Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
José Luis Cuevas Museum
The José Luis Cuevas Museum and the Church of Santa Inés are located just off the Zocalo within the Historic center of Mexico City, in Mexico City, Mexico. Both buildings were built as parts of the Convent of Santa Inés complex; the museum is in the convent's colonial era residential hall. This convent was founded in 1600 by his wife Doña Inés de Velasco, their patronage was funded by their ownership of the largest sugar cane processing operation in New Spain. The Santa Inés convent was built to accommodate thirty-three nuns, equal to the number of years Christ spent on earth. In colonial times, it took in Spanish orphans who did not have a dowry. In return, these orphans were required to pray an hour a day for their benefactors; the convent existed until 1861, when due to the Nationalization of Church Property Act, all covents and monasteries in the country were disbanded. The convent's church and residence hall; the Church of Santa Inés still maintains its original function. The residence hall became private property, functioning as tenements until artist José Luis Cuevas bought the property with the intention to restoring it and establishing the current museum dedicated to his art and art of contemporary Latin America.
The complex again in 1639 due to a fire. In 1710, its single tower was built, high enough to be seen from the main plaza of town. Towards the end of the 18th century, its ceiling was rotten, the church and tower were cracked; the complex was repaired under the patronage of the Marquis of La Cadena. In 1861, due the Reform Laws the convent was closed; the nuns here were moved first to Santa Teresa La Antigua later to Santa Catalina de Siena. The tower was demolished, the church and convent were separated with the convent’s residence portion being sold into private hands due to the nationalization of church property at that time; the convent and church were declared a national monument in 1932, but it remained private property as tenements until the 1980s, when the museum project began. The entrance of the church is at 26 Moneda Street, just northeast of the main plaza of Mexico City; this church is considered to be a mix of styles between Mexican Neoclassical. The church was finished in 1770; the church has two portals, one dedicated to Saint Agnes and the other to the Apostle James the Great.
The wooden doors of this church are carved with reliefs. Some of these depict the life of Saint Agnes and others show images of the nuns of the convent with their benefactors, Don Diego Caballero and Doña Inés de Velasco. One scene depicts the life of the Apostle James. One other shows Santiago Matamoros, a saint connected with the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, its dome is decorated with tiles laid in a strip design and made to look like rebozos, a type of indigenous shawl. Inside, replaced with the current Neoclassic altar. Mexican painters Miguel Cabrera and José de Ibarra are interned in altar here. By the late 1970s, artist José Luis Cuevas had gathered a large collection of modern artworks by Latin American artists, with the aim of establishing a museum in his name; the collection was kept in the storage facilities of the Carrillo Gil Museum as Cuevas looked for a suitable location for the collection. Having been born in the historic Centro district of Mexico City, Cuevas wanted the museum to be located there.
After acquiring the historic Santa Inés Convent building in 1983, relocating its residents, the adaptive reuse project began. Cuevas, along with government agencies and private supporters set to restore the building and perform archeological work, it revealed many of the much older construction elements of the convent. Restoration work was completed in 1988. While it was restored to its colonial era appearance, Cuevas had the convent’s courtyard roofed with a plastic dome to have a contrary and modern element; the entrance of the museum is located at 13 Academia Street, around the corner from the Santa Inés Church. The courtyard's patio is dominated by a tall bronze sculpture named “La Giganta”. Cuevas created this site specific sculpture for this space; the statue weighs 8 tons. The José Luis Cuevas Museum opened in July 1992; the principal exhibition rooms contain artworks by Cuevas, including a room dedicated to works by him and his wife artist Bertha Cuevas, the'Pablo Picasso room' displaying his drawings.
The museum's collection includes many artworks by 19th and 20th century Mexican artists, including: Francisco Toledo, Juan Soriano, Vicente Rojo Almazán, Manuel Felguérez, Arnold Belkin, Gabriel Macotela. In addition it has works by international modern artists, including Roberto Matta, Fernando de Szys-Varo, Leonora Carrington and Remedios Varo. Historical Center of Mexico City−related topics Museums in Mexico City —Official José Luis Cuevas Museum website
Mexican art consists of various visual arts that developed over the geographical area now known as Mexico. The development of these arts follows the history of Mexico, divided into the prehispanic Mesoamerican era, the colonial period, with the period after Mexican War of Independence further subdivide. Mexican art is filled most of the time with intricate patterns. Many people describe MexicanArt as Vibrant and symatrinco which means the same as democratisation. Mesoamerican art is that produced in an area that encompasses much of what is now central and southern Mexico, before the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire for a period of about 3,000 years from Mexican Art can be bright and colourful this is called encopended. During this time, all influences on art production were indigenous, with art tied to religion and the ruling class. There was little to no real distinction among art and writing; the Spanish conquest led to 300 years of Spanish colonial rule, art production remained tied to religion—most art was associated with the construction and decoration of churches, but secular art expanded in the eighteenth century casta paintings and history painting.
All art produced was in the European tradition, with late colonial-era artists trained at the Academy of San Carlos, but indigenous elements remained, beginning a continuous balancing act between European and indigenous traditions. After Independence, art remained European in style, but indigenous themes appeared in major works as liberal Mexico sought to distinguish itself from its Spanish colonial past; this preference for indigenous elements continued into the first half of the 20th century, with the Social Realism or Mexican muralist movement led by artists such as Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, José Clemente Orozco, Fernando Leal, who were commissioned by the post-Mexican Revolution government to create a visual narrative of Mexican history and culture. The strength of this artistic movement was such that it affected newly invented technologies, such as still photography and cinema, promoted popular arts and crafts as part of Mexico's identity. Since the 1950s, Mexican art has broken away from the muralist style and has been more globalized, integrating elements from Asia, with Mexican artists and filmmakers having an effect on the global stage.
It is believed that the American continent's oldest rock art, 7500 years old, is found in a cave on the peninsula of Baja California. The pre-Hispanic art of Mexico belongs to a cultural region known as Mesoamerica, which corresponds to central Mexico on into Central America, encompassing three thousand years from 1500 BCE to 1500 CE divided into three eras: Pre Classic and Post Classic; the first dominant Mesoamerican culture was that of the Olmecs, which peaked around 1200 BCE. The Olmecs originated much of what is associated with Mesoamerica, such as hieroglyphic writing, first advances in astronomy, monumental sculpture and jade work, they were a forerunner of cultures such as Teotihuacan, north of Mexico City, the Zapotecs in Oaxaca and the Mayas in southern Mexico and Guatemala. While empires rose and fell, the basic cultural underpinnings of the Mesoamerica stayed the same until the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire; these included cities centered on plazas, temples built on pyramid bases, Mesoamerican ball courts and a common cosmology.
While art forms such as cave paintings and rock etchings date from earlier, the known history of Mexican art begins with Mesoamerican art created by sedentary cultures that built cities, dominions. While the art of Mesoamerica is more varied and extends over more time than anywhere else in the Americas, artistic styles show a number of similarities. Unlike modern Western art all Mesoamerican art was created to serve religious or political needs, rather than art for art's sake, it is based on nature, the surrounding political reality and the gods. Octavio Paz states that "Mesoamerican art is a logic of forms and volumes, as the same time a cosmology." He goes on to state that this focus on space and time is distinct from European naturalism based on the representation of the human body. Simple designs such as stepped frets on buildings fall into this representation of space and time and the gods. Art was expressed on a variety of mediums such as amate paper and architecture. Most of what is known of Mesoamerican art comes from works that cover stone buildings and pottery paintings and reliefs.
Ceramics date from the early the Mesoamerican period. They began as cooking and storage vessels but were adapted to ritual and decorative uses. Ceramics were decorated by shaping, scratching and different firing methods; the earliest known purely artistic production were small ceramic figures that appeared in Tehuacán area around 1,500 BCE and spread to Veracruz, the Valley of Mexico, Oaxaca and the Pacific coast of Guatemala. The earliest of these are female figures associated with fertility rites because of their oversized hips and thighs, as well as a number with babies in arms or nursing; when male figures appear they are most soldiers. The production of these ceramic figures, which would include animals and other forms, remained an important art form for 2000 years. In the early Olmec period most were small but large-scale ceramic sculptures were produced as large as 55 cm. After the middle pre-Classic, ceramic sculpture declined in the center of Mexico except in the Chupícuaro region. In the Mayan areas, the art disappears in the late pre-Classic, to reappear in the Classic in the form
Juan Rodríguez Juárez
Juan Rodríguez Juárez was an artist in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. His brother Nicolás, was a famous contemporary artist in colonial México. Juan Rodríguez Juárez was a member of a Spanish family long noted for their accomplishments in the world of painting, his brother was Nicolás Rodríguez Juárez was like an established painter in New Spain. He was the son of a notable Spanish painter, his maternal grandfather José Juárez and maternal great great grandfather Luis Juárez were notable painters in Spanish history and prominent in the Baroque era. Juan Rodríguez Juárez, like many artists in New Spain during the late Baroque period, followed the trend of painting portraits of the local nobility; these works followed European models, with symbols of rank and titles either displayed unattached in the outer portions or worked into another element of the paintings such as curtains. Pintura Colonial Mexicana: Juan Rodríguez Juárez en arts-history.mx En es.encarta.msn En Arte Historia
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area that included territories in North America, South America and Oceania, it originated in 1521 after the fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, which did not properly end until much as its territory continued to grow to the north. It was created on 8 March 1535 as a viceroyalty, the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas, its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, the capital of the viceroyalty was Mexico City, established on the ancient Mexico-Tenochtitlan. It included what is now Mexico plus the current U. S. states of California, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Washington and parts of Idaho, Wyoming, Kansas and Louisiana. The political organization divided the viceroyalty into captaincies general; the kingdoms were those of New Spain. There were four captaincies: Captaincy General of the Philippines, Captaincy General of Cuba, Captaincy General of Puerto Rico and Captaincy General of Santo Domingo.
These territorial subdivisions had a captain general. In Guatemala, Santo Domingo and Nueva Galicia, these officials were called presiding governors, since they were leading royal audiences. For this reason, these hearings were considered "praetorial." There were two great estates. The most important was the Marquisate of the Valley of Oaxaca, property of Hernán Cortés and his descendants that included a set of vast territories where marquises had civil and criminal jurisdiction, the right to grant land and forests and within which were their main possessions; the other estate was the Duchy of Atlixco, granted in 1708, by King Philip V to José Sarmiento de Valladares, former viceroy of New Spain and married to the Countess of Moctezuma, with civil and criminal jurisdiction over Atlixco, Guachinango and Tula de Allende. King Charles III introduced reforms in the organization of the viceroyalty in 1786, known as Bourbon reforms, which created the intendencias, which allowed to limit, in some way, the viceroy's attributions.
New Spain developed regional divisions, reflecting the impact of climate, indigenous populations, mineral resources. The areas of central and southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social and economic organization; the northern area of Mexico, a region of nomadic and semi-nomadic indigenous populations, was not conducive to dense settlements, but the discovery of silver in Zacatecas in the 1540s drew settlement there to exploit the mines. Silver mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain and transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, making the viceroyalty a vital link between Spain's New World empire and its Asian empire. From the beginning of the 19th century, the viceroyalty fell into crisis, aggravated by the Peninsular War, its direct consequence in the viceroyalty, the political crisis in Mexico in 1808, which ended with the government of viceroy José de Iturrigaray and gave rise to the Conspiracy of Valladolid and the Conspiracy of Querétaro.
This last one was the direct antecedent of the Mexican War of Independence, when concluding in 1821, disintegrated the viceroyalty and gave way to the Mexican Empire, in which Agustín de Iturbide would be crowned. The Kingdom of New Spain was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521 as a New World kingdom dependent on the Crown of Castile, since the initial funds for exploration came from Queen Isabella. Although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula; the monarch had sweeping power in the overseas territories,The king possessed not only the sovereign right but the property rights. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him, it was on this basis that the conquest and government of the New World was achieved. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain, it was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms.
The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas'Septentrion', from North America and the Caribbean, to the Philippine and Caroline Islands. At its greatest extent, the Spanish crown claimed on the mainland of