Antonio Brack Egg
Antonio José Brack Egg was an agronomist engineer, an ecologist, researcher. He was the first Peruvian Minister of the Environment, he is a national and international authority on issues pertaining to biological diversity and biocommercial development. He died after a brief hospitalization in 2014. Brack's Andes frog, a tiny frog occurring in the Yanachaga–Chemillén National Park that Brack help to establish, is named in his honor. El ambiente en que vivimos Desarrollo sostenido de la selva: un manual técnico para promotores y extensionistas Perú La sierra del Perú: pobreza y posibilidades Amazonía: desarrollo y sustentabilidad Gran geografía del Perú: naturaleza y hombre Kuntursuyu: el territorio del condor Uturunkusuyo: el territorio del jaguar Pobreza y manejo adecuado de los recursos en la Amazonía peruana: respuesta Amazonía peruana comunidades indígenas, conocimientos y tierras tituladas: atlas y base de datos Dinámicas territoriales: afirmación de las ciudades intermedias y surgimiento de los espacios locales Diccionario enciclopédico de las plantas útiles del Perú Biodiversidad y ambiente en el Perú El medio ambiente en el Perú Ecología del Perú Perú maravilloso Legado del Perú andino Perú: diez mil años de domesticación - plantas y animales domésticados - láminas didácticas Perú: diez mil años de domesticación Perú: País de bosques Media related to Antonio Brack at Wikimedia Commons
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. International treaties are negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. David Stevenson reports that by 1900 the term "diplomats" covered diplomatic services, consular services and foreign ministry officials; some of the earliest known diplomatic records are the Amarna letters written between the pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt and the Amurru rulers of Canaan during the 14th century BC. Following the in c. 1274 BC during the Nineteenth dynasty, the pharaoh of Egypt and the ruler of the Hittite Empire created one of the first known international peace treaties which survives in stone tablet fragments, now called the Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty. Relations with the government of the Ottoman Empire were important to Italian states.
The maritime republics of Genoa and Venice depended less and less upon their nautical capabilities, more and more upon the perpetuation of good relations with the Ottomans. Interactions between various merchants and clergy men hailing from the Italian and Ottoman empires helped inaugurate and create new forms of diplomacy and statecraft; the primary purpose of a diplomat, a negotiator, evolved into a persona that represented an autonomous state in all aspects of political affairs. It became evident that all other sovereigns felt the need to accommodate themselves diplomatically, due to the emergence of the powerful political environment of the Ottoman Empire. One could come to the conclusion that the atmosphere of diplomacy within the early modern period revolved around a foundation of conformity to Ottoman culture. One of the earliest realists in international relations theory was the 6th century BC military strategist Sun Tzu, author of The Art of War, he lived during a time in which rival states were starting to pay less attention to traditional respects of tutelage to the Zhou Dynasty figurehead monarchs while each vied for power and total conquest.
However, a great deal of diplomacy in establishing allies, bartering land, signing peace treaties was necessary for each warring state, the idealized role of the "persuader/diplomat" developed. From the Battle of Baideng to the Battle of Mayi, the Han Dynasty was forced to uphold a marriage alliance and pay an exorbitant amount of tribute to the powerful northern nomadic Xiongnu, consolidated by Modu Shanyu. After the Xiongnu sent word to Emperor Wen of Han that they controlled areas stretching from Manchuria to the Tarim Basin oasis city-states, a treaty was drafted in 162 BC proclaiming that everything north of the Great Wall belong to nomads' lands, while everything south of it would be reserved for Han Chinese; the treaty was renewed no less than nine times, but did not restrain some Xiongnu tuqi from raiding Han borders. That was until the far-flung campaigns of Emperor Wu of Han which shattered the unity of the Xiongnu and allowed Han to conquer the Western Regions; the Koreans and Japanese during the Chinese Tang Dynasty looked to the Chinese capital of Chang'an as the hub of civilization and emulated its central bureaucracy as the model of governance.
The Japanese sent frequent embassies to China in this period, although they halted these trips in 894 when the Tang seemed on the brink of collapse. After the devastating An Shi Rebellion from 755 to 763, the Tang Dynasty was in no position to reconquer Central Asia and the Tarim Basin. After several conflicts with the Tibetan Empire spanning several different decades, the Tang made a truce and signed a peace treaty with them in 841. In the 11th century during the Song Dynasty, there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo and Su Song who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the hostile Khitan neighbor to the north. Both diplomats secured the rightful borders of the Song Dynasty through knowledge of cartography and dredging up old court archives. There was a triad of warfare and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty to the northwest of Song China. After warring with the Lý Dynasty of Vietnam from 1075 to 1077, Song and Lý made a peace agreement in 1082 to exchange the respective lands they had captured from each other during the war.
Long before the Tang and Song dynasties, the Chinese had sent envoys into Central Asia and Persia, starting with Zhang Qian in the 2nd century BC. Another notable event in Chinese diplomacy was the Chinese embassy mission of Zhou Daguan to the Khmer Empire of Cambodia in the 13th century. Chinese diplomacy was a necessity in the distinctive period of Chinese exploration. Since the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese became invested in sending diplomatic envoys abroad on maritime missions into the Indian Ocean, to India, Arabia, East Africa, Egypt. Chinese maritime activity was increased during the commercialized period of the Song Dynasty, with new nautical technologies, many more private ship owners, an increasing amount of economic investors in overseas ventures. During the Mongol Empire the Mongols created something similar to today's diplomatic passport called paiza; the paiza were in three different types (
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations. The main functions of diplomats are: representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state. Seasoned diplomats of international repute are used in international organizations as well as multinational companies for their experience in management and negotiating skills. Diplomats are diplomatic corps of various nations of the world. Diplomats are the oldest form of any of the foreign policy institutions of the state, predating by centuries foreign ministers and ministerial offices, they have diplomatic immunity. The regular use of permanent diplomatic representation began between the states of fifteenth century Italy; however the terms ‘diplomacy’ and ‘diplomat’ appeared in the French Revolution. Diplomat is derived from the Greek διπλωμάτης, the holder of a diploma, referring to diplomats' documents of accreditation from their sovereign. Diplomats themselves and historians refer to the foreign ministry by its address: the Ballhausplatz, the Quai d’Orsay, the Wilhelmstraße.
For imperial Russia to 1917 it was the Choristers’ Bridge. The Italian ministry was called "the Consulta." Though any person can be appointed by the state's national government to conduct said state's relations with other states or international organisations, a number of states maintain an institutionalised group of career diplomats—that is, public servants with a steady professional connection to the country's foreign ministry. The term career diplomat is used worldwide in opposition to political appointees. While posted to an embassy or delegation in a foreign country or accredited to an international organisation, both career diplomats and political appointees enjoy the same diplomatic immunities. Ceremonial heads of state act as diplomats on behalf of their nation following instructions from their head of Government. Whether being a career diplomat or a political appointee, every diplomat, while posted abroad, will be classified in one of the ranks of diplomats as regulated by international law.
Diplomats can be contrasted with consuls and attachés, who represent their state in a number of administrative ways, but who don't have the diplomat's political functions. Diplomats in posts collect and report information that could affect national interests with advice about how the home-country government should respond. Once any policy response has been decided in the home country's capital, posts bear major responsibility for implementing it. Diplomats have the job of conveying, in the most persuasive way possible, the views of the home government to the governments to which they are accredited and, in doing so, of trying to convince those governments to act in ways that suit home-country interests. In this way, diplomats are part of the beginning and the end of each loop in the continuous process through which foreign policy develops. In general, it has become harder for diplomats to act autonomously. Diplomats have to seize secure communication systems and mobile telephones can be tracked down and instruct the most reclusive head of mission.
The same technology in reverse gives diplomats the capacity for more immediate input about the policy-making processes in the home capital. Secure email has transformed the contact between the ministry, it is less to leak, enables more personal contact than the formal cablegram, with its wide distribution and impersonal style. The home country will send instructions to a diplomatic post on what foreign policy goals to pursue, but decisions on tactics – who needs to be influenced, what will best persuade them, who are potential allies and adversaries, how it can be done - are for the diplomats overseas to make. In this operation, the intelligence, cultural understanding, energy of individual diplomats become critical. If competent, they will have developed relationships grounded in trust and mutual understanding with influential members of the country in which they are accredited, they will have worked hard to understand the motives, thought patterns and culture of the other side. The diplomat should be an excellent negotiator but, above all, a catalyst for peace and understanding between peoples.
The diplomat's principal role is to foster peaceful relations between states. This role takes on heightened importance. Negotiation must continue – but within altered contexts. Most career diplomats have university degrees in international relations, political science, economics, or law. Diplomats have been considered members of an exclusive and prestigious profession; the public image of diplomats has been described as "a caricature of pinstriped men gliding their way around a never-ending global cocktail party". J. W. Burton has noted that "despite the absence of any specific professional training, diplomacy has a high professional status, due to a degree of secrecy and mystery that its practitioners self-consciously promote." The state supports the high status and self-esteem of its diplomats in order to
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Peru)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Peru is the statal entity of the Executive in charge of prepare and execute the foreign politics of the Peruvian State. It works in coordination with Peruvian ambassadors and consuls with accrediting in different countries and with international organizations. In the same way, it coordinates, attends to and treats with accrediting embassies before the Peruvian State in Lima, with foreign consulates accrediting in different cities of the country and with international organizations that have seat or representatives in Lima; the present minister is Néstor Popolizio Bardales. Official Website
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas, behind São Paulo and Mexico City. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time, it became most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World; the National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city. Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, it hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest. According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants; however before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq. This oracle was destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit; the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; the river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River". However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas; this name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. As the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed.
Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They assume that the valley is named after the river; the Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is embroidered in the center is its coat of arms. Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, other authorities; the anthem was created by Euding Maeshiro and record producer Ricardo Núñez. In the pre-Columbian era, what is now Lima was inhabited by indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire; as the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes.
In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings. In 1746, another p
Colegio de la Inmaculada (Lima)
Colegio de la Inmaculada is a Catholic school for primary and secondary education run by the Jesuits in Lima, since 1878. It finds its roots in a school called Real Colegio de San Martin, founded by the Society of Jesus in 1582; this school has its roots in the former Royal College of San Martin, created by the Society of Jesus in Lima in 1582, aimed at students between the ages of 12 and 24. Grammar and theology were taught, it finds its origin in the Colegio del Príncipe for children of Curacas who worked in the Enclosed Reduction. During that period, the Jesuits were responsible for various educational institutions, which included the Maximum College of San Pablo de Lima, the Prince's College, 15 schools in other cities of the Viceroyalty of Peru. After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Peru decreed by the King Carlos III of Spain, the school continued to function until 1770, when it was merged into the College of San Felipe and San Marcos, giving way to the Convictory of San Carlos and disappearing after 188 years of operation.
The Society of Jesus was restored by Pope Pius VII in 1814. With Peru’s independence, the Jesuits returned to the country after 104 years of absence and Inmaculada College began to function at the old Colegio Máximo de San Pablo de Lima in 1878. Classes began on April 8, next to the Church of San Pedro de Lima on Cascarilla Street, by the Public Library of Lima on Abancay Avenue. Historian Armando Nieto, S. J. indicates that the opening of a Jesuit school in Peru generated different reactions, both favorable and critical. Thus, in 1878, the newspaper El Nacional had on its editorial page a paragraph on the Society of Jesus and its members:Exploiters of human conscience, dark enemies of all advancement, Jewish exploiters of all rights who pervert the morals and intelligence of the people, angrily lifting the force of their crimes that have mocked religion to cover their wickedness. Spurred on by such defamation, in 1886 the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate approved the expulsion of the Jesuits and ordered their eviction from the premises of San Pedro.
This caused the closing of classes until 1888 when the president refused to approve this law of Congress. The College was reopened and in the meantime was moving to various premises, including a house on Corcovado Street, until the Jesuits acquired the land of the French "Tivolí" Garden, located on La Colmena Avenue. In the year 1901 the blessing of the first stone took place at the new premises at La Colmena Avenue and in 1902 the move began. Next to the school the construction of St. Turibius of Mogrovejo Church began. At that time, unlike today, school covered 9 years: lowest and upper high and secondary. By 1913 the church construction was completed and in 1920 the main façade of the school was finished. Meanwhile, in the school different cultural and religious initiatives arose, such as the Berchmans Scout Troop, Alumni Association, Academy of Science and Geography, traditions like the festival of St. Aloysius Gonzaga. Sports were contested with Colegio Nacional de Guadalupe, Colegio Sagrados Corazones Recoleta, with Colegio San Agustín and Santa María, among others.
When the children's section arose in 1950 the Servants of St. Joseph were put in charge of it. During these years enrollment grew from 182 students to more than 1,000; the school began construction of larger premises in Monterrico, with the first stone laid in 1953. On 24 May 1940, an earthquake struck that affected several areas of Lima. Due to this, the School of Agriculture met for a time at La Colmena. In 1956, the infant school was inaugurated on a plot of 32 hectares in Monterrico; the secondary section, at La Colmena for 65 years, moved only in 1967 to. With a 1968 initiative a free afternoon shift was added, from which three groups graduated, in 1974, 1975, 1976. In 1974 the Servants of St. Joseph left the children's school, celebrating twenty-four years of recognized labor. During the following decades a coliseum and labs for science and languages were built, the school infrastructure has seen continual improvements; the school celebrated its centenary in 1978 with various events, attended by the President of the Republic General Francisco Morales Bermúdez, an alumnus of the school.
He bestowed on the school the Order of the Sun of Peru. The same year the current school theater was inaugurated. In the year 2003, the school celebrated 125 years since its founding, through religious ceremonies, special dinners, other activities. A special logo was designed as an emblem of the celebration; the Congress of the Republic of Peru acknowledged the school’s important collaboration in the development of Peruvian education. Events were led by Presiding Officer of the Congress. Colegio de la Inmaculada has extensive athletic facilities, which allows the development of various disciplines in the students with help from teachers and coaches, that employs: In the sports field, the school has won various competitions, the most important being the general cup of ADECORE, it has led with 18 ADECORE Olympic Championships. It has won the Magic Cable Playoff Cup in various categories: Medians 2006 and 2007, Mayores 2007, Infantil 2010, which includes the winning schools of the various sports organization
Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez is a Peruvian politician who served as President of Peru from 1985 to 1990 and again from 2006 to 2011. He was the leader of the Peruvian Aprista Party and the only party member to have served as President, he was the second member of the party to be elected president after the founder of the party. His first term was marked by social unrest and violence, he ran unsuccessfully for the Presidency in 2001. He ran again in 2006 and was elected to a second term though his first term in the 1980s was considered by many to have been disastrous. During García's second term, due to the increase in metal prices, Peru averaged seven percent GDP growth a year, held inflation below three percent annually and collated Peru's foreign exchange reserves at US$47 billion. Born in the American Clinic of the Barranco District into a middle-class family, García met his father for the first time when he was 5 years old, due to his father's imprisonment for being a member of the Peruvian Aprista Party.
His mother founded the party's base in the Camaná Province of the Arequipa Region. Since young, he accompanied his father in party meetings and began acquainted with future leaders of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance, such as Luis Alva Castro and Mercedes Cabanillas. At the age of 14, he was an immensely talented orator when he first gave a speech in honor of patriarch Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, who he admired and followed until his death. García studied law, first at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, earned his law degree at the National University of San Marcos in 1971. A year he left Peru for Spain, where he studied for a PhD. in law, for years Alan Garcia claimed to have earned a PhD, however in 2014, documents from the university proved he never finished his PhD. In 1974, he travelled to France with other members of the APRA to study at the prestigious University of Paris I. After earning a degree in sociology, he was called by Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre to come back to Peru in order to run for the Constituent Assembly election in 1978.
García was elected for public office as Member of the Assembly, impressing his colleagues with his oratory and skillful rhetoric. As Secretary of Organization of the APRA, he was assigned to conduct the party's public affairs during the wake of Haya de la Torre's death. From his first marriage, he has one daughter, active in Peruvian politics. From his current wife Pilar Nores, with whom he separated from in 2010, Garcia has four children, he has another child from an extramarital affair with a woman named Roxanne Cheesman. Recognized as a young leader with a bright future for the country, he was elected Member of Congress in 1980. Two years he was elected General Secretary of the Peruvian Aprista Party, the highest position achieved by a member of the party, he was elected as presidential nominee for the 1985 general elections. Alan García won the presidential election on April 1985 with 45 % of the votes. Since he did not receive the 50% of the votes required to win the presidency, García had to enter a run-off against Alfonso Barrantes of the United Left party.
Barrantes, however and decided not to enter the run-off, saying he did not want to prolong the political uncertainty of the country. García was thus declared President on 1 June and took power on 28 July 1985. For the first time in its sixty-year history, the APRA party came to power in Peru. Aged 36, García was dubbed "Latin America's Kennedy", becoming the region's youngest president at the time, the second youngest president in Peruvian history. Despite his initial popularity among Peruvian voters, García's term in office was marked by bouts of hyperinflation, which reached 7,649% in 1990 and had a cumulative total of 2,200,200% over the five years, thereby profoundly destabilising the Peruvian economy. Owing to such chronic inflation, the Peruvian currency, the sol, was replaced by the Inti in mid-1985, which itself was replaced by the nuevo sol in July 1991, at which time the new sol had a cumulative value of one billion old soles. During García's administration, the per capita annual income of Peruvians fell to $720 and Peru's GDP dropped 20%.
By the end of his term, national reserves were negative $900 million. According to studies of the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics and the United Nations Development Programme, around the start of his presidency, 41.6% of Peruvians lived in poverty. During his presidency, this percentage increased by 13% in 1991. García made an attempt to nationalise the banking and insurance industries; the International Monetary Fund and the financial community retracted after the presidency unilaterally declared a limit on debt repayment equal to 10% of the Gross National Product, thereby isolating Peru from the international financial markets. The economic turbulence exacerbated social tensions in Peru and contributed in part to the rise of the violent rebel movement known as the Shining Path, which launched the internal conflict in Peru and began attacking electrical towers, causing a number of blackouts in Lima; the García administration unsuccessfully sought a military solution to the growing terrorism committing human rights violations, which are still under investigation.
These include the Accomarca ma