Lornna J. Soto Villanueva is a Puerto Rican politician affiliated with the New Progressive Party, she is the current mayor of Canóvanas, succeeding her father, José "Chemo" Soto in 2014. Before being mayor, Soto was elected Senator for the district of Carolina in the 2004 general election along with Senator Héctor Martínez Maldonado, she served as Senator until 2013. Lornna Soto was born on May 1970 in Río Piedras, Puerto Rico, she is the third of nine children born to José "Chemo" Soto, former mayor of Canóvanas, Puerto Rico, Delia "Niní" Villanueva. Soto has a Bachelor's degree in Finance from the University of Puerto Rico at Carolina and a Master's degree in Public Affairs with a specialty in Public Policy from the Universidad del Este in Carolina. In 1997, Soto started working as a special assistant to the Representative for the 38th District of Trujillo Alto and Canóvanas, Iván Figueroa Figueroa, she worked as an adviser for the Commission of Consumer Affairs of the House of Representatives.
In 2001, she worked with the mayors of Fajardo and Río Grande, Aníbal Meléndez Rivera and Emilio Rosa Pacheco, as a public relations adviser. During this year, she was in charge of the implementation of the Business Development Center from Loíza, an institution that helps the residents of that municipality with employment opportunities; that year, she started working in the Health Department of San Juan, where she was in charge of the recruiting of municipalities for the creation and implementation of several health programs. Soto was elected as a Senator for the District of Carolina at the 2004 general elections, she was sworn in on January 10, 2005. Soto was re-elected in 2008. During her time in the Senate, Soto has presided the Banking, Consumer Affairs, Public Corporations and Insurance Committees in the senate. In 2012, Soto lost her bid for reelection. Lornna Soto was sworn in as mayor of Canóvanas in July 1, 2014, she succeeded José "Chemo" Soto, who had retired earlier that year. On June 5, 2016 she was nominated as the New Progressive Party's mayoral candidate for a full term, obtaining 54% of the vote in a five-way race.
A Democrat, Lornna Soto has attended three Democratic National Conventions, including Denver in 2008, Charlotte in 2012 and Philadelphia in 2016, where she was a delegate representing the Carolina Senatorial District. On April 8, 2016 she was the only woman to file as a candidate for Vice Chair of the Puerto Rico Democratic Party and, along with Democratic activist Francisco Domenech and Democratic National Committeeman Kenneth McClintock has filed a credentials challenge to be recognized as the incumbent Vice Chair; the challenge is pending resolution before the Democratic National Committee and its Credentials Committee. Soto is the divorced mother of two daughters: Pamela Julianys. Lornna Soto on SenadoPR http://www.primerahora.com/noticias/gobierno-politica/nota/lornnasotoyaeslaalcaldesadecanovanas-1012262/
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
The chupacabra or chupacabras is a legendary creature in the folklore of parts of the Americas, with its first purported sightings reported in Puerto Rico. The name comes from the animal's reported habit of attacking and drinking the blood of livestock, including goats. Physical descriptions of the creature vary, it is purportedly a heavy creature, the size of a small bear, with a row of spines reaching from the neck to the base of the tail. Eyewitness sightings have been claimed in Puerto Rico, have since been reported as far north as Maine, as far south as Chile, being spotted outside the Americas in countries like Russia and the Philippines, but many of the reports have been disregarded as uncorroborated or lacking evidence. Sightings in northern Mexico and the southern United States have been verified as canids afflicted by mange. According to biologists and wildlife management officials, the chupacabra is an urban legend. Chupacabras can be translated as "goat-sucker", from chupar and cabra.
It is known as both chupacabras and chupacabra throughout the Americas, with the former being the original word, the latter a regularization of it. The name is attributed to Puerto Rican comedian Silverio Pérez, who coined the label in 1995 while commenting on the attacks as a San Juan radio deejay; the first reported attack attributed to the creatures occurred in March 1995 in Puerto Rico. Eight sheep were discovered dead, each with three puncture wounds in the chest area and drained of blood. A few months in August, an eyewitness, Madelyne Tolentino, reported seeing the creature in the Puerto Rican town of Canóvanas, when as many as 150 farm animals and pets were killed. In 1975, similar killings in the small town of Moca were attributed to El Vampiro de Moca, it was suspected that the killings were committed by a Satanic cult. Each of the animals was reported to have had its body bled dry through a series of small circular incisions. Puerto Rican comedian and entrepreneur Silverio Pérez is credited with coining the term chupacabras soon after the first incidents were reported in the press.
Shortly after the first reported incidents in Puerto Rico, other animal deaths were reported in other countries, such as the Dominican Republic, Bolivia, Colombia, Honduras, El Salvador, Panama, Brazil, United States, Mexico. A five-year investigation by Benjamin Radford, documented in his 2011 book Tracking the Chupacabra, concluded that the description given by the original eyewitness in Puerto Rico, Madelyne Tolentino, was based on the creature Sil in the 1995 science-fiction horror film Species; the alien creature Sil is nearly identical to Tolentino’s chupacabra eyewitness account and she had seen the movie before her report: "It was a creature that looked like the chupacabra, with spines on its back and all... The resemblance to the chupacabra was impressive," Tolentino reported. Radford revealed that Tolentino "believed that the creatures and events she saw in Species were happening in reality in Puerto Rico at the time," and therefore concludes that "the most important chupacabra description cannot be trusted."
This, Radford believes undermines the credibility of the chupacabra as a real animal. In addition, the reports of blood-sucking by the chupacabra were never confirmed by a necropsy, the only way to conclude that the animal was drained of blood. An analysis by a veterinarian of 300 reported victims of the chupacabra found that they had not been bled dry. Radford divided the chupacabra reports into two categories: the reports from Puerto Rico and Latin America where animals were attacked and it is supposed their blood was extracted, the reports in the United States of mammals dogs and coyotes with mange, that people call "chupacabra" due to their unusual appearance. In late October 2010, University of Michigan biologist Barry O'Connor concluded that all the chupacabra reports in the United States were coyotes infected with the parasite Sarcoptes scabiei, whose symptoms would explain most of the features of the chupacabra: they would be left with little fur, thickened skin, rank odor. O'Connor theorized that the attacks on goats occurred "because these animals are weakened, they're going to have a hard time hunting.
So they may be forced into attacking livestock because it's easier than running down a rabbit or a deer."Although several witnesses came to the conclusion that the attacks could not be the work of dogs or coyotes because they had not eaten the victim, this conclusion is incorrect. Both dogs and coyotes can kill and not consume the prey, either because they are inexperienced, or due to injury or difficulty in killing the prey; the prey can die afterwards from internal bleeding or circulatory shock. The presence of two holes in the neck, corresponding with the canine teeth, are to be expected since this is the only way that most land carnivores have to catch their prey. There are reports of stray Mexican Hairless Dogs being mistaken for chupacabras; the most common description of the chupacabra is that of a reptile-like creature, said to have leathery or scaly greenish-gray skin and sharp spines or quills running down its back. It is said to be 3 to 4 feet high, stands and hops in a fashion similar to that of a kangaroo.
Another common description of the chupacabra is of a strange breed of wild dog. This form is hairless and has a pronounced spinal ridge, unusually pronounced eye sockets and claws. Unlike c
El Nuevo Día
El Nuevo Día is the newspaper with the highest circulation in Puerto Rico. It was founded in 1909 in Ponce, Puerto Rico, today it is a subsidiary of GFR Media, its headquarters are in Puerto Rico. El Nuevo Día was founded in 1909 in the city of Ponce as "El Diario de Puerto Rico," changing its name to "El Día" in 1911, a name it kept for nearly seven decades, its founder was Guillermo V. Cintrón, with assistance from Nemesio Canales, its editorial staff consisted of Felix Matos Bernier, Juan Braschi, Nemesio R. Canales, Felix Astol, Eugenio Deschamps. In 1928 Guillermo V. Cintron sold the paper to Guillermo Vivas Valdivieso who formed an editorial team consisting of the three Gil De Lamadrid brothers, Enrique Colon Barega, Julio Enrique Monagas, published the paper until 1945. Under his directorship the paper started distribution in San Juan, Puerto Rico. On 8 November 1945, the newspaper was acquired by Ponce native and future governor Luis A. Ferré, its board of directors consisted of Raul Matos Balaguer, Arturo Gallardo Guerrero, Miguel Sotero Palermo, Juan A. Wirshing, Luis A. Ferre.
After Ferré was elected governor of Puerto Rico in 1968, his eldest son, Antonio Luis Ferré, purchased the paper from his father. The paper's slogan was "Y vivamos la moral, que es lo que nos hace falta". Two years after this, in 1970, Antonio Luis moved the newspaper to San Juan and renamed it "El Nuevo Día"; the paper's first director under Antonio Luis Ferre was Carlos Castañeda. During its first years in San Juan, El Nuevo Dia's newsroom was located in the "Torre de la Reina" building, near the Luis Muñoz Rivera Park in Puerta de Tierra, it subsequently moved, to its current location municipality of Guaynabo. "El Nuevo Día" continues to be published by the Ferré family. The newspaper's current president is María Eugenia Ferré Rangel and the current editor is Luis Alberto Ferré Rangel; as of 2006, El Nuevo Día is the most read newspaper in Puerto Rico, with a daily circulation of 155,000. Its main competitor in terms of sales is El Vocero. Content-wise, both papers have somewhat different news audiences.
While El Nuevo Día has been known for its political reporting, El Vocero has traditionally taken a more tabloid-oriented approach, giving greater prominence to news stories on daily street crime. More however, "El Vocero" has begun to put greater emphasis to political and business news, making it a more direct competitor to "El Nuevo Día." In addition to its political and community sections, El Nuevo Día has sports and business sections. Its previous television commercial campaign slogan read: El Nuevo Día: Un Gran Periodico; the campaign slogan changed to "El Nuevo Día: Conocer es Crecer". From 2003 to 2008, El Nuevo Día had an Orlando edition called El Nuevo Dia Orlando, it was published on weekdays. On 13 November 2006, the newspaper began to circulate free of charge; the paper printed 25,000 copies daily. A study showed that 96 % percent of people; the Orlando edition ceased publication on 29 August 2008. List of newspapers in Puerto Rico El Nuevo Día's website El Nuevo Día's online archive El Nuevo Día's corporate site Today's El Nuevo Día front page at the Newseum website
Popular Democratic Party (Puerto Rico)
The Popular Democratic Party is a political party in Puerto Rico that advocates to continue as a Commonwealth of the United States with self-government. The party was founded in 1938 by dissidents from the Puerto Rican Liberal Party and the Unionist Party and promoted policies on the center-left. In recent years, its leaders have described the party as centrist; as one of the long-standing parties on the island, the PPD has played a significant role in the history of Puerto Rico. In the early 1950s, for example, the party held a majority in the delegation convened to draft the Constitution of Puerto Rico. Once the constitution was ratified, the document was proclaimed by the party's leader and co-founder, Luis Muñoz Marín—who, in doing so, became the first Puerto Rican governor elected by the people of Puerto Rico; the party ruled all branches of the Puerto Rican government afterward for 36 of the past 67 years, while establishing many of the institutions that permeate Puerto Rican society today.
Today, the party is one of the two major parties in Puerto Rico with significant political strength. In the executive branch, the party's last governor was Alejandro García Padilla who governed the island from 2013–2017, it holds minorities in the legislative and judicial branches by holding minorities in the Senate, in the House, in the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, however, is from the PPD. In the municipal landscape, the party holds more than half of the seats of mayors. Ideologically, the PPD differs from the other parties active in the island. For example, the party's opponent has been the New Progressive Party, which advocates for Puerto Rico to become a state of the United States. Both parties have ruled the island unopposed for years after the Puerto Rican constitution was ratified in 1952. Members of the party are referred to in different terms depending on their faction. In general, those affiliated to the party are called populares and affiliate with the Democratic Party of the United States.
Internally, members aligned with the delegation that drafted the constitution compose the largest faction and are referred to as'conservatives'. A smaller'liberal' faction is referred to as the soberanistas, advocates for Puerto Rico to enter a compact of free association with the United States rather than remain an unincorporated part of the United States. Dissidents expelled from the Liberal Party of Puerto Rico, founded the PPD in 1938. Many of them were part of the old socialist movement of Puerto Rico; the dissident faction calling themselves the Partido Liberal, Auténtico y Completo, was led by Luis Muñoz Marín. In 1937, the debate had concerned the differences between the moderate demands of autonomy leading to gradual independence by the Liberal Party faction led by Barcelo, the desire for more radical demands of immediate independence and social reform by Muñoz and his followers. In 1940, the highest elective political office in Puerto Rican was as president of its Senate. At the time, the governor was appointed by the president of the United States.
In the 1940 election, the Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico finished in a dead heat with the Liberal Party. Luis Muñoz Marin of the PPD brokered an alliance with minor Puerto Rican factions so as to secure his position as Senate president; the elections in 1944 and 1948 resulted in greater victory margins for the PPD. Once Jesús T. Piñero stepped down as the first Puerto Rican named governor, the governor's office became an elected position. In 1949, under the leadership of Luis Muñoz Marín, the PPD won the first gubernatorial elections in Puerto Rico, Muñoz became the first elected governor of the island, he served for what is the longest continuous rule by a governor in Puerto Rican history, being re-elected three times, serving a total of four 4-year terms, or 16 years. This record has been surpassed only by one of the governors under Spanish rule. On May 21, 1948, one of the PPD introduced a bill that would restrain the rights of the independence and nationalist movements in the island.
Controlled by the PPD, the legislature passed the Bill. The Bill known as the "Ley de la Mordaza", made it illegal to display a Puerto Rican flag, to sing a patriotic tune, to talk of independence, to fight for the liberation of the island; the Bill which resembled the anti-communist Smith Law passed in the United States, was signed and made into law on June 10, 1948, by the U. S.-appointed governor of Puerto Rico, Jesús T. Piñero and became known as "Ley 53"; the new law made it a crime to print, sale, to exhibit or organize or to help anyone organize any society, group or assembly of people whose intentions are to paralyze or destroy the insular government. Anyone accused and found guilty of disobeying the law could be sentenced to ten years of prison, be fined $10,000 dollars or both. According to Dr. Leopoldo Figueroa, a member of the Puerto Rico House of Representatives, the law was repressive and violated the First Amendment of the US Constitution which guarantees Freedom of Speech, he pointed out that the law was a violation of the civil rights of the peopl
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
1992 Puerto Rican general election
General elections were held in Puerto Rico on 3 November 1992. Pedro Rosselló of the New Progressive Party was elected Governor, whilst the PNP won a majority of seats in the House of Representatives and the Senate. Voter turnout was between 82% and 84%