Simón José Antonio de la cruz Santa maria Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco known as Simón Bolívar and colloquially as El Libertador, or the Liberator, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who led the secession of what are the states of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Panama from the Spanish Empire. Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Criollo family and, as was common for the heirs of upper-class families in his day, was sent to be educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain when he was 16 and moving to France. While in Europe, he was introduced to the ideas of the Enlightenment, which motivated him to overthrow the reigning Spanish in colonial South America. Taking advantage of the disorder in Spain prompted by the Peninsular War, Bolívar began his campaign for independence in 1808; the campaign for the independence of New Granada was consolidated with the victory at the Battle of Boyacá on 7 August 1819. He established an organized national congress within three years.
Despite a number of hindrances, including the arrival of an unprecedentedly large Spanish expeditionary force, the revolutionaries prevailed, culminating in the patriot victory at the Battle of Carabobo in 1821, which made Venezuela an independent country. Following this triumph over the Spanish monarchy, Bolívar participated in the foundation of the first union of independent nations in Latin America, Gran Colombia, of which he was president from 1819 to 1830. Through further military campaigns, he ousted Spanish rulers from Ecuador and Bolivia, the last of, named after him, he was president of Gran Colombia and Bolivia, but soon after his second-in-command, Antonio José de Sucre, was appointed president of Bolivia. Bolívar aimed at a strong and united Spanish America able to cope not only with the threats emanating from Spain and the European Holy Alliance but with the emerging power of the United States. At the peak of his power, Bolívar ruled over a vast territory from the Argentine border to the Caribbean Sea.
Bolívar fought 472 battles of which 79 were important ones, during his campaigns rode on horseback 123,000 kilometers, 10 times more than Hannibal, three times more than Napoleon, twice as much as Alexander the Great. Bolívar is viewed as a national icon in much of modern South America, is considered one of the great heroes of the Hispanic independence movements of the early 19th century, along with José de San Martín, Francisco de Miranda and others. Towards the end of his life, Bolívar despaired of the situation in his native region, with the famous quote "all who served the revolution have plowed the sea". In an address to the Constituent Congress of the Republic of Colombia, Bolívar stated "Fellow citizens! I blush to say this: Independence is the only benefit we have acquired, to the detriment of all the rest." The surname Bolívar originated with aristocrats from La Puebla de Bolívar, a small village in the Basque Country of Spain. Bolívar's father came from the female line of the Ardanza family.
His maternal grandmother was descended from families from the Canary Islands. The Bolívars settled in Venezuela in the 16th century. Bolívar's first South American ancestor was Simón de Bolívar, who lived and worked in Santo Domingo from 1559 to 1560 and where his son Simón de Bolívar y Castro was born; when the governor was reassigned to Venezuela by the Spanish Crown in 1569, Simón de Bolívar went with him. As an early settler in Spain's Venezuela Province, he became prominent in the local society, he and his descendants were granted estates and positions in the local cabildo; when Caracas Cathedral was built in 1569, the Bolívar family had one of the first dedicated side chapels. The majority of the wealth of Simón de Bolívar's descendants came from the estates; the most important was a sugar plantation with an encomienda that provided the labor needed to run the estate. Another portion of the Bolívars' wealth came from silver and copper mines. Small gold deposits were first mined in Venezuela in 1669, leading to the discovery of much more extensive copper deposits.
From his mother's side, Bolívar inherited the Aroa copper mines at Cocorote. Native American and African slaves provided the majority of the labor in these mines. Toward the end of the 17th century, copper mining became so prominent in Venezuela that the metal became known as cobre Caracas. Many of the mines became the property of the Bolívar family. Bolívar's grandfather, Juan de Bolívar y Martínez de Villegas, paid 22,000 ducats to the monastery at Santa Maria de Montserrat in 1728 for a title of nobility, granted by King Philip V of Spain for its maintenance; the crown never issued the patent of nobility, so the purchase became the subject of lawsuits that were still in progress during Bolívar's lifetime, when independence from Spain made the point moot. Bolívar devoted his personal fortune to the revolution. Having been one of the wealthiest persons within the Spanish American world at the beginning of the revolution, he died in poverty. Simón Bolívar was born in a house in Caracas, Captaincy General of Venezuela, on 24 July 1783.
He was baptized as Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios. His mother was María de la Concepción Palacios y Blanco, and
Bolivia the Plurinational State of Bolivia is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The capital is Sucre; the largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales a flat region in the east of Bolivia. The sovereign state of Bolivia is a constitutionally unitary state, divided into nine departments, its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is within the Andean mountain range. With 1,098,581 km2 of area, Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America, the 27th largest in the world and the largest landlocked country in the Southern Hemisphere; the country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Africans.
The racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages have official status, of which the most spoken are Guarani and Quechua languages. Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. Spain built its empire in large part upon the silver, extracted from Bolivia's mines. After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century Bolivia lost control of several peripheral territories to neighboring countries including the seizure of its coastline by Chile in 1879.
Bolivia remained politically stable until 1971, when Hugo Banzer led a coup d'état which replaced the socialist government of Juan José Torres with a military dictatorship headed by Banzer. Banzer's regime cracked down on leftist and socialist opposition and other forms of dissent, resulting in the torture and deaths of a number of Bolivian citizens. Banzer was ousted in 1978 and returned as the democratically elected president of Bolivia from 1997 to 2001. Modern Bolivia is a charter member of the UN, IMF, NAM, OAS, ACTO, Bank of the South, ALBA and USAN. For over a decade Bolivia has had one of the highest economic growth rates in Latin America, it is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index, a poverty level of 38.6%, one of the lowest crime rates in Latin America. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing and manufacturing goods such as textiles, refined metals, refined petroleum. Bolivia is rich in minerals, including tin and lithium. Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a Venezuelan leader in the Spanish American wars of independence.
The leader of Venezuela, Antonio José de Sucre, had been given the option by Bolívar to either unite Charcas with the newly formed Republic of Peru, to unite with the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, or to formally declare its independence from Spain as a wholly independent state. Sucre opted to create a brand new state and on 6 August 1825, with local support, named it in honor of Simón Bolívar; the original name was Republic of Bolívar. Some days congressman Manuel Martín Cruz proposed: "If from Romulus comes Rome from Bolívar comes Bolivia"; the name was approved by the Republic on 3 October 1825. In 2009, a new constitution changed the country's official name to "Plurinational State of Bolivia" in recognition of the multi-ethnic nature of the country and the enhanced position of Bolivia's indigenous peoples under the new constitution; the region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years. However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku culture which had its capital at Tiwanaku, in Western Bolivia.
The capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as 1500 BC when it was a small, agriculturally based village. The community grew to urban proportions between AD 600 and AD 800, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes. According to early estimates, the city covered 6.5 square kilometers at its maximum extent and had between 15,000 and 30,000 inhabitants. In 1996 satellite imaging was used to map the extent of fossilized suka kollus across the three primary valleys of Tiwanaku, arriving at population-carrying capacity estimates of anywhere between 285,000 and 1,482,000 people. Around AD 400, Tiwanaku went from being a locally dominant force to a predatory state. Tiwanaku expanded its reaches into the Yungas and brought its culture and way of life to many other cultures in Peru and Chile. Tiwanaku was not a violent culture in many respects. In order to expand its reach, Tiwanaku exercised great political astuteness, creating colonies, fostering trade agree
Pedro Blanco Soto
Pedro Blanco Soto was President of Bolivia for just a week cut short by his assassination in a convent called La Recoletta in Sucre on New Years Day 1829. He was shot on the roof above a stairwell while attempting to escape. A small plaque now marks the spot in the Museo de la Recoletta, he was well known for his pro Peru stance and this is the reason attributed to his assassination
Antonio José de Sucre
Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá, known as the "Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho", was a Venezuelan independence leader who served as the fourth President of Peru and the second President of Bolivia. Sucre was one of Simón Bolívar's closest friends and statesmen; the city of Sucre, Bolivia's capital, is named for him, as is a state of Venezuela and a department of Colombia. Both the old and new airports of Ecuador's capital Quito are named after him; the aristocratic Sucre family traces its roots back to origins in Flanders. It arrived in Venezuela through Charles de Sucre y Franco Perez, a Flemish nobleman, son of Charles Adrian de Sucre, Marquess of Peru and Buenaventura Carolina Isabel Garrido y Pardo, a Spanish noblewoman. Charles de Sucre y Pardo served as a soldier in Catalonia in 1698 and was named Governor of Cartagena de Indias and Captain General of Cuba. On December 22, 1779, Charles de Sucre y Pardo arrived in Cumaná, having been named Governor of New Andalucia, which includes present-day Sucre State.
In 1814, Antonio José de Sucre joined the fight for South America independence from Spain. The Battle of Pichincha took place on May 24, 1822, on the slopes of the Pichincha volcano, near Quito in what is now Ecuador; the encounter, fought in the context of the Spanish American wars of independence, pitted a Patriot army under Sucre against a Royalist army commanded by Field Marshal Melchor Aymerich. The defeat of the Royalist forces brought about the liberation of Quito and secured the independence of the provinces belonging to the Real Audiencia de Quito, or Presidencia de Quito, the Spanish colonial administrative jurisdiction from which the Republic of Ecuador would emerge; as of late 1824, Royalists still had control of most of southern Peru as well as Real Felipe Fort in the port of Callao. On December 9, 1824, the Battle of Ayacucho took place at Pampa de La Quinua, near the town of Quinua, between Royalist and Patriot forces. Sucre, as Simón Bolívar's lieutenant, led the Patriot forces to victory over the Viceroy José de la Serna, wounded.
After the battle, second commander-in-chief José de Canterac signed the final capitulation of the Royalist army on his behalf. As a result, he was promoted, at the request of the Peruvian Congress, to Marshal and as General in Chief by the Colombian legislature. After the victory at Ayacucho, following precise orders from Bolívar, nominated as Ayacucho's Grand Marshal, entered Upper Peru territory on February 25, 1825. Besides having orders of installing an independent administration, his role was limited to giving an appearance of legality to the process that Upper Peruvians themselves had begun already. Royalist general Pedro Antonio Olañeta stayed in Potosí, where he received by January the "Union" Infantry Battalion coming from Puno under the command of colonel José María Valdez. Olañeta summoned a War Council, which agreed to continue the resistance in the name of Ferdinand VII. Next, Olañeta distributed his troops between Cotagaita fortress with the "Chichas" Battalion. in charge of colonel Medinacelli, while Valdez was sent to Chuquisaca with the "Union" Infantry Battalion and loyalist militias, Olañeta himself marched toward Vitichi, with 60,000 pieces of gold from the Coin House in Potosí.
But for the Spanish military personnel in Upper Peru, it was too little too late, as since 1821 all out guerilla warfare had raged in this part of the continent. However, in Cochabamba the First Battalion of the Infantry Regiment "Ferdinand VII", led by colonel José Martínez and side with the independence movement, only to be followed by the Second Battalion, "Ferdinand VII" Infantry Regiment in Vallegrande, resulting in the forced resignation of Brigadier Francisco Aguilera on February 12. Royalist colonel José Manuel Mercado occupied Santa Cruz de la Sierra on February 14, as Chayanta stayed in the hands of lieutenant colonel Pedro Arraya, with the cavalry squadrons "Santa Victoria" and "Dragones Americanos", in Chuquisaca the cavalry squadron "Dragones de la Frontera" under colonel Francisco López claimed victory for the independence forces on February 22. At this point, the majority of royalist troops of Upper Peru refused to continue fighting against the powerful army of Sucre and switched allegiances.
Colonel Medinacelli with 300 soldiers revolted against Olañeta, on April 2 of 1825 they faced each other in the Battle of Tumusla, which ended with the death of Olañeta. A few days on April 7, general José Mario Valdez surrendered in Chequelte to general Urdininea, putting an end to the war in Upper Peru and signalling victory to the local independence movement, active since 1811. After the Constituent Assembly in Chuquisaca was reconvened by Marshal Sucre, on July 8 of 1825, later concluded, it was determined the complete independence of Upper Peru under the republican form; the Assembly president José Mariano Serrano, together with a commission, wrote down the "Independence Act of the Upper Peruvian Departments" which carries the date of August 6, 1825, in honor of the Battle of Junín won by Bolivar. Independence was declared by 7 representatives from Charcas, 14 from Potosí, 12 from La Paz, 13 from Cochabamba and 2 from Santa Cruz; the act of Independence, wrote by the president of the Congress, states in its expositive part: "The world knows that the land of Upper Peru has been, in the American continent, the altar where the free people shed the first blood, the land where the last of the tyrants’ tombs lays.
Today, the Upper Peruvian departments protest in the face of the whole
José Miguel de Velasco Franco
José Miguel de Velasco Franco served as Vice President of Bolivia for one time and President of Bolivia four times more times than anyone else other than Víctor Paz Estenssoro. During the third, longest, of these temporary periods in office he approved a new constitution for Bolivia
Adolfo Ballivián Coll was constitutional president of Bolivia between 1873 and 1874. Born in La Paz, Adolfo Ballivián was the son of former Bolivian President and war hero José Ballivián. Traveled, he was a member of the armed forces, composer and congressman. Having joined the army at the age of 16, he combatted under the command of his father against insurgent forces. Nonetheless, he was forced to flee Bolivia and lived abroad since 1847, when his father was toppled from power and exiled, first to Chile and to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. While traveling in Valparaíso, Chile, he met and married Carmen Grimwood Allende, of Quillota, Chile. Following his father's unexpected death in Brazil in 1855, Ballivián Coll returned to his native land. At first he rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. Discouraged from continuing a military career, he was persuaded to run for Congress instead. There he first shone as a brilliant orator and gifted defender of constitutionalism and the rule of law, he became a part-time journalist.
Adolfo Ballivián chose to absent himself again when in 1872 the president, General Agustín Morales, began to quarrel with the legislative and the media and hinted that he may arrogate to himself supreme dictatorial powers. Ballivián was still in Europe when Congress and the Constitutionalist forces invoked his name as their official candidate in the 1873 elections, called hastily upon the assassination of President Morales. To his surprise, he was elected president overwhelmingly in what were the cleanest elections up to that point in Bolivian history. Returning to Bolivia, he was sworn in and presented with the presidential sash by his predecessor, Tomás Frías Ametller, on May 9, 1873. At that point Ballivián became the youngest Bolivian president to date, having followed the oldest; the young chief executive benefited from a short "honeymoon" period and faced the customary obdurate, obstructionist opposition of factionalist politicians. It did not help that his short term in office coincided with a global fall in the price of silver, hitherto Bolivia's most important export alongside tin.
It was in this context that Congress denied Ballivián's urgent request to buy new warships from Europe in order to re-equip the fledgling non-existent Bolivian Navy, in view of mounting challenges to Bolivian sovereignty in the Pacific by Chile. This congressional denial would be rued by Bolivians in subsequent years, when war erupted. Still, Ballivián managed to rule in a rational and enlightened manner, above all adhering to democratic precepts, evincing a strict respect for the rule of law, allowing full personal freedoms and the operation of an unfettered press. Tragically, President Adolfo Ballivián was stricken with stomach cancer within months of coming to power, died at the age of 43 on February 14, 1874, he was constitutionally succeeded by Dr. Tomás Frías, the same man who had transferred power to him only 9 months earlier. Grimwood, the paternal surname of Adolfo Ballivián's wife, maternal surname of their children, is misspelled Greenwood in genealogical resources such as FamilySearch.org Works by or about Adolfo Ballivián at Internet Archive
La Paz Department (Bolivia)
The La Paz Department of Bolivia comprises 133,985 square kilometres with a 2012 census population of 2,706,359 inhabitants. It is situated at the western border of Bolivia, it contains the Cordillera Real. Northeast of the Cordillera Real are the Yungas, the steep eastern slopes of the Andes Mountains that make the transition to the Amazon River basin to the northeast; the capital of the department is the city of La Paz and is the administrative city and seat of government/national capital of Bolivia. The Department of La Paz is divided into 20 provinces which are further subdivided into 85 municipalities and - on the fourth level - into cantons; the provinces with their capitals are: The chief executive office of Bolivia's departments is the Governor. The current governor, César Cocarico of the Movement for Socialism – Political Instrument for the Sovereignty of the Peoples was elected on 4 April 2010 and took office 30 May. Under the 2009 Constitution, Bolivian departments have an elected legislature, known as the Departmental Legislative Assembly.
The La Paz Assembly has 45 members including five indigenous / natives minority representatives. The most recent election results are as follows: The languages spoken in the department are Spanish, Aymara and Guaraní; the following table shows the number of people belonging to the recognized group of speakers. Apolobamba Integrated Management Natural Area Cotapata National Park and Integrated Management Natural Area Pilón Lajas Biosphere Reserve and Communal Lands Lake Titicaca Chacaltaya La Paz City Guide Weather in La Paz Bolivian Music and Web Varieties Full information of La Paz Department