Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Piedrahíta is a municipality located in the province of Ávila, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 2,024 inhabitants. Piedrahita y sus encantos
Elisa Herrero Uceda
Elisa Herrero Uceda is a Spanish writer. She is committed to the conservation of folk culture, she has written books on natural and folk culture. Elisa Herrero studied Biology at the Autonomous University of Madrid, her PhD research was concerned the scientific field of neurobiology. She is engineer in computing by the Technical University of Madrid, but she has not forgotten the traditional knowledge of the old people she knew at her country when she was a child. On 31 May 2014 she organized, along with a Meeting of Extremaduran Writers, she collaborates in the annual activities of the Complutense Week of the Letters at the Complutense University. Extremadura en el corazón. Elam Editors. 2011. Mi Extremadura, la cultura rural. Elam Editors. 2012. Ceborrincho, Extremaduran tales. Elam Editors. 2013. Mamaeña, Extremaduran tales. Elam Editors. 2015. Prize "Luis Chamizo of prose in Extremaduran language". Award to the Creation. Ateneo Arroyo de la Luz. Award to her work on Dissemination and Defence of the Extremaduran culture.
Pablo Gonzálvez Cultural Association. Miajadas. Personal web "Cachinu e cielu" Poem of Elisa Herrero Uceda recited by herself
Miguel Herrero Uceda
Miguel Herrero Uceda is a writer and natural scientist committed to the defence of the environment and the conservation of popular traditional culture. He was a professor at Universidad Complutense of Madrid, he is a promoter of the natural philosophy "arbotherapy", a therapy to combat the stress and the anxiety generated by modern world. Uceda is a collaborator of the Más Árboles Foundation for the regeneration and creation of new forests and a contributor to magazines and newspapers including El Mundo, El Periódico de Extremadura, Tecnociencia, The ecologist, Revista Natural, Guardabosque, he is the brother of painter Antonio José Herrero Uceda and of writer Elisa Herrero Uceda. On May 31, 2014, he organised, along with poet José Iglesias Benítez, Beturia Cultural association president, the meeting of Extremaduran writers from inside and outside of Extremadura, Extremaduran Writers Day, in Ceclavín. On May 30, 2015, he organised, along with the community The Bohème, the Poets and Artists International Meeting in favour of the nature "Men and jungles" at the Palace of the Infantado in Guadalajara.
El alma de los árboles. Publishing Hedras. 2005. El alma de los árboles. Expanded edition. Elam Editors. 2008. Los árboles del Bosque de la Calma / Els arbres of the Bosc of the Calm. Elam Editors. 2009. Extremadura en el corazón. Elam Editors. 2011. Mi Extremadura, la cultura rural. Elam Editors. 2012. Ceborrincho, relatos extremeños. Elam Editors. 2013. Mamaeña, relatos extremeños. Elam Editors. 2015. The business of the hate Reports of the corruption that favours the financing of violent groups. El Periódico de Extremadura, 2015.11.29. Zero tolerance to pyromaniacs. On the impunity with which pyromaniacs act. El País, 2015.8.24. Half bread and a book. An article in support to the investment in culture and science. El Periódico de Extremadura, 2014.6.30 Old knowledges: on the adaptation to the local climate observed in traditional constructions. Periódico de Extremadura, 2013.1.19. First Tree Day in the world. Quercus. March 2011, his trees: in the centenary of Miguel Hernández. La Colmena, Guadalajara dos mil. October 8, 2010.
Wangari Maathai, the tree woman. Revista Natural. Revista Natural. Winter 2011. Vegetal Sentinels El Mundo, October 13, 2007. Communication Systems in the vegetal world. Tecnociencia. June 2006; the vegetal consciousness exists. The Ecologist. Abril – June 2008; the trees, mirror of the soul of a poet. Foresta. Magazine of forest engineers. December 2007. H. G. Wells And the "war of the worlds. Claves de la razón práctica. Number 89, January 1999. Exhibitions about nature and popular culture; the look of the forests. My Extremadura; the soul of the trees, in collaboration with the painter Benilde Edo. Semblances of my Extremadura. "La Jaramilla" Cultural centre. Coslada. November 2015; the colours of the autumn. Spring in the country. Both documentaries participated in the Cycle of Scientific Cinema – visual Space organised in 2011 by ASECIC and by the National Museum of Natural Sciences. Medal "Sia qui sou". Catalan circle of Madrid. Prize "Luis Chamizo of prose in extremaduran". Award to the Creation. Ateneo Arroyo de la Luz.
Award to his work on Dissemination and Defence of the Extremaduran culture. Pablo Gonzálvez Cultural association. Miajadas. Prize "Encina de plata" awarded by the Regional House of Extremadura in Coslada, Madrid
Salamanca is a city in western Spain, the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León. The city lies on several hills by the Tormes River, its Old City was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. With a metropolitan population of 228,881 in 2012 according to the National Institute of Statistics, Salamanca is the second most populated urban area in Castile and León, after Valladolid, ahead of León and Burgos, it is one of the most important university cities in Spain and supplies 16% of Spain's market for the teaching of the Spanish language. Salamanca attracts thousands of international students, it is situated 200 kilometres west of the Spanish capital Madrid and 80 km east of the Portuguese border. The University of Salamanca, founded in 1218, is the oldest university in Spain and the third oldest western university, but the first to be given its status by the Pope Alexander IV who gave universal validity to its degrees. With its 30,000 students, the university is, together with tourism, a primary source of income in Salamanca.
It is on the Via de la Plata path of the Camino de Santiago. The city was founded in the pre-Ancient Rome period by the Vaccaei, a Celtic tribe, or the Vettones, a Celtic or pre-Celtic indo-European tribe, as one of a pair of forts to defend their territory near the Duero river. In 220 BC Hannibal captured it. With the fall of the Carthaginians to the Romans, the city of Helmantica, as it was known, began to take more importance as a commercial hub in the Roman Hispania due to its favorable location. Salamanca lay on a Roman road, known as the Vía de la Plata, which connected it with Emerita Augusta to the south and Asturica Augusta to the north, its Roman bridge dates from the 1st century, was a part of this road. With the fall of the Roman Empire, the Alans established in Lusitania, Salamanca was part of this region; the city was conquered by the Visigoths and included in their territory. The city was an episcopal see, signatures of bishops of Salamanca are found in the Councils of Toledo. Salamanca surrendered to the Moors, led by Musa bin Nusair, in the year 712 AD.
For years, this area between the south of Duero River and the north of Tormes River, became the main battlefield between the Christian kingdoms and the Muslim Al-Andalus rulers. The constant fighting of the Kingdom of León first, the Kingdom of Castile and León against the Caliphate depopulated Salamanca and reduced it to an unimportant settlement. After the battle of Simancas the Christians resettled this area. After the capture of Toledo by Alfonso VI of León and Castile in 1085, the definitive resettlement of the city took place. Raymond of Burgundy, instructed by his father-in-law Alfonso VI of León, led a group of settlers of various origins in 1102. One of the most important moments in Salamanca's history was the year 1218, when Alfonso IX of León granted a royal charter to the University of Salamanca, although formal teaching had existed at least since 1130. Soon it became one of the most prestigious academic centres in Europe. During the 16th century, the city reached its height of splendour.
During that period, the University of Salamanca hosted the most important intellectuals of the time. The juridical doctrine of the School of Salamanca represented the end of medieval concepts of law, founded the fundamental body of the ulterior European law and morality concepts, including rights as a corporeal being, economic rights and spiritual rights. In 1551, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ordered an inquiry to find out if the science of Andreas Vesalius and anatomist, was in line with Catholic doctrine. Vesalius was acquitted. Salamanca suffered the general downturns of the Kingdom of Castile during the 17th century, but in the 18th century it experienced a rebirth. In this period, the new baroque Cathedral and main square were finished. In the Peninsular War of the Napoleonic campaigns, the Battle of Salamanca, in which an Anglo-Portuguese Army led by Wellington decisively defeated the French army of Marmont, was fought on 22 July 1812; the western quarter of Salamanca was damaged by cannon fire.
The battle which raged that day is famous as a defining moment in military history and many thousands of men were killed in the space of only a few short hours. During the devastating Spanish Civil War the city went over to the Nationalist side and was used as the de facto capital. Franco was named Generalissimo on 21 September 1937 while at the city, in the same year was formed, by a decree signed in the city, the official fascist party that ruled Spain until the end of the Francoist regime suppressing any other political party; the Nationalists soon moved most of the administrative departments to Burgos, which being more central was better suited for this purpose. However, some administrative departments, Franco's headquarters and the military commands stayed in Salamanca, along with the German and Italian fascist delegations, making it the de facto Nationalist capital and centre of power during the entire civil war. Like much of fervently Catholic and rural Leon and Old Castile regions, Salamanca was a staunch supporter of the Nationalist side and Fran
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t