Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago. The island lies 11 km off the northeastern coast of Venezuela and sits on the continental shelf of South America. Though geographically part of the South American continent, from a socio-economic standpoint it is referred to as the southernmost island in the Caribbean. With an area of 4,768 km2, it is the fifth largest in the West Indies; the original name for the island in the Arawaks' language was Iëre which meant "Land of the Hummingbird". Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad", fulfilling a vow he had made before setting out on his third voyage; this has since been shortened to Trinidad. Caribs and Arawaks lived in Trinidad long before Christopher Columbus encountered the islands on his third voyage on 31 July 1498; the island remained Spanish until 1797, but it was settled by French colonists from the French Caribbean Martinique. In 1889 the two islands became a single British Crown colony.
Trinidad and Tobago obtained self-governance in 1958 and independence from the United Kingdom in 1962. Major landforms include the hills of the Northern and Southern Ranges, the Caroni and Oropouche Swamps, the Caroni and Naparima Plains. Major river systems include the Caroni and South Oropouche and Ortoire Rivers. There are many other natural landforms such as waterfalls. Trinidad has two seasons per calendar year: the dry season. El Cerro del Aripo, at 940 metres, is the highest point in Trinidad, it is part of the Aripo Massif and is located in the Northern Range on the island, northeast of the town of Arima. The demographics of Trinidad and Tobago reflect the diversity of this southern-most country in the West Indies, it is sometimes known as a "rainbow island" or more fondly "a callaloo". There is a wide range of ethnicity and culture; the variety of denominations has followed this pattern for decades: Protestant 32.1%, Roman Catholic 21.6%, Hindu 18.2%, Muslim 5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.5%, other 8.4%, none 2.2%, unspecified 11.1%.
Religion in Trinidad and Tobago consists of a diverse array of denominations including Roman Catholic, other Christian denominations and Muslim faiths. There are a minority of people who are followers of Traditional African religions, Afro-American religions, Amerindian religions, Sikhism, Chinese folk religion and Bahá'í. Catholicism constitutes the largest religious denomination of the country; as of the 2011 Trinidad and Tobago Census, the population was 35.43% East Indian, 34.22% African, 7.66% Mixed – African and East Indian, 15.16% Mixed – Other. Venezuela has had a great impact on Trinidad's culture, such as introducing the music style parang to the island. Many groups overlap. For example, a "Dougla" is a person of African and East Indian descent who may identify as being part of either group. There are multiple festivals featuring the music of the Caribbean and the steelpan, which originated in Trinidad and is the country's national instrument; these festivals include the world-renowned Carnival, J'ouvert, Panorama, the national steel pan competition.
Trinidad has many public holidays, such as Indian Arrival Day, Emancipation Day, Independence Day, Republic Day, Labour Day, Boxing Day, New Year's Day, Phagwah, Eid al-Fitr, Corpus Christi, Good Friday, Easter Monday and Spiritual Baptist/Shouter Liberation Day. There are places that can be visited that hold cultural significance, such as Mount Saint Benedict and the Temple in the Sea. Further information: Natural history of Trinidad and Tobago The island of Trinidad has a rich biodiversity; the fauna is overwhelmingly of South American origin. There are about 100 species of mammals including the Guyanan red howler monkey, the collared peccary, the red brocket deer, the ocelot and about 70 species of bats. There are over 400 species of birds including the endemic Trinidad piping-guan. Reptiles are well represented, with about 92 recorded species including the largest species of snake in the world, the green anaconda, the spectacled caiman, one of the largest lizards in the Americas, the green iguana.
The largest of turtles nests on Trinidad's northern beaches. There are 37 recorded frog species, including the tiny El Tucuche golden tree frog, the more widespread huge cane toad. About 43 species of freshwater fishes are known including the well known guppy, it is estimated that there are at least 80,000 arthropods, at least 600 species of butterflies. The economy of Trinidad and Tobago is diversified, based to a large extent on oil, natural gas and agriculture, it is one of the leading gas-based export centres in the world, being the leading exporter of ammonia and methanol and among the top five exporters of liquefied natural gas. This has allowed Trinidad to capitalise on the biggest mineral reserves within its territories, it is an oil-rich country and stable economically. The Venezuela Tertiary Basin is a subsidence basin formed between the Caribbean and South American plates, is bounded on the north by the coast ranges of Venezuela and the Northern Range of Trinidad, bounded on the south by the Guayana Shield.
This Guayana shield supplied fine-grained clastic sediments, which with the subsidence, formed a regional negative gravity anomaly and growth faults. Oil and g
Pleyel et Cie
Pleyel et Cie was a French piano manufacturing firm founded by the composer Ignace Pleyel in 1807. In 1815, Pleyel's son Camille joined him as a business partner; the firm provided pianos to Frédéric Chopin, ran a concert hall, the Salle Pleyel, where Chopin performed his first – and last – Paris concerts. Pleyel's major contribution to piano development was the first use of a metal frame in a piano. Pleyel pianos were the choice of composers such as Debussy, Saint-Saëns, Ravel, de Falla and Stravinsky and of pianists and teachers Alfred Cortot, Philip Manuel and Gavin Williamson. Pleyel pioneered the player piano with the Pleyela line of pianos; these were very small pianos of a unusual design. Around 1815, Pleyel was the first to introduce the short, vertically strung cottage upright piano, or "pianino" to France, adapting the design made popular in Britain by Robert Wornum, their pianos were such a success that in 1834 the company employed 250 workers and produced 1000 pianos annually. The company's success led them to invest in experiments, resulting in the Double Piano in 1890, invented by Hungarian composer Emanuel Moor.
Although not the first company to experiment with building two pianos into the same frame, Pleyel's instrument, patented as the "Duo-Clave", was by far the most successful and produced the largest instruments. The company manufactured a small number of Double Pianos in the 1890s and continued to make them until the 1920s. CDs can be bought today of performances on some of these pianos. In 1913, Pleyel built the "Jungle Piano" for use by Albert Schweitzer in his hospital in Lambaréné, it was fitted with pedal attachments and built with tropical woods that would acclimate to conditions there. Toward the end of the 19th century, the Pleyel firm produced the first chromatic harp. In the early 20th century, at the behest of Wanda Landowska, it helped to revive the harpsichord. Pleyel continued to manufacture pianos through 2013, under the corporate auspices of the Manufacture Française de Pianos company. In the 1980s, the Pleyel company bought out the Erard and Gaveau piano companies which manufactured pianos in France.
The Pleyel pianos of today incorporated improvements of these others. In the last two decades, Pleyel Piano was bought by the same family which had bought the Salle Pleyel concert hall in order to revive the name and quality of Pleyel pianos, they built a new factory in the south of France and started making a line of newly designed and improved pianos. In 2008, they decided to downsize the factory and lines of pianos, they moved the factory back to Paris and opened a new factory where they began introducing new pianos designed by famous designers. The red spruce used by Pleyel comes from the Fiemme Valley in Italy. After full assembly of a piano, the instrument receives a further 30–40 hours of fine-tuning; the company announced it would cease manufacturing pianos in France at the end of 2013. In 2006, Hong Kong singer Edmond Leung performed in his concert on one of the world's only two Pleyel pianos made for Chopin, along with 6 other pianos, ranging from 1844 to more contemporary pianos. Another one of, a newer version of a Pleyel piano.
Official Pleyel pianos website Pleyel of Paris newsletter Salle Pleyel, a Paris concert hall built in the late 1920s A web site on Pleyel pianos by Stephen Birkett of the University of Waterloo. Pleyel, pp. 923–924 Pictures of several Pleyel pianos History of Pleyel and their pianos with many pictures and details Rachel Donadio, "Storied French Piano Manufacturer to Close". New York Times "ArtsBeat" blog, 14 November 2013 Pleyel Pianos - The Piano in Polish Collections Chopin's last piano
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Humour spelt as humor, is the tendency of experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement. The term derives from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks, which taught that the balance of fluids in the human body, known as humours, controlled human health and emotion. People of all ages and cultures respond to humour. Most people are able to experience humour—be amused, smile or laugh at something funny—and thus are considered to have a sense of humour; the hypothetical person lacking a sense of humour would find the behaviour inducing it to be inexplicable, strange, or irrational. Though decided by personal taste, the extent to which a person finds something humorous depends on a host of variables, including geographical location, maturity, level of education and context. For example, young children may favour slapstick such as Punch and Judy puppet shows or the Tom and Jerry cartoons, whose physical nature makes it accessible to them. By contrast, more sophisticated forms of humour such as satire require an understanding of its social meaning and context, thus tend to appeal to a more mature audience.
Many theories exist what social function it serves. The prevailing types of theories attempting to account for the existence of humour include psychological theories, the vast majority of which consider humour-induced behaviour to be healthy; the benign-violation theory, endorsed by Peter McGraw, attempts to explain humour's existence. The theory says'humour only occurs when something seems wrong, unsettling, or threatening, but seems okay, acceptable or safe'. Humour can be used as a method to engage in social interaction by taking away that awkward, uncomfortable, or uneasy feeling of social interactions. Others believe that'the appropriate use of humour can facilitate social interactions'; some claim. Author E. B. White once said, "Humor can be dissected as a frog can, but the thing dies in the process and the innards are discouraging to any but the pure scientific mind." Counter to this argument, protests against "offensive" cartoons invite the dissection of humour or its lack by aggrieved individuals and communities.
This process of dissecting humour does not banish a sense of humour but begs attention towards its politics and assumed universality. Arthur Schopenhauer lamented the misuse of humour to mean any type of comedy. However, both humour and comic are used when theorising about the subject; the connotations of humour as opposed to comic are said to be that of response versus stimulus. Additionally, humour was thought to include a combination of ridiculousness and wit in an individual; the French were slow to adopt the term humour. Non-satirical humour can be termed droll humour or recreational drollery; as with any art form, the acceptance of a particular style or incidence of humour depends on sociological factors and varies from person to person. Throughout history, comedy has been used as a form of entertainment all over the world, whether in the courts of the Western kings or the villages of the Far East. Both a social etiquette and a certain intelligence can be displayed through forms of wit and sarcasm.
Eighteenth-century German author Georg Lichtenberg said that "the more you know humour, the more you become demanding in fineness." Western humour theory begins with Plato, who attributed to Socrates in the Philebus the view that the essence of the ridiculous is an ignorance in the weak, who are thus unable to retaliate when ridiculed. In Greek philosophy, Aristotle, in the Poetics, suggested that an ugliness that does not disgust is fundamental to humour. In ancient Sanskrit drama, Bharata Muni's Natya Shastra defined humour as one of the nine nava rasas, or principle rasas, which can be inspired in the audience by bhavas, the imitations of emotions that the actors perform; each rasa was associated with a specific bhavas portrayed on stage. The terms comedy and satire became synonymous after Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers such as Abu Bischr, his pupil Al-Farabi, Persian Avicenna, Averroes.
Due to cultural differences, they disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation, instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija. They viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension" and made no reference to light and cheerful events or troublesome beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term comedy thus gained a new semantic meaning in Medieval literature. Mento star Lord Flea, stated in a 1957 interview that he thought that: "West Indians have the best sense of humour in the world. In the most solemn song, like Las Kean Fine, which tells of a boiler explosion on a sugar plantation that killed several of the workers, their natural wit and humour shine though." Confucianist Neo-Confucian orthodoxy, with its emphasis on ritual and propriety, has traditionally looked down upon hu
Wanda Aleksandra Landowska was a Polish-French harpsichordist whose performances, teaching and writings played a large role in reviving the popularity of the harpsichord in the early 20th century. She was the first person to record Johann Sebastian Bach's Goldberg Variations on the harpsichord, she became a naturalized French citizen in 1938. Landowska was born in Warsaw to Jewish parents, her father was a lawyer, her mother a linguist who translated Mark Twain into Polish. She began playing piano at the age of four, studied at the Warsaw Conservatory with the senior Jan Kleczyński and Aleksander Michałowski, she studied composition under Heinrich Urban in Berlin, had lessons in Paris with Moritz Moszkowski. After marrying Polish folklorist Henry Lew in 1900 in Paris, she taught piano at the Schola Cantorum there, she taught harpsichord at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik. Interested in musicology, in the works of Bach and Rameau, she toured the museums of Europe looking at original keyboard instruments.
These were large built harpsichords with a 16-foot stop and owed much to piano construction. Responding to criticism by fellow Bach specialist Pablo Casals, she once said: "You play Bach your way, I'll play him'his' way." A number of important new works were written for her: Manuel de Falla's El retablo de maese Pedro marked the return of the harpsichord to the modern orchestra. Falla wrote a harpsichord concerto for her, Francis Poulenc composed his Concert champêtre for her, she taught at the Curtis Institute of Music from 1925-28. She established the École de Musique Ancienne at Paris in 1925: from 1927, her home in Saint-Leu-la-Forêt became a center for the performance and study of old music. During this time Landowska frequented the salon of open lesbian Natalie Clifford Barney, to both socialize and perform; when the German Army invaded France, Landowska fled with her student and domestic partner Denise Restout. After leaving Saint-Leu in 1940, sojourning in Banyuls-sur-Mer, a commune in southern France, where her friend, sculptor Aristide Maillol was living, they sailed from Lisbon to the United States.
Believing the Nazi threat to be temporary she had left with only two suitcases. She arrived in New York on 7 December 1941, the date of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, her home in Saint-Leu was looted, her instruments and manuscripts were stolen, so she arrived in the United States with no assets. Her 1942 performance of Bach's "Goldberg Variations" at New York's Town Hall was the first occasion in the 20th century where the piece was played on the harpsichord, the instrument for which it had been written, she settled in Lakeville, Connecticut in 1949, re-established herself as a performer and teacher in the United States, touring extensively. Her last public performance was in 1954, her partner, Denise Restout, was editor and translator of her writings on music, including Musique ancienne, Landowska on Music, published posthumously in 1964. Landowska recorded extensively for the Victor Talking Machine Company/RCA Victor and The Gramophone Company/EMI, she died in Lakeville, Connecticut on 16 August 1959, aged 80.
A Camera Three series program, a dramatization of some writings of Landowska as read by actress Agnes Moorehead, entitled Reminiscences of Wanda Landowska aired 17 March 1963 on CBS. "Almost needless to say, the playing is full of individual ideas. She was no respecter of text and there are little repeats here and there which are no more indicated than they are necessary, yet such matters seem something of an irrelevance, since they only reflect an attitude of the time adopted by a celebrated pioneer of the harpsichord revival in the twentieth century. No, what charms me in Landowska's recital is her affecting poetic insight into Scarlatti's music. "She always played the music'as written' with the result that a series of fast notes did not sound like'bundles of them' but like a sewing machine. Thanks to her wide influence this blight can be heard in her pupils to this day." Contemporary harpsichord Smith, Patricia Juliana Landowska profile, GLBTQ.com "Wanda Landowska biography", Naxos.com The Interpretation of Bach's Works by Wanda Landowska Wanda Landowska's commentaries to Bach's The Well Tempered Clavier Camera Three: Reminiscences of Wanda Landowska on YouTube Website of Amsterdam Publishers of the correspondence between Wanda Landowska and Manuel de Falla by the Dutch musicologist Loes Dommering-van Rongen.
The correspondence covers the years between 1922 and 1931, amsterdampublishers.com
Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways founded as Pan American Airways and known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier and unofficial flag carrier of the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991. It was founded in 1927 as a scheduled air mail and passenger service operating between Key West and Havana, Cuba; the airline is credited for many innovations that shaped the international airline industry, including the widespread use of jet aircraft, jumbo jets, computerized reservation systems. It was a founding member of the International Air Transport Association, the global airline industry association. Identified by its blue globe logo, the use of the word "Clipper" in its aircraft names and call signs, the white uniform caps of its pilots, the airline was a cultural icon of the 20th century. In an era dominated by flag carriers that were wholly or majority government-owned, it was the unofficial overseas flag carrier of the United States. During most of the jet era, Pan Am's flagship terminal was the Worldport located at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City.
Pan American Airways, Incorporated was founded as a shell company on March 14, 1927 by Air Corps Majors Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, Carl A. Spaatz, John H. Jouett as a counterbalance to the German-owned Colombian carrier SCADTA, operating in Colombia since 1920. SCADTA lobbied hard for landing rights in the Panama Canal Zone, ostensibly to survey air routes for a connection to the United States, which the Air Corps viewed as a precursor to a possible German aerial threat to the canal. Arnold and Spaatz drew up the prospectus for Pan American when SCADTA hired a company in Delaware to obtain air mail contracts from the U. S. government. Pan American was able to obtain the U. S. mail delivery contract to Cuba, but lacked any aircraft to perform the job and did not have landing rights in Cuba. Juan Trippe formed the Aviation Corporation of the Americas on June 2, 1927, with the backing of powerful and politically connected financiers who included Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney and W. Averell Harriman, raised $250,000 in startup capital from the sale of stock.
Their operation had the all-important landing rights for Havana, having acquired American International Airways, a small airline established in 1926 by John K. Montgomery and Richard B. Bevier as a seaplane service from Key West, Florida, to Havana. ACA met its deadline of having an air mail service operating by October 19, 1927 by chartering a Fairchild FC-2 floatplane from a small Dominican Republic carrier, West Indian Aerial Express; the Atlantic and Caribbean Airways company was established on October 11, 1927 by New York City investment banker Richard Hoyt, who served as president. This company merged with PAA and ACA on June 23, 1928. Richard Hoyt was named as president of the new Aviation Corporation of the Americas, but Trippe and his partners held 40% of the equity and Whitney was made president. Trippe became operational head of Pan American Airways, the new company's principal operating subsidiary; the U. S. government approved the original Pan Am's mail delivery contract with little objection, out of fears that SCADTA would have no competition in bidding for routes between Latin America and the United States.
The government further helped Pan Am by insulating it from its U. S. competitors, seeing the airline as the "chosen instrument" for U. S.-based international air routes. The airline expanded internationally. Trippe and his associates planned to extend Pan Am's network through all of Central and South America. During the late 1920s and early 1930s, Pan Am purchased a number of ailing or defunct airlines in Central and South America and negotiated with postal officials to win most of the government's airmail contracts to the region. In September 1929 Trippe toured Latin America with Charles Lindbergh to negotiate landing rights in a number of countries, including Barranquilla on SCADTA's home turf of Colombia and Caracas. By the end of the year, Pan Am offered flights along the west coast of South America to Peru; the following year, Pan Am purchased the New York and Buenos Aires Line, giving it a seaplane route along the east coast of South America to Buenos Aires and westbound to Santiago, Chile.
Its Brazilian subsidiary NYRBA do Brasil was renamed as Panair do Brasil. Pan Am partnered with Grace Shipping Company in 1929 to form Pan American-Grace Airways, better known as Panagra, to gain a foothold to destinations in South America. In the same year, Pan Am acquired a controlling stake in Mexicana de Aviación and took over Mexicana's Ford Trimotor route between Brownsville and Mexico City, extending this service to the Yucatan Peninsula to connect with Pan Am's Caribbean route network. Pan Am's holding company, the Aviation Corporation of the Americas, was one of the most sought after stocks on the New York Curb Exchange in 1929, flurries of speculation surrounded each of its new route awards. In April 1929 Trippe and his associates reached an agreement with United Aircraft and Transport Corporation to segregate Pan Am operations to south of the Mexico – United States border, in exchange for UATC taking a large shareholder stake; the Aviation Corporation of the Americas changed its name to Pan American Airways Corporation in 1931.
Critical to Pan Am's success as an airline was the proficiency of its flight crews, who were rigorously trained in long-distance flight, seaplane anchorage and berthing operations, over-water navigation, radio procedure, aircraft repair, marine tides. During the day, use of the compass while j
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center is a non-profit, tertiary 958-bed hospital and multi-specialty academic health science center located in the Beverly Grove neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. Part of the Cedars-Sinai Health System, the hospital employs a staff of over 2,000 physicians and 10,000 employees. A team of 2,000 volunteers and more than 40 community groups support. Cedars-Sinai focuses on biomedical research and technologically advanced medical education—based on an interdisciplinary collaboration between physicians and clinical researchers; the facility has research centers covering cardiovascular, gene therapy, neuroscience, surgery, organ transplantation, stem cells, biomedical imaging and cancer—with more than 800 research projects underway. Certified as a level I trauma center for adults and pediatrics, Cedars-Sinai trauma-related services range from prevention to rehabilitation and are provided in concert with the hospital's Department of Surgery. Cedars-Sinai is affiliated with the California Heart Center, University of Southern California and David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles.
As of 2017, U. S. News & World Report ranked Cedars-Sinai #4 in the western United States, with number one being the UCSF Medical Center. Cedars-Sinai earned national rankings in 12 adult specialties including #5 for gastroenterology, #9 in cardiology and heart surgery, #9 in orthopedics, #10 in urology, #12 in gynecology, #14 in diabetes and endocrinology, #14 in neurology and neurosurgery. Located in the Harvey Morse Auditorium, Cedars-Sinai's patient care is depicted in the Jewish Contributions to Medicine mural; the heart transplantation program at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center has experienced unprecedented growth since 2010. Statistically, Cedars-Sinai performs more annual heart transplants than any other medical center in the world, having performed 95 heart transplants in 2012 and 87 in 2011. Founded and financed by businessman Kaspare Cohn, Cedars-Sinai was established as the Kaspare Cohn Hospital in 1902. At the time, Cohn donated a two-story Victorian home at 1441 Carroll Avenue in the Angeleno Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles to the Hebrew Benevolent Society to create the hospital as a memorial to his brother Samuel.
The hospital had just 12 beds when it opened on September 21, 1902, its services were free. From 1906 to 1910, Dr. Sarah Vasen, the first female doctor in Los Angeles, acted as superintendent. In 1910, the hospital relocated and expanded to Stephenson Avenue, where it had 50 beds and a backhouse containing a 10-cot tubercular ward, it transformed from a charity-based hospital to a general hospital and began to charge patients. The hospital relocated again in 1930 to 4833 Fountain Avenue, where it was renamed Cedars of Lebanon after the religiously significant Lebanon Cedars, which were used to build King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem in the Bible. Cedars of Lebanon could accommodate 279 patients. In 1918, the Bikur Cholim Society opened a second Jewish hospital, the Bikur Cholim Hospice, when the Great Influenza Pandemic hit America. In 1921, the hospice relocated to an eight-bed facility in Boyle Heights and was renamed Bikur Cholim Hospital. In 1923 the Bikur Cholim Hospital became Mount Sinai Home for the Incurables.
On November 7, 1926, a newly named Mount Sinai Hospital moved to a 50-bed facility on Bonnie Beach Place. In 1950, Emma and Hyman Levine donated their property adjacent to Beverly Hills, by 1955 the construction completed and Mount Sinai Hospital opened at 8700 Beverly Boulevard. Cedars of Lebanon and Mount Sinai Hospitals merged in 1961 to form Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. Donations from the Max Factor Family Foundation allowed the construction of the current main hospital building, which broke ground on November 5, 1972, opened on April 3, 1976. In 1994, the Cedars-Sinai Health System was established, comprising the Cedars-Sinai Medical Care Foundation, the Burns and Allen Research Institute and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center; the Burns and Allen Research Institute, named for George Burns and his wife, Gracie Allen, is located inside the Barbara and Marvin Davis Research Building. Opened in 1996, it houses biomedical research aimed at discovering genetic and immunological factors that trigger disease.
In 1994, the original building was demolished. In 2006, Cedars-Sinai added the Saperstein Critical Care Tower with 150 ICU beds. In 2008, Cedars-Sinai served 54,947 inpatients and 350,405 outpatients, there were 77,964 visits to the emergency room. Cedars-Sinai received high rankings in 11 of the 16 specialties, ranking in the top 10 for digestive disorders and in the top 25 for five other specialties as listed below. In 2013, Cedars-Sinai opened its 800,000-square-foot Advanced Health Sciences Pavilion, which consists of eight stories of program space located over a six-story parking structure, on the eastern edge of its campus at the corner of San Vicente Boulevard and Gracie Allen Drive. Designed by architectural firm HOK, the Pavilion brings patient care and translational research together in one site; the Advanced Health Sciences Pavilion houses the Cedars-Sinai's neurosciences programs, the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute and Regenerative Medicine Institute laboratories, as well as outpatient surgery suites, an imaging area and an education center.
In 2018, famous Marvel-creator Stan Lee dies at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Cedars-Sinai ranked as follows in the nationwide U. S. News Best Hospitals 2013–14 report: Cedars-Sinai ranked as follows in the 2009 Los Angeles area residents' "Most Preferred Hospital for All Health Needs" ranking: In 2013, Cedars-Sinai Hospital was ranked