known work, at the age of fourteen. This work impressed Jerônimo Coelho, an Imperial Counselor, who brought Meirelles to Rio de Janeiro and introduced him to Félix Taunay and it was decided that the Academy would take charge of his education, so he enrolled there in 1847 and remained until 1852. That year, his painting of St. John the Baptist in Prison won him the Prix du Voyage for a trip to Europe. He passed through Paris, although he spent most of his time in Florence and Rome, in 1856, he returned to Paris and remained until 1860. During this period, he attended the École des Beaux-Arts, refining his technique with Léon Cogniet and it has since been used in numerous history textbooks and on the 1,000 Cruzeiro banknote. Upon his return to Brazil, Emperor Pedro II awarded him the Order of Christ and he became an Honorary Professor at the Academy and was given the Chair of History Painting.
In 1868, he spent time aboard several warships to complete a commission for naval history paintings and, over the next decade, executed numerous works for the Imperial Family. In 1879, his painting of the Second Battle of Guararapes was displayed at the Imperial Academy, alongside a painting by Pedro Américo. Meirelles and Américo had already been at odds with one another over a commission so, critics began to notice similar details. The controversy raged in the press for months but, apparently. In 1885, he undertook his most ambitious project, a panorama of Rio de Janeiro as seen from the Morro de Santo Antônio, a hill near the citys midpoint. With the assistance of Henri Langerock, a Belgian Orientalist painter who came from North Africa to work on the project, initially it was displayed in Brussels, where it had been created, won a Gold Medal at the Exposition Universelle. In 1893 he attempted to start a school, together with Eduardo de Sá and Décio Villares. Without sufficient resources, he installed his Panorama of Rio de Janeiro in a hut, any of the proceeds not used for living expenses went to the Santa Casa de Misericórdia.
Eventually, though, he sank into poverty and became ill and he died, unnoticed, at his modest home during the Sunday morning Carnaval festivities. His Panorama was placed into storage where it became rotted and moldy and was dumped into Guanabara Bay. Victor Meirelles, Quadros da História @ CurtaDOC TV Victor Meirelles e a Construção da Identidade Brasileira by Teresinha Sueli Franz @ DezenoveVinte
The Salon, or rarely Paris Salon, beginning in 1667 was the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Between 1748 and 1890 it was arguably the greatest annual or biennial art event in the Western world, at the 1761 Salon, thirty-three painters, nine sculptors, and eleven engravers contributed. From 1881 onward, it has been managed by the Société des Artistes Français, in 1667, the royally sanctioned French institution of art patronage, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, held its first semi-public art exhibit at the Salon Carré. The Salons original focus was the display of the work of recent graduates of the École des Beaux-Arts, exhibition at the Salon de Paris was essential for any artist to achieve success in France for at least the next 200 years. Exhibition in the Salon marked a sign of royal favor, in 1725, the Salon was held in the Palace of the Louvre, when it became known as Salon or Salon de Paris. In 1737, the exhibitions, held from 18 August 1737 to 5 September 1737 at the Grand Salon of the Louvre and they were held, at first and biennially, in odd-numbered years.
They would start on the feast day of St. Louis, once made regular and public, the Salons status was never seriously in doubt. In 1748 a jury of awarded artists was introduced, from this time forward, the influence of the Salon was undisputed. The Salon exhibited paintings floor-to-ceiling and on every inch of space. The jostling of artwork became the subject of other paintings. Printed catalogues of the Salons are primary documents for art historians, critical descriptions of the exhibitions published in the gazettes mark the beginning of the modern occupation of art critic. The French revolution opened the exhibition to foreign artists, the vernissage of opening night was a grand social occasion, and a crush that gave subject matter to newspaper caricaturists like Honoré Daumier. Charles Baudelaire, Denis Diderot and others wrote reviews of the Salons, the 1848 revolution liberalized the Salon. The amount of refused works was greatly reduced, the increasingly conservative and academic juries were not receptive to the Impressionist painters, whose works were usually rejected, or poorly placed if accepted.
The Salon opposed the Impressionists shift away from traditional painting styles, in 1863 the Salon jury turned away an unusually high number of the submitted paintings. An uproar resulted, particularly from regular exhibitors who had been rejected, in order to prove that the Salons were democratic, Napoleon III instituted the Salon des Refusés, containing a selection of the works that the Salon had rejected that year. It opened on 17 May 1863, marking the birth of the avant-garde, the Impressionists held their own independent exhibitions in 1874,1876,1877,1879,1880,1881,1882 and 1886. In 1881, the government withdrew official sponsorship from the annual Salon, in December 1890, the leader of the Société des Artistes Français, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, propagated the idea that Salon should be an exhibition of young, not-yet awarded, artists
Pedro II of Brazil
Dom Pedro II, nicknamed the Magnanimous, was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years. Born in Rio de Janeiro, he was the child of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil and Empress Dona Maria Leopoldina. His fathers abrupt abdication and departure to Europe in 1831 left a five-year-old Pedro II as Emperor and led to a grim and lonely childhood, obliged to spend his time studying in preparation for rule, he knew only brief moments of happiness and encountered few friends of his age. Inheriting an Empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II turned Portuguese-speaking Brazil into a power in the international arena. Brazil was victorious in three international conflicts under his rule, as well as prevailing in other international disputes. Pedro II steadfastly pushed through the abolition of slavery despite opposition from powerful political, a savant in his own right, the Emperor established a reputation as a vigorous sponsor of learning and the sciences. Pedro II had become weary of emperorship and despaired over the future prospects.
He did not allow his ouster to be opposed and did not support any attempt to restore the monarchy and he spent the last two years of his life in exile in Europe, living alone on very little money. The men who had exiled him soon began to see in him a model for the Brazilian republic, a few decades after his death, his reputation was restored and his remains were returned to Brazil with celebrations nationwide. Historians have regarded the Emperor in a positive light and several have ranked him as the greatest Brazilian. Pedro was born at 02,30 on 2 December 1825 in the Palace of São Cristóvão, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Named after St. Peter of Alcantara, his name in full was Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocádio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga. Through his father, Emperor Dom Pedro I, he was a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza and was referred to using the honorific Dom from birth and he was the grandson of Portuguese King Dom João VI and nephew of Dom Miguel I.
His mother was the Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria, daughter of Franz II, through his mother, Pedro was a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte and first cousin of Emperors Napoleon II of France, Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary and Don Maximiliano I of Mexico. The only legitimate child of Pedro I to survive infancy. Empress Maria Leopoldina died on 11 December 1826, a few days after a stillbirth, Two and a half years later, his father married Amélie of Leuchtenberg. Prince Pedro developed a relationship with her, whom he came to regard as his mother. He and Amélie immediately departed for Europe, leaving behind the Prince Imperial, upon leaving the country, Emperor Pedro I selected three people to take charge of his son and remaining daughters
Realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in part a matter of technique and training. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the depiction of lifeforms, perspective. Realist works of art may emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid, such as works of realism, regionalism. There have been various movements in the arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism. The realism art movement in painting began in France in the 1850s, the realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century. Realism is the precise and accurate representation in art of the appearance of scenes. Realism in this sense is called naturalism, mimesis or illusionism, realistic art was created in many periods, and it is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization.
It becomes especially marked in European painting in the Early Netherlandish painting of Jan van Eyck, however such realism is often used to depict, for example, angels with wings, which were not things the artists had ever seen in real life. It is the choice and treatment of matter that defines Realism as a movement in painting. The development of increasingly accurate representation of the appearances of things has a long history in art. It includes elements such as the depiction of the anatomy of humans and animals, of perspective and effects of distance. Ancient Greek art is recognised as having made great progress in the representation of anatomy. Pliny the Elders famous story of birds pecking at grapes painted by Zeuxis in the 5th century BC may well be a legend, roman portraiture, when not under too much Greek influence, shows a greater commitment to a truthful depiction of its subjects. The art of Late Antiquity famously rejected illusionism for expressive force, scientific methods of representing perspective were developed in Italy and gradually spread across Europe, and accuracy in anatomy rediscovered under the influence of classical art.
As in classical times, idealism remained the norm, having led the development of illusionic painting, still life was to be equally significant in its abandonment in Cubism. The depiction of ordinary, everyday subjects in art has a history, though it was often squeezed into the edges of compositions. However these objects are at least largely there because they carry layers of complex significance, pieter Bruegel the Elder pioneered large panoramic scenes of peasant life
Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet was a French painter who led the Realism movement in 19th-century French painting. Committed to painting only what he could see, he rejected academic convention and his independence set an example that was important to artists, such as the Impressionists and the Cubists. Courbet occupies an important place in 19th-century French painting as an innovator, Courbets paintings of the late 1840s and early 1850s brought him his first recognition. They challenged convention by depicting unidealized peasants and workers, often on a grand scale traditionally reserved for paintings of religious or historical subjects, Courbets subsequent paintings were mostly of a less overtly political character, seascapes, hunting scenes and still lifes. He was imprisoned for six months in 1871 for his involvement with the Paris Commune, Gustave Courbet was born in 1819 to Régis and Sylvie Oudot Courbet in Ornans. Being a prosperous farming family, anti-monarchical feelings prevailed in the household, Courbets sisters, Zoé, Zélie and Juliette, were his first models for drawing and painting.
After moving to Paris he often returned home to Ornans to hunt, fish and he went to Paris in 1839 and worked at the studio of Steuben and Hesse. An independent spirit, he left, preferring to develop his own style by studying the paintings of Spanish and French masters in the Louvre. Among his paintings of the early 1840s are several self-portraits, Romantic in conception, trips to the Netherlands and Belgium in 1846–47 strengthened Courbets belief that painters should portray the life around them, as Rembrandt and other Dutch masters had. By 1848, he had gained supporters among the younger critics, Courbet achieved his first Salon success in 1849 with his painting After Dinner at Ornans. The work, reminiscent of Chardin and Le Nain, earned Courbet a gold medal and was purchased by the state, the gold medal meant that his works would no longer require jury approval for exhibition at the Salon—an exemption Courbet enjoyed until 1857. In 1849-50, Courbet painted Stone-Breakers, which Proudhon admired as an icon of peasant life, the painting was inspired by a scene Courbet witnessed on the roadside.
He explained to Champfleury and the writer Francis Wey, It is not often that one encounters so complete an expression of poverty and so, right then, I told them to come to my studio the next morning. Courbets work belonged neither to the predominant Romantic nor Neoclassical schools, instead, he maintained that the only possible source for living art is the artists own experience. He and Jean-Francois Millet would find inspiration painting the life of peasants, Courbet painted figurative compositions, landscapes and still lifes. He courted controversy by addressing issues in his work, and by painting subjects that were considered vulgar, such as the rural bourgeoisie, peasants. His work, along with that of Honoré Daumier and Jean-François Millet and he depicted the harshness in life, and in so doing challenged contemporary academic ideas of art. The Salon of 1850–1851 found him triumphant with The Stone Breakers, the Burial, one of Courbets most important works, records the funeral of his grand uncle which he attended in September 1848