Joaquín Zavala Solís was the President of Nicaragua from 1 March 1879 to 1 March 1883 and from 16 July to 15 September 1893. He was a member of the Conservative Party of Nicaragua, he is now remembered for having thwarted the request of the young Rubén Darío to become one of the most well-known Spanish-language poets, for a government scholarship to study in Europe. In 1882 Darío 15 years old, read some of his poetry to a group including the President - whereupon Zavala reproved him: "My son, if you so write against the religion of your fathers and their homeland now, what will become of you if you go to Europe and learn worse things?"
Juan Bautista Sacasa
Juan Bautista Sacasa was the President of Nicaragua from 1 January 1933 to 9 June 1936. He was the eldest son of Ángela Sacasa Cuadra, the former's cousin twice removed, he was a relative of Benjamín Sacasa. Born in the town of León, Sacasa studied in the United States from 1889 to 1901, earning an M. D. from Columbia University. He served as a professor and dean of faculty at the National University in León, was a supporter of the Liberal regime of José Santos Zelaya. In 1924, Sacasa became a member of a political coalition headed by moderate Conservative Carlos Solórzano. Shortly afterwards, the detachment of U. S. Marines which had remained in Nicaragua for thirteen years withdrew, believing that the political situation was stable. In October 1925, Solórzano's government was overthrown by former President General Emiliano Chamorro, who failed to gain U. S. subsequently resigned in favor of Adolfo Díaz. In the meantime, Sacasa fled to Mexico. Following an uprising by Liberal soldiers in Puerto Cabezas, Sacasa returned to Nicaragua in 1926.
Asserting his claim as constitutional president, he established a government in Puerto Cabezas. Supplied by Mexico with arms and munitions, the Liberal rebels, under the command of General José María Moncada, nearly succeeded in capturing Managua. However, the U. S. forced the two warring parties to enter into negotiations, resulting in the Pact of Espino Negro, which required that both sides would disarm and Díaz would be allowed to finish his term. Sacasa reluctantly agreed to accept the agreement and withdraw his claim to the presidency, but refused to sign the pact and left the country. Over the next six years, a obscure Liberal general named Augusto Sandino would lead a guerilla war against the Marines, who had remained in the country to enforce the agreement. In 1932, Sacasa was elected President, he took office on January 1933, the day before the scheduled departure of the Marines. At the insistence of the U. S. Ambassador, he named Anastasio Somoza García, married to one of his nieces, as director of the Guardia Nacional.
The following month, Sacasa met with Sandino, during which Sandino pledged his loyalty to the new government in exchange for amnesty and land for his followers. Sandino continued to call for the disbanding of the National Guard and, in February 1934, he was assassinated under orders from Somoza. Despite Sacasa's disapproval, he proved unable to contain the growing power of Somoza and the National Guard, his popularity continued to diminish as Nicaragua's fragile economy suffered the collapse of coffee prices due to the Great Depression and allegations of widespread fraud surfaced in the 1934 congressional elections. Meanwhile, Somoza's power continued to grow, he cultivated ties with former presidents Moncada and Chamorro. Early in 1936, Somoza used the National Guard to purge local officials loyal to the president and replace them with his associates. On June 6, he forced Sacasa to resign, appointing a series of puppet presidents before assuming the presidency himself the following year. Afterwards, Sacasa fled into exile in the U.
S. living in Los Angeles until his death ten years later. He married a cousin of Leonardo Argüello, 66th President of Nicaragua. Bertha Lacayo Sacasa was married to Lisimaco Lacayo Solorzano and they had only one child Will Lacayo Lacayo. Will Lacayo Lacayo had four children Danilo Lacayo, Bertha Lacayo, Ligia Lacayo and Tania Lacayo
Diego Manuel Chamorro
Diego Manuel Chamorro Bolaños was the President of Nicaragua between 1 January 1921 and 12 October 1923. He belonged to the Conservative Party of Nicaragua and was a member of the politically powerful Chamorro family, his father was Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro. Don Diego was elected President of Nicaragua following his nephew Emiliano in that office. During his presidency, he crushed an invasion by rebels from Honduras and initiated an agreement between himself and the presidents of Honduras and El Salvador to prevent such invasions in the future, he signed the Treaty of Peace and Friendship among the Central American countries. President Diego Manuel Chamorro died in office in 1923, he was married to his twice cousin Dolores Bolaños Chamorro and had 5 daughters and 3 sons: Carmen Chamorro Bolaños, married to Clarence A. Burgheim Celina Chamorro Bolaños, never married Diego Manuel Chamorro Bolaños, married to Caridad Mora Urtecho Anibal Chamorro Bolaños, married Gustavo Chamorro Bolaños, never married Luz Chamorro Bolaños, married to Miguel Vigil Lejarza Matilde Chamorro Bolaños, never married Mercedes Chamorro Bolaños, married to her and his twice cousin Fernando Chamorro Chamorro, had: Edmundo Chamorro Chamorro, married to Blanca Rappaccioli y Asenjo, of Italian paternal descent, had: Edmundo Chamorro Rappaccioli Roberto Chamorro Rappaccioli Silvio Chamorro Rappaccioli Fernando Chamorro Rappaccioli Emiliano Chamorro Rappaccioli Melba Chamorro Rappaccioli Gretchen Chamorro Rappaccioli Blanca Chamorro RappaccioliDiego Manuel Chamorro Bolaños had a son with Isabel Garnier, Lieutenant Abelino Chamorro Garnier married to Esther Eva Piñan, had 6 children: 1) Carmen Chamorro Eva married to Jose Jesus Espinosa Garcia had one son: Jose Edgar Espinosa Chamorro married to Ileana Hidaldo Herrera and have 9 children: Martha C Espinosa Hidalgo, married Leonidas Felipe Abaunza Hunter, 4 children: Leonidas Felipe Abaunza Espinosa, Vanessa Maria Abaunza Espinosa, Alejandro Jesus Abaunza Espinosa, Christian Jose Abaunza Espinosa.
Edgar Jose Espinosa Hidalgo, married Lourdes Madriz fornos, 4 children: Edgar Jose Espinosa Madriz, Alejandra Espinosa Madriz, Marcelo Espinosa Madriz, Lourdes Karina Espinosa Madriz. Arturo Enrique Espinosa Hidalgo, married Fresia Arguello Tellería, 2 children: Arturo Espinosa Arguello, Fresia Alessandra Espinosa Arguello. Mario Alberto Espinosa Hidalgo, married Nina Tellería Gurdian, 4 children: Nina Maria Espinosa Tellería, Marcela Espinosa Tellería, Mario Espinosa Tellería, Elissa Espinosa Tellería. Marco Antonio Espinosa Hidalgo, married Karelia Montealegre Icaza, 4 children: Karelia Espinosa Montealegre, Kassandra Espinosa Montealegre, Katherine Espinosa Montealegre Marco Espinosa Montealegre Fransisco Javier Espinosa Hidalgo, married Lucinda Montenegro, 2 children: Francisco andres Espinosa Montenegro, Lucinda Christina Espinosa Montenegro, Ricardo Jose Espinosa Hidalgo, married Ada Francis Duque-Estrada Gomez, 2 children: Ricardo Andres Espinosa Duque-Estrada Eduardo Espinosa Duque-Estrada Enrique Jesus Espinosa Hidalgo, married Carolina Morales, 2 children: Sofia Espinosa Morales Camilla Espinosa Morales Ileana Maria Espinosa Hidalgo, married Erik Christianson, 3 children: Natalia Bianca Christianson Espinosa Cianna Christianson Espinosa Evan Christianson Espinosa2) Eva chamorro Eva married to Henry Meyer, no children.3) Alba chamorro Eva, never married.4) Luis Chamorro Eva married to Graciela Marin Arcia and had 4 children: Jose Luis Chamorro Marin, Carlos Chamorro Marin, Edgar Chamorro Marin, Roberto Chamorro Marin.5) Alejandro Chamorro Eva married to Amalia Zamora Zamora had 4 children: Alejandro Chamorro Zamora, Arturo Chamorro Zamora Maria Esther Chamorro Zamora, Amalia Chamorro Zamora.6) Anita Chamorro Eva, married to Arthur Kessler, had 4 children: Blanche Kessler Theresa Kessler Maureen Kessler Raymond Kessler Recorrido Historico de las Principales Figuras de la Familia Chamorro, Emilio Alvarez Lejarza, Revista Consevadora del Pensamiento Centroamericano, Vol. XIX - No. 91
Ignacio Chávez (President of Nicaragua)
Ignacio Chaves López was the President of Nicaragua from 1 January to 1 March 1891
Máximo Jerez Tellería was a 19th-century Nicaraguan politician and military leader. He is considered to be one of the greatest Liberal political thinkers in Nicaraguan history, he was a leader of the movement towards Central American unity. Together with Francisco Castellón Sanabria, he participated in bringing to Nicaragua the filibuster of William Walker and on 31 October 1855 was designated Minister of Foreign Relations in Walker's provisional government, led by Patricio Rivas, he ran for the presidency in 1856. By Walker's decision, provisional President Rivas summoned new elections on 10 March 1856, but countermanded the decree on 14 March, broke relations with Walker. On 23 January 1857 Jerez formed a dual Junta government with the Conservative Tomás Martínez and they acted jointly as Presidents of Nicaragua, from 24 June 1857 to 19 October or 15 November 1857. In his subsequent career as Minister Plenipotentiary of Nicaragua to Costa Rica, he signed on 15 April 1858, the Cañas–Jerez Treaty that defined the boundaries between the two countries.
In 1876 he organized from El Salvador an expedition to overthrow the provisional government of Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro, but failed. In the city of León there is a statue in his honor
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important financial centres in the Americas, it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters. The city has 16 boroughs; the 2009 population for the city proper was 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers. According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration, the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world; the city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP.
If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador; the city was built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, as of 1585, it was known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City was the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997.
Since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, same-sex marriage. On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District, is now known as Ciudad de México, with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, prevents it from becoming a state, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere; the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. The old Mexica city, now referred to as Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the center of the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico, which it shared with a smaller city-state called Tlatelolco. According to legend, the Mexicas' principal god, indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting a golden eagle perched on a prickly pear devouring a rattlesnake. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico.
When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the other native peoples, arriving there on November 8, 1519. Cortés and his men marched along the causeway leading into the city from Iztapalapa, the city's ruler, Moctezuma II, greeted the Spaniards. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest. Tensions increased until, on the night of June 30, 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. Cortés regrouped at Tlaxcala; the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521. For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans.
Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island and fought their way through the city. Cuauhtémoc surrendered in August 1521; the Spaniards razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order, he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown. The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later. By that time, the city had again become a city-state, having power that extended far beyond its borders. Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico"; the city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain. The viceroy of Mexico or vice-king lived in the viceregal palace on Zócalo; the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishopric of New Spain, was const
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti