Above All Else in the World
Above All Else in the World is a 1941 German drama film directed by Karl Ritter and starring Paul Hartmann, Hannes Stelzer and Fritz Kampers. The title refers to the second line of the German national anthem, it was made as a propaganda film designed to promote Nazi Germany's war aims in the Second World War. Following the outbreak of war, Germans abroad face persecution from the British and French authorities. Kreimeier, Klaus; the Ufa Story: A History of Germany's Greatest Film Company, 1918-1945. University of California Press, 1999. Above All Else in the World on IMDb
The Last Four on Santa Cruz
The Last Four on Santa Cruz is a 1936 German drama film directed by Werner Klingler and starring Hermann Speelmans, Irene von Meyendorff and Valéry Inkijinoff. The film was shot at the Babelsberg Studios on location in the Canary Islands. Hermann Speelmans as Kapitän Pieter Streuvels Irene von Meyendorff as Madeleine - seine Braut Valéry Inkijinoff as Reeder Alexis Aika Françoise Rosay as Nadja Danouw Erich Ponto as Alexander Ghazaroff Josef Sieber as Jack Max Schreck as William Beppo Brem as Erik Andrews Engelmann as Cairos Harald Gloth as Hein Walter Holten as Sklavenhalter Malherbes Ludwig Andersen as Dunard Max Harry Ernst as Ein Gast Parish, Robert. Film Actors Guide. Scarecrow Press, 1977; the Last Four on Santa Cruz on IMDb
A Tremendously Rich Man
A Tremendously Rich Man is a 1932 German comedy film directed by Steve Sekely and starring Curt Bois, Dolly Haas and Adele Sandrock. It premiered on 13 February 1932; the film was a co-production between the German subsidiary of Universal Pictures and the German firm Tobis Film. After he accidentally swallows a valuable diamond, a jeweler's assistant is pursued by a variety of people including criminals. With the assistance of his girlfriend Dolly he manages to evade them. Curt Bois as Curt Dolly Haas as Dolly Adele Sandrock as Adele Liselotte Schaak as Ulla Egon Brosig as Fürst Fritz Ley as Notar Paul Hörbiger as Linkerton Willi Schur as Emil Paul Biensfeldt as Ferdinand Margarete Kupfer as Bella da Vasco Friedrich Ettel as Arzt Annie Ann Eduard Rothauser Josef Dahmen Peter Ihle Hermann Picha Hermann Pittschau Walter Steinbeck Michael von Newlinsky Grange, William. Cultural Chronicle of the Weimar Republic. Scarecrow Press, 2008. A Tremendously Rich Man on IMDb
West Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, referred to by historians as the Bonn Republic, was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the western portion of Germany was part of the Western bloc during the Cold War. It was created during the Allied occupation of Germany in 1949 after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France, its capital was the city of Bonn. At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Eastern blocs. Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin; the Federal Republic of Germany claimed an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, considering itself to be the democratically reorganised continuation of the 1871–1945 German Empire. It took the line. Though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not fair. From the West German perspective, the GDR was therefore illegitimate.
Three southwestern states of West Germany merged to form Baden-Württemberg in 1952, the Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957. In addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial de facto 11th state. While not part of the Federal Republic of Germany, as Berlin was under the control of the Allied Control Council, West Berlin politically-aligned itself with West Germany and was represented in its federal institutions; the foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid during the Wirtschaftswunder of the 1950s when West Germany rose from the enormous destruction wrought by World War II to become the world's third-largest economy. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office until 1963, had worked for a full alignment with NATO rather than neutrality, he not only secured a membership in NATO but was a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union. When the G6 was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well.
Following the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, there was a rapid move towards German reunification. East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990, its five post-war states were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional Land. They formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany; the reunion did not result in a brand-new country. The expanded Federal Republic retained West Germany's political culture and continued its existing memberships in international organisations, as well as its Western foreign policy alignment and affiliation to Western alliances like UN, NATO, OECD and the European Union; the official name of West Germany, adopted in 1949 and unchanged since is Bundesrepublik Deutschland. In East Germany, the terms Westdeutschland or westdeutsche Bundesrepublik were preferred during the 1950s and 1960s.
This changed once under its 1968 constitution, when the idea of a single German nation was abandoned by East Germany, as a result West Germans and West Berliners were considered foreigners. In the early 1970s, starting in the East German Neues Deutschland, the initialism "BRD" for the "Federal Republic of Germany" began to prevail in East German usage. In 1973, official East German sources adopted it as a standard expression and other Eastern Bloc nations soon followed suit. In reaction to this move, in 1965 the West German Federal Minister of All-German Affairs Erich Mende issued the Directives for the appellation of Germany, recommending avoiding the initialism. On 31 May 1974, the heads of West German federal and state governments recommended always using the full name in official publications. From on West German sources avoided the abbreviated form, with the exception of left-leaning organizations which embraced it. In November 1979 the federal government informed the Bundestag that the West German public broadcasters ARD and ZDF had agreed to refuse to use the initialism.
The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code of West Germany was "DE", which has remained the country code of Germany after reunification. ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 are the most used country codes, the "DE" code is notably used as country identifier extending the postal code and as the Internet's country code top-level domain.de. Accordingly the less used ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 country code of West Germany was "DEU", which has remained the country code of reunified Germany; the now deleted codes for East Germany, on the other hand, was "DD" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 and "DDR" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-3. The colloquial term "West Germany" or its equivalent was used in many languages. "Westdeutschland" was a widespread colloquial form used in German-speaking countries without political overtones. On 4–11 February 1945 leaders from the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union held the Yalta Conference where future arrangements as regards post-war Europe and strategy against Japan in the Pacific were negotiated.
The conference agreed that post-war Germany would be divided into four occupation zones: a French Zone in the far west.
Pappi is a 1934 German comedy film directed by Arthur Maria Rabenalt and starring Viktor de Kowa, Hilde Weissner and Petra Unkel. It is part of the circus film genre; the film's sets were designed by the art director Hermann Warm. Viktor de Kowa as Hans Werner Hilde Weissner as Jenny Anderson Petra Unkel as Lilly Emilia Unda as Tante Anna Hans Deppe as Willibald Bisam Hans Sternberg as Gastwirt Krüger Josef Dahmen as Fred Josef Sieber as Lehmann Rudolf Platte as Der Mann Herti Kirchner as Die Frau Maria Krahn as Frau von Keller Waldman, Harry. Nazi Films in America, 1933-1942. McFarland, 2008. Pappi on IMDb
The German Empire known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January 1871, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern. Berlin remained its capital, Otto von Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government; as these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War. The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families, they included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, one imperial territory. Although Prussia was one of several kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory.
Prussian dominance was established constitutionally. After 1850, the states of Germany had become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, Germany had a population of 41 million people. A rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. By 1900, Germany was the largest economy in Europe, surpassing the United Kingdom, as well as the second-largest in the world, behind only the United States. From 1867 to 1878/9, Otto von Bismarck's tenure as the first and to this day longest reigning Chancellor was marked by relative liberalism, but it became more conservative afterwards. Broad reforms and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office. Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the leftover territory, yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones.
As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers the British Empire. Germany became a great power, boasting a developing rail network, the world's strongest army, a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy. After the removal of Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II in 1890, the Empire embarked on Weltpolitik – a bellicose new course that contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In addition, Bismarck's successors were incapable of maintaining their predecessor's complex and overlapping alliances which had kept Germany from being diplomatically isolated; this period was marked by various factors influencing the Emperor's decisions, which were perceived as contradictory or unpredictable by the public. In 1879, the German Empire consolidated the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, followed by the Triple Alliance with Italy in 1882, it retained strong diplomatic ties to the Ottoman Empire. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.
In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris in the autumn of 1914 failed. The war on the Western Front became a stalemate; the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. However, Imperial Germany had success on the Eastern Front; the German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917, contributed to bringing the United States into the war. The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff controlled the country, but in October after the failed offensive in spring 1918, the German armies were in retreat, allies Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered; the Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution with the abdications of its monarchs. This left a postwar federal republic and a devastated and unsatisfied populace, which led to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism; the German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris.
German nationalism shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck's pragmatic Realpolitik. Bismarck sought to extend Hohenzollern hegemony throughout the German states, he envisioned a Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars led to military successes and helped to persuade German people to do this: the Second Schleswig War against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, the Franco-Prussian War against France in 1870–71; the German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between the constituent Confederation entities of the Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. The war resulted in the partial replacement of the Confederation in 1867 by a North German Confederation, comprising the 22 states north of the Main; the patriotic fervour generated by the Franco-Prussian War overwhelmed the remaining opposition to a unified Germany in the four stat
Ohm Krüger is a 1941 German biographical film directed by Hans Steinhoff and starring Emil Jannings, Lucie Höflich and Werner Hinz. It was one of a series of propaganda films produced in Nazi Germany attacking the British; the film depicts the life of the South African politician Paul Kruger and his eventual defeat by the British during the Boer War. It was the first film to be awarded the'Film of the Nation' award, it was re-released in 1944. The film opens with a dying Paul Krüger speaking about his life to his nurse in a Geneva hotel; the rest of the film is told in flashback. Cecil Rhodes has a great desire to acquire land in the region of the Boers for its gold deposits, he sends Dr Jameson there to provoke border disturbances, secures support from Joseph Chamberlain. When Chamberlain seeks the support of Queen Victoria and her son Edward, Prince of Wales, she refuses but changes her mind when informed of the gold in the region, she invites Paul Krüger to London, believes she is tricking him into signing a treaty.
Krüger, being suspicious of the British, has his own plans. Krüger signs the treaty. Hence Krüger tricks the British by signing the treaty; this impresses some of the British as they find Krüger is their equal in matters of cunning, supposed to be the defining characteristic of the British. Having been outmaneuvered, Rhodes tries to buy Krüger's allegiance. Krüger and his wife Sanna, are incorruptible. After being rejected, Rhodes shows Krüger a long list of members of the Boer council who work for the British. Krüger becomes convinced that war is inevitable if the Boers are to keep their land, he declares war. The Boers are on the ascendancy, leading Britain to appoint Lord Kitchener as Supreme Commander of the armed forces. Kitchener launches an attack on the civilian population, destroying their homes, using some as human shields and placing the women and children in concentration camps, in an attempt to damage the morale of the Boer Army. Krüger's son Jan, who has pro-British sentiments due to his Oxford education, visits a concentration camp to find his wife, Petra.
He is hanged, with his wife watching. When the women respond in anger, they are massacred; the flashback concludes in the Geneva hotel room. Krüger prophesies the destruction of Britain by major world powers, which will make the world a better place to live in. Ohm Krüger was one of a number of anti-British propaganda feature films produced by the Nazis during the war, most of which focused on the theme of colonialism to demonstrate through Britain's history the true nature of the British character; some of these productions, such as Der Fuchs von Glenarvon and Mein Leben für Irland, represented British relations with Ireland. Other works criticized its imperialism toward the Afrikaans-speaking Boers, of which Ohm Krüger was the most expensive and powerful, it used the Boer War to present the British as violent, an enemy to civilisation. In doing so, it was able to complement the anti-imperalist views of the press, appeal to the German public's interest in colonial issues, build upon the hatred of the British that had grown with RAF bombing raids on German targets.
It was one of a number of films intended to prepare Germany for a planned invasion of Britain. Its somewhat crude attack on Britain is typical of films, such as Carl Peters, after Hitler came to the conclusion that no separate peace with Britain was possible, it depicts the British as seeking gold, symbolic of barrenness and evil, in contrast to the Boers who raise crops and animals. Kruger's son decides to obey Kruger. Publicity material which accompanied the film drew attention to the role of Winston Churchill in the Boer Wars, during which he served as a journalist. Tobis advised the press to emphasise'what Churchill learnt in the Boer War':'The same Churchill who in South Africa saw his ideas about exterminating the Boers followed throughout, as the English rulers, voicing polished humanitarian slogans, while driven by mere greed, unleashed the most contemptible actions on a people under attack, he same Churchill is now Albion's prime minister. British concentration camps were portrayed in the film as intentionally inhumane.
Meanwhile, major expansion of the Nazi camp system was being implemented. Parallels were drawn between the Boer War and the Second World War, between Paul Krüger and Adolf Hitler. Key British figures are demonised in the film, including Joseph Chamberlain and the Prince of Wales. Queen Victoria is presented as a drunkard and the British concentration camp commandant, responsible for the killing of female inmates, resembles Winston Churchill, it reflects German anger at the loss of all German colonies at the end of World War I, though less directly than Carl Peters. The first outline for Ohm Krüger was begun in September 1940 by Harald Bratt; the film had high production costs of over 5.5 million Reichmarks. At the time, Joseph Goebbels had been encouraging film-makers to have lower production costs, but he made an exception for Ohm Krüger, declaring it to be reichswichtig due to its propagandistic and artistic value; the film is unique. A big hit