Antônio Augusto Junho Anastasia is a Brazilian lawyer and politician, was governor of the state of Minas Gerais from 2010 to 2014. Elected vice-governor of Aécio Neves in 2006, Anastasia became governor when Neves resigned to run for the Senate in March 2010. In the general elections on October 3, 2010, Anastasia was elected on the PSDB ticket for a full 4-year term as governor, beginning on January 1, 2011
President of Brazil
The President of Brazil the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil or the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of Brazil. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces; the presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup d'état against Emperor Pedro II. Since Brazil has had six constitutions, three dictatorships, three democratic periods. During the democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory; the Constitution of Brazil, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president, their term of office and the method of election. Jair Bolsonaro is the current President, he was sworn in on 1 January 2019 following the 2018 presidential election. As a republic with a presidential executive, Brazil grants significant powers to the president, who controls the executive branch, represents the country abroad, appoints the cabinet and, with the approval of the Senate, the judges for the Supreme Federal Court.
The president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Presidents in Brazil have significant lawmaking powers, exercised either by proposing laws to the National Congress or by using Medidas Provisórias, an instrument with the force of law that the president can enact in cases of urgency and necessity except to make changes to some areas of law. A provisional measure comes into effect before Congress votes on it, remains in force for up to 60 days unless Congress votes to rescind it; the 60-day period can be extended once, up to 120 days. If Congress, on the other hand, votes to approve the provisional measure, it becomes an actual law, with changes decided by the legislative branch; the provisional measure expires at the end of the 60-day period, or sooner, if rejected by one of the Houses of Congress. Article 84 of the current Federal Constitution, determines that the president has the power to appoint and dismiss the ministers of state; the Constitution of Brazil requires that a President be a native-born citizen of Brazil, at least 35 years of age, a resident of Brazil, in full exercise of their electoral rights, a registered voter, a member of a political party.
The president of Brazil serves for a term of four years
Newton Cardoso is a Brazilian politician who served as a Member of the Chamber of Deputies and as Governor of Minas Gerais from 1987 to 1991. His son Newton Cardoso Jr is a Member of the Chamber of Deputies
Delfim Moreira da Costa Ribeiro was a Brazilian politician who served as tenth President of Brazil. He was born in Minas Gerais state to a Portuguese father and to a Portuguese Brazilian mother who traced her ancestry back to the early settlers of Brazil. Delfim Moreira, elected vice president under Rodrigues Alves in 1918, provisionally ruled the country as the Brazilian Constitution provided for new elections in case of disability of the President before completing two years in office. Rodrigues Alves never entered office, for he was stricken by the "Spanish flu" and died on 16 January 1919. Delfim Moreira himself did not have good health, suffering from some psychological conditions, therefore his short tenure was known as "the republican regency" since the government Minister of Transportation and Public Works, Afrânio de Melo Franco, stood out in the president's decision-making. Three days after the new government took over the country, a general strike hit the capital and the city of Niterói.
The president ordered the closure of unions in Rio de Janeiro, on 22 November. On 21 June 1919, a dissident faction of the anarchists founded the Brazilian Communist Party. Four months the government expelled from the country about a hundred of them foreigners, who worked in the workers movement of the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Niterói, due to the discovery of an alleged plot aimed at overthrowing the government; when Epitácio Pessoa assumed headship of the government, Moreira became his Vice President. He died in the city of Santa Rita do Sapucaí, on 1 July 1920, he was succeeded by Bueno de Paiva. List of Presidents of Brazil Biography and Presidency of Delfim Moreira
Itamar Augusto Cautiero Franco was a Brazilian politician who served as the 33rd President of Brazil from December 29, 1992 to December 31, 1994. He was Vice President of Brazil from 1990 until the resignation of President Fernando Collor de Mello. During his long political career Franco served as Senator, Mayor and Governor. At the time of his death he was a Senator from Minas Gerais, having won the seat in the 2010 election. Franco was born prematurely at sea, aboard a ship traveling between Salvador and Rio de Janeiro, being registered in Salvador. On his father's side he was of partial German descent, while on the mother's side he was of Italian descent, with both of his maternal grandparents having emigrated to Brazil from Italy, his mother's name was "Itália". Franco's father died before his birth, his family was from Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, where he grew up and became a civil engineer in 1955, graduating from the School of Engineering of Juiz de Fora. Entering politics in the mid-1950s, Franco first served as alderman and deputy mayor of Juiz de Fora, before getting elected as mayor.
He resigned as mayor in 1974 and ran for the Federal Senate as a representative of Minas Gerais. He soon became a senior figure in the MDB, the official opposition to the military regime that ruled Brazil from 1964 to 1985. Re-elected as a senator in 1982, he was defeated in an attempt to be elected governor of Minas Gerais in 1986 as a candidate of the Liberal Party. During his tenure he was one of the key figures of initiative to immediate restoration of the direct elections for President. During his Senate term, Franco served as PL leader in that chamber; as a member of the National Constituent Assembly which began on February 1, 1987, Franco voted for severance of relations between Brazil and countries that develop a policy of racial discrimination, the establishment of the writ of mandamus Collective. Meanwhile, he voted against propositions to reintroduce the death penalty, confirming the presidential system and extension of President José Sarney's term, whom he opposed and called for removal for an alleged corruption.
When Franco became President, Sarney became one of his allies. In 1989, Franco left PL and joined the small PRN to be selected the running-mate of the presidential candidate Fernando Collor de Mello. A main reason behind Franco's selection was that he represented one of the largest states, publicity he gained during his call for impeachment against President José Sarney for alleged corruption. Collor and Franco won a narrow election against a man who would become President, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Once in office, Franco broke with Collor, threatening a resignation several times, as he disagreed with some of the President's policies regarding privatization, voicing his opposition openly. On Tuesday, September 29, 1992, Collor was charged with corruption and was impeached by the Congress. Under the Brazilian Constitution, an impeached president's powers are suspended for 180 days; as such, Franco served as acting president from October 2, 1992 until Collor resigned on December 29, at which point he formally took office as president.
When he became acting President, despite having been Vice President for nearly three years, polls showed that the majority of the population did not know who he was. Franco took power as Brazil was in the midst of a severe economic crisis, with inflation reaching 1,110% in 1992 and rocketing to 2,400% in 1993. Franco developed a reputation as a mercurial leader, but he selected as his Finance Minister Fernando Henrique Cardoso, who launched the "Plano Real" that stabilized the economy and ended inflation. In an unusual gesture, moments before taking office, Franco handed senators a piece of paper on which he had listed his personal net worth and properties, his approval rating reached 60 percent. After the troubled Collor Presidency, Franco installed a politically-balanced cabinet and sought broad support in Congress. During his Presidency, in April 1993, Brazil held a long-announced referendum to determine the political system and the form of government; the Republican and presidential system prevailed by large majorities respectively.
Franco always preferred the parliamentary government. In 1993, Franco resisted calls from various civilian offices to shut down the Congress, his administration is credited for restoring integrity and stability in government after the troubled Collor presidency. The President himself kept his reputation of honesty, his personal style was viewed as different from Collor's, who practiced "an imperial and ceremonious presidential role". On the other hand, Franco's own personal behavior was sometimes described as temperamental and eccentric. In late 1993, Franco offered a resignation in order to call an earlier election, but Congres
Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco
Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco was a Brazilian military leader and politician. He served as the first President of the Brazilian military government after the 1964 military coup d'etat. Castelo Branco was killed in an aircraft collision in July 1967, soon after the end of his Presidency. Castelo Branco was born in a wealthy Northeastern Brazilian family, his father, Cândido Borges Castelo Branco, was a general. His mother, Antonieta Alencar Castelo Branco, came from a family of intellectuals, he was married to Argentina Vianna, had two children and Paulo. Castelo Branco joined. In 1918, he joined the Military School of Realengo in Rio de Janeiro, as an Infantry cadet, was declared second lieutenant in 1921, being assigned to the 12th Infantry Regiment in Belo Horizonte. In 1923 he reached the rank of first lieutenant. In 1924, still as lieutenant, he completed the Infantry Advanced Course and, upon returning to the 12th RI, was assigned the task of commanding a detachment from the unit and integrating legal forces that would come to grips with and overcome revolts interns hatched in São Paulo in the year 1925.
He returned to the Military School of Realengo as an infantry instructor in 1927. He participated, like many other lieutenants of his time, in the Brazilian Revolution of 1930; as Captain, the intellectual value of Castello Branco stood out and, in 1931, he attended the Command and General Staff College, in which he was the first placed of his class. Promoted to Major in 1938, he was enrolled in the French War College and upon returning to Brazil, he served as an instructor at the Realengo Military School, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1943 and attended the Command and General Staff College in the United States. He was head of the 3rd. Section of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force during World War II, in Italy, remaining for three hundred days on the battle fields, he sent sixty letters to his wife, Argentina Viana Castelo Branco, his two sons. At FEB, he planned and implemented military maneuvers in combat in Italy at the Battle of Monte Castello. According to Marshal Cordeiro de Farias, Castello won exceptional prestige at FEB, for being a great strategist and having a privileged head.
Promoted to Colonel in 1945, Castelo Branco returned to Brazil with the firm intention of transmitting his professional experiences to the officers of the Army. In this way, it assumed the position of Director of Studies of the ECEME, transformed this School into a true center of doctrinal investigations. Castelo Branco systematized between 1946 and 1947, the reasoning method for the study of decision factors, recommended by the French Military Mission, with a structure of work within the command, better disciplining the activities of the Commander and his Staff Officers. In 1955, he helped with the Army's administrative reshaping and supported the military movement headed by the Minister of War, General Henrique Teixeira Lott, who secured the inauguration of President-elect Juscelino Kubitschek, who at that time was threatened with a military coup. Months when trade union organizations resolved to hand over to the Minister a golden sword, Castelo broke with General Lott; the press recorded a few moments of this misunderstanding.
As General, he commanded ECEME, between September 15, 1954 and January 3, 1956. During this period, he perfected his Command Work of 1948, seeking to better suit him characteristics of Brazilian Chiefs and Staff Officers. Conferences such as "The War Doctrine and the Modern War" and "Security Problems", held in ECEME, are milestones in the evolution of the doctrinal thinking of this School, he commanded the 8th Military Region in Belém, the 10th Military Region in Fortaleza and the IV Army in Recife. At the time he reached the Presidency of the Republic he was Chief of Staff of the Army, a position he held from September 13, 1963 to April 14, 1964. Castelo Branco became one of the leaders of the 1964 Brazilian coup d'état that overthrew Goulart and ended the Second Brazilian Republic. On April 11, Congress chose him to serve out the remainder of Goulart's term and he took the oath of office on April 15, 1964. Castelo Branco was the second Brazilian Field Marshal to become President of the nation through a coup d'état, the first was Deodoro da Fonseca, who deposed Emperor Pedro II of Brazil in 1889, ended the Brazilian Empire and established the First Brazilian Republic.
Castelo Branco was vested with emergency powers under the First Institutional Act, which among other things allowed him to cancel the political rights of "subversive elements" for ten years. He was otherwise committed to permitting normal political activities while carrying out reform through legislation. In March 1965 municipal elections were held as planned. Castelo Branco had every intention of turning over power to a civilian president when his term was due to run out in 1966. However, the hard-line officers within the regime with the support of War Minister Artur da Costa e Silva, wanted to stay in power for a greater period of time in order to achieve their political goals. Events reached a breaking point in October 1965, when opposition candidates won the governorships of the major states of Minas Gerais and Guanabara. Hard-liners demanded that Castelo Branco annul the results. Another coup was averted after Costa e Silva persuaded hard-liners to recognize the election results in return for Castelo Branco's promise to implement a tougher policy.
Thereafter, Castelo Branco dropped all pretense of democracy. On October 27, 1965 he
The Federal Senate is the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. Created by the first Constitution of the Brazilian Empire in 1824, it was similar to the United Kingdom's House of Lords. Since the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 the Federal Senate has resembled the United States Senate; the Senate comprises 81 seats. Three Senators from each of the 26 states and three Senators from the Federal District are elected on a majority basis to serve eight-year terms. Elections are staggered so that two-thirds of the upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third four years later; when one seat is up for election in each State, each voter casts one vote for the Senate. The candidate in each State and the Federal District who achieve the greatest plurality of votes are elected; the current president of the Brazilian Senate is Davi Alcolumbre, from the Democrats of Amapá. He was elected in early 2019 for a two-year term; the Federal Senate of Brazil was established as the Senate of the Empire by the Constitution of 1824, first enacted after the Declaration of Independence.
Following independence, in 1822, Emperor Pedro I ordered the convocation of a National Assembly to draft the country's first Constitution. Following several disagreements with the elected deputies, the Emperor dissolved the Assembly. In 1824, Pedro I implemented the first Constitution which established a Legislative branch with the Chamber of Deputies as the lower house, the Senate as an upper house; the first configuration of the Senate was a consulting body to the Emperor. Membership was for life and it was a place of great prestige, to which only a small part of the population could aspire. Members of the Senate were elected, but they had to be at least 40 years old and have an annual income of 800,000 contos-de-réis, which limited candidates to wealthy citizens. Voters faced an income qualification. Voting in an election for the Senate was limited to male citizens with an annual income of at least 200,000 contos-de-réis; those who qualified for this did not vote directly for Senators. To be a Senate elector required an annual income of 400,000 contos-de-réis.
Once elected, these electors would vote for senator. The election itself would not result in a winner automatically; the three candidates receiving the most votes would make up what was called a "triple list", from which the Emperor would select one individual that would be considered "elected". The Emperor chose the candidate with the most votes, but it was within his discretion to select whichever of the three individuals listed; the unelected Princes of the Brazilian Imperial House were senators by right and would assume their seats in the Senate upon reaching age 25. The original Senate had 50 members, representing all of the Empire's Provinces, each with a number of senators proportional to its population. Following the adoption of the 1824 Constitution the first session of the Senate took place in May 1826; the Emperor had delayed calling the first election, which had led to accusations that he would attempt to establish an absolutist government. The Senate comprises 81 seats. Three Senators from each of the 26 states and three Senators from the Federal District are elected on a majority basis to serve eight-year terms.
Elections are staggered so that two-thirds of the upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third four years later. When one seat is up for election in each State, each voter casts one vote for the Senate; the candidate in each State and the Federal District who achieve the greatest plurality of votes are elected. The current composition of the Board of the Federal Senate is as follows: The current composition of the House is as follows: Federal institutions of Brazil Official website of the Brazilian Senate Photos 360° of the Brazilian Senate List of all Brazilian senators