Guanajuato the Free and Sovereign State of Guanajuato, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, are the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 46 municipalities and its capital city is Guanajuato; the largest city in the state is León. Guanajuato is in central Mexico, it is bordered by the states of Jalisco to the west, Zacatecas to the northwest, San Luis Potosí to the north, Querétaro to the east, Michoacán to the south. It covers an area of 30,608 km2. Guanajuato is between the arid north of the country and the lusher south, it is geographically part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the Mexican Plateau, it was settled by the Spanish in the 1520s due to mineral deposits found around the now capital city of Guanajuato, but areas such as the Bajío region became important for agriculture and livestock. Mining and agriculture were the mainstays of the state's economy, but have since been eclipsed by the secondary sector. Guanajuato has seen growth in the automotive industry.
The state is home to several important cities those along the "Bicentennial Route", which retraces the path of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's insurgent army at the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence. This route begins at Dolores Hidalgo, passes though the Sanctuary of Atotonilco, San Miguel de Allende and the capital of Guanajuato. Other important cities in the state include León, the most populous, Irapuato. Guanajuato is located in the center of Mexico, northwest of Mexico City, bordering the states of Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Michoacán, Querétaro, Jalisco, it is ranked 20th out of 31 states. It has an average altitude of 2,015 meters above sea level, with its territory divided among three of Mexico's physical regions, the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Mexican Plateau and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt; the Sierra Madre Oriental in Guanajuato consists of the Sierra Gorda and the Sierra del Azafrán in the northeast. The Mexican Plateau extends through the center of the state. Within, it subdivides into various regions parted by low-lying mountain chains such as the Sierra de la Cuatralba and the Sierra de Cubo.
The Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt crosses the state in the south and includes the Bajío area, the Altos de Jalisco and the valleys area in the far south. The state is crossed by several mountain ranges which have mountains between 2,300 and 3,000 meters high. Mountain ranges; the other important mountain ranges include the Sierra Gorda to the north, the Sierra de Guanjuato in the southeast, the Comanja in the northwest and the Codorniz in the east. The state is divided into five regions, taking into consideration climate; these are called Altos de Guanajuato, La Sierra Central, Bajío, La Sierra Gorda, Los Valles del Sur. The Altos de Guanajuato, located in the north of the state, are a chain of forested mountains interspersed with pastures, small fields and areas with cacti and other desert plants, they begin near the border with San Luis Potosí, extend south to Dolores Hidalgo and to San Miguel de Allende to the Querétaro border. The altitude of this area varies from 1,800 to peaks over 2,900 meters such as the La Giganta and La Sierra del Cubo mountains.
The climate is semiarid with a rainy season in the summer, with average temperatures between 15 and 20 °C. However, lows in the winter reach 0 °C or lower with frosts. Wildlife is found in the most rugged and inaccessible areas and includes deer, coyotes and rattlesnakes. La Sierra Gorda is shared between Guanajuato and Querétaro and is considered to be an important biosphere; this area is the most rugged in the state where most of the natural areas and small villages are remain intact due to their inaccessibility. The Sierra Gorda is part of the Sierra Madre Occidental, with extreme variations in its geography and climate; the rugged terrain means that there are a wide number and variety of micro-climates, although average temperatures vary only between 16 and 19 °C. It lowest point is a canyon called Paso de Hormigas in Xichú at 650 meters above sea level with a warm climate suitable for tropical fruit; the highest point is Pinal de Zamorano at 3,300 meters, followed by El Picacho de Pueblo Nuevo, El Zorillo and El Cuervo all above 2,700 meters.
The largest changes are seen in arid versus wetter zones, which can be nearby, with foliage changing from rainforest to pine forest to desert landscapes. In 1997, the Sierra Gorda region in Querétaro was declared a Biosphere Reserve by the federal government, with the Guanajuato portion added in 2007. On the Guanajuato side, it covers 236,882 hectares over the municipalities of Xichú, San Luis de la Paz, Atarjea and Santa Catarina. Culturally, the Sierra Gorda region is the far western part of La Huasteca, which extends over parts of the states of Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Hidalgo and Veracruz; the Sierra Central is a series of low, gentle mountains in the center of the state which are part of the Sierra Madre Occidental. They cover twelve municipalities: Ocampo, San Felipe, León, Guanajuato, Dolores Hidalgo, San Miguel de Allende, Salamanca, Santa Cruz de Juventino Rosas and Apaseo el Grande. Wild vegetation runs from tropical rainforest to arid grasslands with cactus, with cypress trees along rivers and other surface water.
Wildlife includes raccoons, rabbits and migratory birds. The land is productive for fruit orchards producing guavas, apples, limes and more. Desert fruits such as cactus pears (tu
Jalisco the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and is bordered by six states which are Nayarit, Aguascalientes, Michoacán and Colima. Jalisco is divided into 125 municipalities, its capital city is Guadalajara. Jalisco is one of the most important states in Mexico because of its natural resources as well as its history. Many of the characteristic traits of Mexican culture outside Mexico City, are from Jalisco, such as mariachi, ranchera music, tequila, etc. hence the state's motto: "Jalisco es México." Economically, it is ranked third in the country, with industries centered in the Guadalajara metropolitan area, the second largest metropolitan area in Mexico. The state is home to two significant indigenous the Huichols and the Nahuas. There is a significant foreign population retirees from the United States and Canada, living in the Lake Chapala and Puerto Vallarta areas.
With a total area of 78,599 square kilometers, Jalisco is the seventh-largest state in Mexico, accounting for 4.1% of the country's territory. The state is in the central western coast of the country, bordering the states of Nayarit, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato and Michoacán with 342 kilometers of coastline on the Pacific Ocean to the west. Jalisco is made up of a diverse terrain that includes forests, beaches and lakes. Altitudes in the state vary from 0 to 4,300 meters above sea level, from the coast to the top of the Nevado de Colima; the Jalisco area contains all five of Mexico's natural ecosystems: arid and semi arid scrublands, tropical evergreen forests, tropical deciduous and thorn forests and mesquite grasslands and temperate forests with oaks and firs. Over 52% of the bird species found in Mexico live in the state, with 525, 40% of Mexico's mammals with 173 and 18% of its reptile species. There are 7,500 species of veined plants. One reason for its biodiversity is, lies in the transition area between the temperate north and tropical south.
It lies at the northern edge of the Sierra Madre del Sur and is on the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which provides a wide variety of ecological conditions from tropical rainforest conditions to semi arid areas to areas apt for conifer forests. Its five natural regions are: Northwestern Plains and Sierras, Sierra Madre Occidental, Central Plateau, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which covers most of the state, the Sierra Madre del Sur, it has an average altitude of 1,550 meters MASL, but ranges from 0–4,300 m. Most of the territory is semi-flat between 600–2,050 m, followed by rugged terrain of between 900–4,300 m and a small percentage of flat lands between 0–1,750 m. Principle elevations include the Nevado de Colima, the Volcan de Colima, the Sierra El Madroño, the Tequila Volcano, the Sierra Tapalpa, Sierra Los Huicholes, Sierra San Isidro, Sierra Manantlán, Cerro El Tigre, Cerro García, Sierra Lalo, Sierra Cacoma, Cerro Gordo, Sierra Verde and the Sierra Los Guajolotes. Jalisco's rivers and streams empty into the Pacific Ocean and are divided into three groups: the Lerma/Santiago River and its tributaries, rivers that empty directly into the Pacific and rivers in the south of the state.
Jalisco has several river basins with the most notable being that of the Lerma/Santiago River, which drains the northern and northeastern parts of the state. The Lerma River enters extends from the State of Mexico and empties into Lake Chapala on the east side. On the west, water flows out in the Santiago River, which crosses the center of Jalisco on its way to the Pacific, carving deep canyons in the land. Tributaries to the Santiago River include the Zula, the Verde River, the Juchipila and the Bolaños. About three quarters of the state's population lives near this river system. In the southwest of the state, there are a number of small rivers that empty directly into the Pacific Ocean; the most important of these is the Ameca, with its one main tributary, the Mascota River. This river empties into the Ipala Bay; the Tomatlán, San Nicolás, Purificación, Marabasco-Minatitlán, Tuxcacuesco, Armería and Tuxpan rivers flow perpendicular to the Pacific Ocean and drain the coastal area. Another river of this group is the Cihuatlán River, which forms the boundary between Jalisco and Colima emptying into the Barra de Navidad Bay.
The southeastern corner belongs to the Balsas River basin. This includes the Tuxcacuesco, which join to form the Armería and the Tuxpan; the other main surface water is Lake Chapala, is the largest and most important freshwater lake in Mexico, accounting for about half of the country's lake surface. The lake acts as a regulator of the flow of both the Santiago Rivers. There are a number of seasonal and salty lakes linking to form the Zacoalco-Sayula land-locked system. There are other smaller lakes called Cajititlán, San Marcos, Atotonilco. Dams include Santa Rosa, La Vega, Tacotán and Las Piedras. Jalisco's surface water accounts for fifteen percent of the surface freshwater in Mexico. In 1987, four beaches in Jalisco were designated as federal marine turtle sanctuaries: El Tecuán, Cuitzmala and Playón de Mismaloya, with an extension of 8 km. Playa Majahuitas is 27 km southwest of Puerto Vallarta with a rugged coastline, numerous inlets and outcroppings; the Cañon Submarino underwater canyon is located offs
Second French intervention in Mexico
The Second French Intervention in Mexico was an invasion of Mexico, launched in late 1861, by the Second French Empire. Supported by Britain and Spain, the French intervention in Mexico was a consequence of President Benito Juárez's two-year moratorium, on 17 July 1861, of loan-interest payments to French and Spanish creditors. To extend the influence of Imperial France, Napoleon III instigated the intervention in Mexico by claiming that the military adventure was a foreign policy commitment to free trade; the establishment of a friendly monarchy in Mexico would ensure European access to Latin American markets. To realize his imperial ambitions without other European interference, Napoleon III entered into a coalition with Britain and Spain, while the U. S. was occupied with the American Civil War, unable to enforce the Monroe Doctrine. On 31 October 1861, France and Spain agreed to the Convention of London, a joint effort to extract repayments from Mexico. On 8 December, the Spanish fleet disembarked troops at the port of Veracruz, Veracruz, on the Gulf of Mexico.
When the British and the Spanish discovered that France had unilaterally planned to seize Mexico, they withdrew from the military coalition agreed in London. The subsequent French invasion created the Second Mexican Empire, a client state of the French Empire. Besides the Continental empires involved, the Russian Empire acknowledged the political legitimacy of the Maximilian's Second Mexican Empire, when the Tsarist fleet saluted the imperial Mexican flag when sailing off the Pacific Ocean coastal state of Guerrero. In Mexican politics, the French intervention allowed active political reaction against the Liberal policies of racial and socio-economic reform of president Benito Juárez, thus the Roman Catholic Church, upper-class conservatives, much of the Mexican nobility, some Indian communities welcomed and collaborated with the French empire's installation of Maximilian I of Mexico as Emperor of the Mexicans. In European politics, the French intervention in Mexico reconciled the Second French Empire and the Austrian Empire, whom the French had defeated in the Franco–Austrian War of 1859.
French imperial expansion into Mexico counterbalanced the geopolitical power of the Protestant Christian U. S. by developing a powerful Catholic empire in Latin America, the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the Mexican north-west. After much guerrilla warfare that continued after the Mexicans' Capture of Mexico City — the French Empire withdrew from Mexico and abandoned the Austrian emperor of Mexico; the British and French fleets arrived at Veracruz, between 8 and 17 December 1861 intending to pressure the Mexicans into settling their debts. The Spanish fleet seized San Juan de Ulúa and subsequently the capital Veracruz on 17 December; the European forces advanced to Orizaba and Tehuacán, as they had agreed in the Convention of Soledad. The city of Campeche surrendered to the French fleet on 27 February 1862, a French army, commanded by General Lorencez, arrived on 5 March; when the Spanish and British realised the French ambition was to conquer Mexico, they withdrew their forces on 9 April, their troops leaving on 24 April.
In May, the French man-of-war Bayonnaise blockaded Mazatlán for a few days. Mexican forces commanded by General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated the French army in the Battle of Puebla on 5 May 1862; the pursuing Mexican army was contained by the French at Veracruz, on 14 June. More French troops arrived on 21 September, General Bazaine arrived with French reinforcements on 16 October; the French occupied the port of Tampico on 23 October, unopposed by Mexican forces took control of Xalapa, Veracruz on 12 December. The French bombarded Veracruz on 15 January 1863. Two months on 16 March, General Forey and the French Army began the siege of Puebla. On 30 April, the French Foreign Legion earned its fame in the Battle of Camarón, when an infantry patrol unit of 62 soldiers and three officers, led by the one-handed Captain Jean Danjou, was attacked and besieged by Mexican infantry and cavalry units numbering three battalions, about 3000 men, they were forced to make a defence in a nearby hacienda. Danjou was mortally wounded at the hacienda, his men mounted an suicidal bayonet attack, fighting to nearly the last man.
To this day, the anniversary of 30 April remains the most important day of celebration for Legionnaires. The French army of General François Achille Bazaine defeated the Mexican army led by General Comonfort in its campaign to relieve the siege of Puebla, at San Lorenzo, to the south of Puebla. Puebla surrendered to the French shortly afterward, on 17 May. On 31 May, President Juárez fled the city with his cabinet, retreating northward to Paso del Norte and to Chihuahua. Having taken the treasure of the state with them, the government-in-exile remained in Chihuahua until 1867. French troops under Bazaine entered Mexico City on 7 June 1863; the main army entered the city three days led by General Forey. General Almonte was appointed the provisional President of Mexico on 16 June, by the Superior Junta; the Superior Junta with its 35 members met on 21 June, proclaimed a Catholic Empire on 10 July. The crown was offered following pressures by Napoleon. Maximilian accepted the crown on 3 October, at the hands of the Comisión Mexicana, sent by the Superior J
William Walker (filibuster)
William Walker was an American physician, lawyer and mercenary who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking colonies under his personal control, an enterprise known as "filibustering". Walker usurped the presidency of the Republic of Nicaragua in 1856 and ruled until 1857, when he was defeated by a coalition of Central American armies, he returned in an attempt to reestablish his control of the region and was captured and executed by the government of Honduras in 1860. Walker was born in Tennessee, in 1824 to James Walker and his wife Mary Norvell, his father was an English immigrant. His mother was the daughter of Lipscomb Norvell, an American Revolutionary War officer from Virginia. One of Walker's maternal uncles was John Norvell, a Senator from Michigan and founder of The Philadelphia Inquirer. William Walker was engaged to Ellen Martin, but she died of yellow fever before they could be married, he died without children.
William Walker graduated summa cum laude from the University of Nashville at the age of fourteen. He studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh and University of Heidelberg before receiving his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania at the age of 19, he practiced in Philadelphia before moving to New Orleans to study law. He practiced law for a short time quit to become co-owner and editor of the New Orleans Crescent. In 1849, he fought three duels. Walker conceived the idea of conquering vast regions of Latin America and creating new slave states to join those part of the United States; these campaigns were known as freebooting. William Walker first gained national attention after his duel with William Hicks Graham on January 12, 1851, in San Francisco. Walker was the editor of the San Francisco Herald while Graham was a clerk in the employ of Judge R. N. Morrison. Walker criticized Graham and his colleagues in the newspapers, which angered Graham and prompted him to challenge Walker to a duel.
Graham was a notorious gunman and duellist in his time, having taken part in a number of duels and shootouts in the Old West. Walker on the other hand, had experience duelling with single-shot pistols at one time, but his duel with Graham was fought with revolvers; the combatants met at Mission Dolores and each were given Colt Dragoons with five shots. They stood face-to-face at ten paces, at the signal of a referee aimed and tried to fire. Graham managed to fire two bullets, hitting Walker in his pantaloons and his thigh wounding him. Walker, though he tried a number of times to shoot his weapon during the duel, failed to fire a single shot and Graham was left unscathed; the duel ended. Graham was arrested but was released; the duel was recorded in The Daily Alta California. In the summer of 1853, Walker traveled to Guaymas, seeking a grant from the government of Mexico to create a colony, he said. Mexico refused, Walker returned to San Francisco determined to obtain his colony, regardless of Mexico's position.
He began recruiting American supporters of slavery and Manifest Destiny doctrine inhabitants of Kentucky and Tennessee. His plans expanded from forming a buffer colony to establishing an independent Republic of Sonora, which might take its place as a part of the American Union as the Republic of Texas had done, he funded his project by "selling scrips which were redeemable in lands of Sonora."On October 15, 1853, Walker set out with 45 men to conquer the Mexican territories of Baja California Territory and Sonora State. He succeeded in capturing La Paz, the capital of sparsely populated Baja California, which he declared the capital of a new Republic of Lower California, with himself as president and his former law partner, Henry P. Watkins, as vice president, he put the region under the laws of the American state of Louisiana, which made slavery legal. Fearful of attacks by Mexico, Walker moved his headquarters twice over the next three months, first to Cabo San Lucas, further north to Ensenada to maintain a more secure position of operations, because he lost to General Manuel Márquez de León.
Although he never gained control of Sonora, less than three months he pronounced Baja California part of the larger Republic of Sonora. Lack of supplies and strong resistance by the Mexican government forced Walker to retreat. Back in California, he was put on trial for conducting an illegal war, in violation of the Neutrality Act of 1794. In the era of Manifest Destiny, his filibustering project was popular in the southern and western United States and the jury took eight minutes to acquit him. Since there was no inter-oceanic route between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans at the time, the transcontinental railway did not yet exist, a major trade route between New York City and San Francisco ran through southern Nicaragua. Ships from New York sailed across Lake Nicaragua. People and goods were transported by stagecoach across a narrow strip of land near the city of Rivas, before reaching the Pacific and ships to San Francisco; the commercial exploitation of this route had been granted by Nicaragua to the Accessory Transit Company, controlled by shipping magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt.
In 1854, a civil war erupted in Nicaragua between the Legitimist Party, based in the city of Granada, the Democratic Party, based in León. The Democratic Party sought military su
Secretariat of National Defense (Mexico)
The Mexican Office for National Defence is the government department responsible for managing Mexico's Army and Air Forces. Its head is the Director for National Defense who, like the co-equal Director of the Navy, is directly answerable to the President. Before 1937, the position was called the Director of the Navy; the agency has its headquarters in Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico City. Some key figures who answer directly to the Director are the Assistant Director, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, all military tribunals. Under the Federal Public Administration Act, the Secretary has the following duties: Organize and prepare the Army and the Air Force. Organize and prepare the National Military Service. Management of the Army, Air Force, National Guard and armed contingents which don't belong to state's national guard. Plan and handle mobilization of the country in the event of war. Construct and prepare the forts and all kind of military buildings for Army and Air Force use, as well as administration of barracks and other military buildings.
Administer military justice. Acquire and build armaments and all kinds of materials and elements for the use of Army and Air Force. Grant permission for an expedition force to enter another country or to allow another country to send their forces to Mexico. Manage the issuing of licenses to bear firearms with the aim of preventing the use of arms expressly banned in law and those types of arms restricted by the state for the exclusive use of the Army and National Guard, with the exception of what is established by the 13th section of Article 30 of the Constitution, as well as the supervision and issuing of permits for the sale and storage of firearms, chemical weapons and strategic weapons. Museo del Enervante - a Sedena museum dedicated to those who have fought drug trafficking in Mexico. Zuyaqui - a famous dog who worked for the agency. Official site of the Secretariat of National Defense Official site of the Secretariat of National Defense, English version Citizens' Portal, Official Site of the Mexican Government Basic Law of Federal Public Administration
A filibuster or freebooter, in the context of foreign policy, is someone who engages in an unauthorized military expedition into a foreign country or territory to foment or support a revolution. The term is used to describe United States citizens who fomented insurrections in Latin America in the mid-19th century. Filibuster expeditions have occasionally been used as cover for government-approved deniable operations. Filibusters are irregular soldiers who act without official authority from their own government, are motivated by financial gain, political ideology, or the thrill of adventure; the freewheeling actions of the filibusters of the 1850s led to the name being applied figuratively to the political act of filibustering in the United States Congress. Unlike a mercenary, a filibuster leader/commander works for himself, whilst a mercenary leader works for others; the English term "filibuster" derives from the Spanish filibustero, itself deriving from the Dutch vrijbuiter, "privateer, robber".
The Spanish form entered the English language in the 1850s, as applied to military adventurers from the United States operating in Central America and the Spanish West Indies. The Spanish term was first applied to persons raiding Spanish colonies and ships in the West Indies, the most famous of whom was Sir Francis Drake with his 1573 raid on Nombre de Dios. With the end of the era of Caribbean piracy in the early 18th century "filibuster" fell out of general currency; the term was revived in the mid-19th century to describe the actions of adventurers who tried to take control of various Caribbean and Central-American territories by force of arms. In Sonora, there were the French Marquis Charles de Pindray and Count Gaston de Raousset-Boulbon and the Americans Joseph C. Morehead and Henry Alexander Crabb; the three most prominent filibusters of that era were Narciso López and John Quitman in Cuba and William Walker in Baja California and lastly Nicaragua. The term returned to American parlance to refer to López's 1851 Cuban expeditions.
Several Americans were involved in freelance military schemes, including Aaron Burr, William Blount, Augustus W. Magee, George Mathews, George Rogers Clark, William S. Smith, Ira Allen, William Walker, William A. Chanler and James Long. Gregor MacGregor was a Scottish filibuster in Florida and South America. Although the American public enjoyed reading about the thrilling adventures of filibusters, Americans involved in filibustering expeditions were in violation of the Neutrality Act of 1794 that made it illegal for a citizen to wage war against another country at peace with the United States. For example, the journalist John L. O'Sullivan, who coined the related phrase "Manifest Destiny", was put on trial for raising money for López's failed filibustering expedition in Cuba. In the 1850s, William Walker attempted a filibustering campaign with a strategy involving his leading a private mercenary army. In 1853, he established a short lived republic in the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California.
When a path through Lake Nicaragua was being considered as the possible site of a canal through Central America, he was hired as a mercenary by one of the factions in a civil war in Nicaragua. He declared himself commander of the country's army in 1856, soon afterward President of the Republic. After attempting to take control of the rest of Central America and receiving no support from the U. S. government, he was defeated by the four other Central American nations he tried to invade and executed by the local Honduran authorities he tried to overthrow. Many Confederate Army officers and soldiers, such as Chatham Roberdeau Wheat, of the Louisiana Tigers, obtained valuable military experience from filibuster expeditions; the author Horace Bell served as a major with Walker in Nicaragua in 1856. The notorious Colonel Parker H. French served as Minister of Hacienda and was appointed as Minister Plenipotentiary to Washington in 1855; as part of a proposed 1962 CIA Operation Northwoods to discredit the Fidel Castro regime and provide justification for overt US military operations against Cuba, one of the suggestions was to simulate a Cuban-based, Castro-supported filibuster against a neighboring Caribbean nation.
In the 19th-century Philippines, the Spanish filibustero gained connotations different from those of the English derivative. The title of the influential novel El Filibusterismo by Philippine national hero José Rizal could be translated as "filibustering", but could mean "subversion". William Walker's filibusters are the subject of a poem by Ernesto Cardenal. Burr conspiracy British Legions Hunters' Lodges Knights of the Golden Circle Foreign Enlistment Act 1870 Vikings Brown, Charles H. Agents of Manifest Destiny: The Lives and Times of the Filibusters. University of North Carolina Press, 1980. ISBN 0-8078-1361-3. Lipski, John M. "Filibustero: origin and development." Journal of Hispanic Philology 6, 1982, pp. 213–238 May, Robert E. "Manifest Destiny's Filibusters" in Sam W. Haynes and Christopher Morris, eds. Manifest Destiny and Empire: American Antebellum Expansionism. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-89096-756-3. May, Robert E. Manifest Destiny's Underworld: Filibustering in Antebellum America.
University of North Carolina Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8078-2703-7. Roche, James Jeffrey; the story of the Filibusters. T. F. Unwin, 1891. Schreckengost, Gary; the First Louisiana S
Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day; the movement for independence was inspired by the Age of Enlightenment and the American and French Revolutions. By that time the educated elite of New Spain had begun to reflect on the relations between Spain and its colonial kingdoms. Changes in the social and political structure occasioned by Bourbon Reforms and a deep economic crisis in New Spain caused discomfort among the native-born Creole elite; the dramatic political events in Europe, the French Revolutionary Wars and the conquests of Napoleon influenced events in New Spain. In 1808, Charles IV and Ferdinand VII were forced to abdicate in favor of the French Emperor, who made his elder brother Joseph king; the same year, the ayuntamiento of Mexico City, supported by viceroy José de Iturrigaray, claimed sovereignty in the absence of the legitimate king.
That led to a coup against the viceroy. Despite the defeat in Mexico City, small groups of rebels met in other cities of New Spain to raise movements against colonial rule. In 1810, after being discovered, Querétaro conspirators chose to take up arms on September 16 in the company of peasants and indigenous inhabitants of Dolores, who were called to action by the secular Catholic priest Miguel Hidalgo, former rector of the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo. After 1810 the independence movement went through several stages, as leaders were imprisoned or executed by forces loyal to Spain. At first the rebels disputed the legitimacy of the French-installed Joseph Bonaparte while recognizing the sovereignty of Ferdinand VII over Spain and its colonies, but the leaders took more radical positions, rejecting the Spanish claim and espousing a new social order including the abolition of slavery. Secular priest José María Morelos called the separatist provinces to form the Congress of Chilpancingo, which gave the insurgency its own legal framework.
After the defeat of Morelos, the movement survived as a guerrilla war under the leadership of Vicente Guerrero. By 1820, the few rebel groups survived most notably in Veracruz; the reinstatement of the liberal Constitution of Cadiz in 1820 caused a change of mind among the elite groups who had supported Spanish rule. Monarchist Creoles affected by the constitution decided to support the independence of New Spain. Agustín de Iturbide led the military arm of the conspirators and in early 1821 he met Vicente Guerrero. Both proclaimed the Plan of Iguala, which called for the union of all insurgent factions and was supported by both the aristocracy and clergy of New Spain, it called for a monarchy in an independent Mexico. The independence of Mexico was achieved on September 27, 1821. After that, the mainland of New Spain was organized as the Mexican Empire; this ephemeral Catholic monarchy changed to a federal republic in 1823, due to internal conflicts and the separation of Central America from Mexico.
After some Spanish reconquest attempts, including the expedition of Isidro Barradas in 1829, Spain under the rule of Isabella II recognized the independence of Mexico in 1836. Mexican resistance and struggle for independence began with the brutal Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire when Spanish conquerors had considerable autonomy from crown control. Don Martín Cortés, the second marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca, led a conspiracy of holders of encomiendas against the Spanish crown after it sought to eliminate privileges for the conquistadors putting limitations on encomiendas. After the suppression of that mid-16th-century conspiracy, elites raised no substantial challenge to royal rule until the Hidalgo revolt of 1810. Elites in Mexico City in the seventeenth century did force the removal of a reformist viceroy, the Marqués de Gelves, following an urban riot in 1624 fomented by those elites, he attempted to eliminate corrupt practices by creole elites as well as rein in the opulent displays of the clergy's power, but ecclesiastical authorities in conjunction with creole elites mobilized urban plebeians to oust the viceroy.
The crowd was reported to shout, "Long live the King! Love live Christ! Death to bad government! Death to the heretic Lutheran! Arrest the viceroy!" The attack was against Gelves as a bad representative of the crown and not against the monarchy or colonial rule itself. There was a brief conspiracy in the mid-seventeenth century to unite creole elites and indigenous against the Spanish crown and proclaim Mexican independence; the man pushing this notion called himself Don Guillén Lampart y Guzmán, an Irishman born William Lamport. Lamport's conspiracy was discovered, he was arrested by the Inquisition in 1642, executed fifteen years for sedition. There is a statue of Lamport in the mausoleum at the base of the Angel of Independence in Mexico City. At the end of the seventeenth century, there was a major riot in Mexico City where a mob attempted to burn down the viceroy's palace and the archbishop's residence. A painting by Cristóbal Villalpando shows the damage of the 1692 tumulto. Unlike the earlier one in 1624 in which elites were involved, the viceroy ousted, no repercussions against the