Ian Kevin Curtis was an English singer-songwriter and musician. He was the lead singer and lyricist of the post-punk band Joy Division and recorded two albums with the group: Unknown Pleasures and Closer. Curtis, who suffered from epilepsy and depression, took his own life on the eve of Joy Division's first North American tour and shortly before the release of Closer, his suicide resulted in the subsequent formation of New Order. Curtis was known for his bass-baritone voice, dance style, songwriting filled with imagery of desolation and alienation. Curtis was born on 15 July 1956, at the Memorial Hospital in Stretford and grew up in a working-class household in Macclesfield, Cheshire, he was the first of two children born to Doreen Curtis. From an early age, Curtis was a bookish and intelligent child, displaying a particular flair for poetry, he was awarded a scholarship at the age of 11 at Macclesfield's independent King's School. Here, he developed his interests in philosophy and eminent poets such as Thom Gunn.
While at King's School, he was awarded several scholastic awards in recognition of his abilities. The year after Ian had graduated from King's School, the Curtis family purchased a house from a relative, moved to New Moston; as a teenager, Curtis chose to perform social service by visiting the elderly as part of a school programme. While visiting, he and his friends would steal any prescription drugs that they found and take them together as a group. On one occasion when he was sixteen, after consuming a large dosage of Largactil he and his friends had stolen, Curtis was discovered unconscious in his bedroom by his father and was taken to hospital to have his stomach pumped. Curtis had held a keen interest in music since the age of twelve, this interest developed in his teenage years, with artists such as Jim Morrison and David Bowie being particular favourites of his, thus influencing his poetry and art. Curtis could afford to purchase records, leading him to steal them from local shops. By his mid-teens, Curtis had developed a reputation among his peers as a strong-willed individual, with a keen interest in fashion.
Despite gaining nine O-levels at King's School, studying A-Levels in History and Divinity at St. John's College, Curtis soon became disenchanted with academic life, abandoned his studies to commit himself to finding employment. Despite abandoning his studies at St. John's College, Curtis continued to focus on the pursuit of art and music, would draw lyrical and conceptual inspiration from more insidious subjects. Curtis obtained a job at a record shop in Manchester City Centre, before obtaining more stable employment within the civil service, his employment as a civil servant saw Curtis deployed to Cheadle Hulme, where he worked for several months with the Ministry of Defence, before he was offered alternate employment within the Manpower Services Commission in a building at Piccadilly Gardens. He worked as a civil servant in Woodford, Greater Manchester, although at his request one year Curtis was posted to Macclesfield's Employment Exchange, where he worked as an Assistant Disablement Resettlement Officer.
On 23 August 1975, Curtis married Deborah Woodruff, to whom he was introduced by a friend, Tony Nuttall. Ian and Deborah became friends began dating in December 1972, when both were 16 years old, their wedding service was conducted at St Thomas' Church in Cheshire. Curtis was 19 and Woodruff 18, they had one child, a daughter named Natalie, born on 16 April 1979. The couple lived with Ian's grandparents, although shortly after their marriage, the couple moved to a working-class neighbourhood in Chadderton, where they paid a mortgage while working in jobs neither enjoyed. Before long, the couple became disillusioned with life in Oldham, remortgaged their house before returning to live with Ian's grandparents. Shortly thereafter, in May 1977, the couple moved into their own house in Barton Street, with one of the rooms of the property becoming colloquially known between the couple as Curtis' "song-writing room". At a July 1976 Sex Pistols gig at Manchester's Lesser Free Trade Hall, Curtis encountered three childhood school friends named Bernard Sumner, Peter Hook, Terry Mason.
The trio informed Curtis—whom they had seen at earlier punk gigs at The Electric Circus—of their intentions to form a band, Curtis informed them of his then-recent efforts to do before proposing himself as both their singer and lyricist. Mason became the band's drummer, but his rehearsal sessions were unproductive, he became the band's manager; the group unsuccessfully attempted to recruit several drummers before selecting Stephen Morris in August 1977. The band was managed by Rob Gretton, who—having seen Joy Division perform live at local venues such as Rafters—offered to become their manager in 1978; the band named themselves "Warsaw", from the title of a song on David Bowie's then-recent album Low, but as this name somewhat conflicted with that of a London-based group named "Warsaw Pakt", they renamed themselves "Joy Division". This moniker was derived from the 1955 novel The House of Dolls, which featured a Nazi concentration camp with a sexual slavery wing called the "Joy Division"; the cover of the band's first EP depicted a drawing of a Hitler Youth beating a drum and the A-side contained a song, "Warsaw", a musical retelling of the life of Nazi leader Rudolf Hess.
After founding Factory Records with Alan Erasmus, Tony Wilson signed the band
The Wedding Present
The Wedding Present are a British indie rock group formed in 1985 in Leeds, from the ashes of the Lost Pandas. The band's music has evolved from fast-paced indie rock in the vein of their most obvious influences The Fall and Gang of Four to more varied forms. Throughout their career, they have been led by vocalist and guitarist David Gedge, the band's only constant member; the band has its origins in the Lost Pandas, which folded in 1984 when Janet Rigby, the drummer for the band, left following departure of guitarist Michael Duane. David Gedge and The Lost Pandas' bass player, Keith Gregory, decided to continue the band, renaming it The Wedding Present; the name was jointly conceived by Gedge and his girlfriend at the time, as they were both avid fans of The Birthday Party and it was an homage to their favourite band. I’ve always thought that The Wedding Present was an inappropriate name for a pop band — more like a poem, or a book or something — and therefore quite attractive. I’ve always been fascinated by weddings...
Gedge and Gregory recruited an old schoolmate of Gedge's, Peter Solowka, to play guitar and auditioned a string of drummers, including John Ramsden, Mike Bedford, with whom they recorded a demo tape, before settling on Shaun Charman. The country's clubs and bars were toured as the band prepared for the recording of their first, self-financed single. "Go Out and Get ’Em, Boy!" was chosen over early favourite "Will You Be Up There?" Charman felt somewhat insecure about his drumming abilities and so the A-side features drumming by hired hand Julian Sowa. The single was released on the band's own Reception Records label with distribution through Red Rhino. Two more singles followed that did well on the independent charts helped by veteran BBC radio DJ John Peel, one of their first champions, he invited starting a long collaboration. By the time the band started work on their debut album, a number of independent and major record companies showed interest, but the band declined all offers and decided to keep releasing their material themselves.
The album was released in 1987 and titled George Best after the well-known Northern Irish football player. Disagreement on production values with the record's producer, Chris Allison, led to the album being remixed by the band and their engineer, Steve Lyon. Upon its release, the album was critically acclaimed and the band were soon classified, with some of their peers, as members of the'shambling' or C86 scene, a categorisation that they vehemently declined. Musically, the album featured fast-paced rhythm guitar. Soon after the release of George Best, the early singles and radio sessions were compiled and released as Tommy; when Solowka, who has Ukrainian roots, started fooling around with a Ukrainian folk tune during one of their Peel sessions, the idea arose to devote some of their radio time to recording their versions of Ukrainian folk songs, encouraged by Peel. To this end, two guest musicians were invited, singer/violin player Len Liggins and mandolin player Roman Remeynes, three Peel sessions were recorded with Gedge temporarily limiting himself to playing rhythm guitar and arranging the songs.
Between the recording of the first and the second'Ukrainian' session, Charman was fired from the band. His replacement was Simon Smith, who remained the band's drummer until 1997 and for a long time was, next to Gedge, the only other stable factor in the shifting line-ups; the band planned on releasing eight cuts from the Ukrainian sessions on a 10" LP and an initial batch was pressed when Red Rhino went into receivership. Rather than trying to find a new distribution company, the band decided to fold their Reception label altogether and sign with a regular record company: RCA. Although the band were criticized by some quarters for'selling out', under the terms of their contract they were allowed their own choice of producer and singles, they had the option of releasing any singles rejected by the label independently without breach of contract. The band's new record company bought the initial Reception stock of the Ukrainian record from the band, pressed another batch, released the record in April 1989 under the name of Українські Виступи в Івана Піла.
The first proper album that The Wedding Present recorded for their new label was released in the same year 1989 and reunited them with Allison. Bizarro’s lyrical themes were the same as before and the songs featured the same three-chord structures, but its production values had increased due to a larger recording budget; the album was recorded at Jacobs Studios by Steve Lyon and again mixed by him there. The album's companion single, "Kennedy", provided the band with their first British Top 40 hit. Seeing that they were growing more popular in the American college radio scene, the band turned towards America for their next project; the band decided to re-record Bizarro track "Brassneck" with the former Big Black frontman Steve Albini. It was the start of a two-year collaboration: the next single, "Corduroy" and album, were recorded by Albini at Pachyderm Recording Studio in Cannon Falls, MN. Melody Maker likened listening to the record to sandpapering your ea
Knut Hamsun was a Norwegian writer, awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1920. Hamsun's work spans more than 70 years and shows variation with regard to the subject and environment, he published more than 20 novels, a collection of poetry, some short stories and plays, a travelogue, some essays. The young Hamsun objected to naturalism, he argued that the main object of modernist literature should be the intricacies of the human mind, that writers should describe the "whisper of blood, the pleading of bone marrow". Hamsun is considered the "leader of the Neo-Romantic revolt at the turn of the 20th century", with works such as Hunger, Mysteries and Victoria, his works—in particular his "Nordland novels"—were influenced by the Norwegian new realism, portraying everyday life in rural Norway and employing local dialect and humour. Hamsun is considered to be "one of the most influential and innovative literary stylists of the past hundred years", he pioneered psychological literature with techniques of stream of consciousness and interior monologue, influenced authors such as Thomas Mann, Franz Kafka, Maxim Gorky, Stefan Zweig, Henry Miller, Hermann Hesse, Ernest Hemingway.
Isaac Bashevis Singer called Hamsun "the father of the modern school of literature in his every aspect—his subjectiveness, his fragmentariness, his use of flashbacks, his lyricism. The whole modern school of fiction in the twentieth century stems from Hamsun". On August 4, 2009, the Knut Hamsun Centre was opened in Hamarøy. Since 1916, several of Hamsun's works have been adapted into motion pictures. Knut Hamsun was born as Knud Pedersen in Lom in the Gudbrandsdal valley of Norway, he was the fourth son of Peder Pedersen. When he was three, the family moved to Hamarøy in Nordland, they were poor and an uncle had invited them to farm his land for him. At nine Knut was separated from his family and lived with his uncle Hans Olsen, who needed help with the post office he ran. Olsen used to beat and starve his nephew, Hamsun stated that his chronic nervous difficulties were due to the way his uncle treated him. In 1874 he escaped back to Lom. At 17 he became a ropemaker's apprentice, he asked businessman Erasmus Zahl to give him significant monetary support, Zahl agreed.
Hamsun used Zahl as a model for the character Mack appearing in his novels Pan and Benoni and Rosa. He spent several years in America and working at various jobs, published his impressions under the title Fra det moderne Amerikas Aandsliv. Working all those odd jobs paid off, he published his first book: Den Gaadefulde: En Kjærlighedshistorie fra Nordland, it struggles he endured from his jobs. In his second novel Bjørger, he attempted to imitate Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson's writing style of the Icelandic saga narrative; the melodramatic story follows a poet, Bjørger, his love for Laura. This book was published under the pseudonym Knud Pedersen Hamsund; this book served as the basis for Victoria: En Kærligheds Historie. Hamsun first received wide acclaim with his 1890 novel Hunger; the semiautobiographical work described a young writer's descent into near madness as a result of hunger and poverty in the Norwegian capital of Kristiania. To many, the novel presages the writings of Franz Kafka and other twentieth-century novelists with its internal monologue and bizarre logic.
A theme to which Hamsun returned is that of the perpetual wanderer, an itinerant stranger who shows up and insinuates himself into the life of small rural communities. This wanderer theme is central to the novels Mysteries, Under the Autumn Star, The Last Joy, Vagabonds and others. Hamsun’s prose contains rapturous depictions of the natural world, with intimate reflections on the Norwegian woodlands and coastline. For this reason, he has been linked with the spiritual movement known as pantheism. Hamsun saw nature united in a strong, sometimes mystical bond; this connection between the characters and their natural environment is exemplified in the novels Pan, A Wanderer Plays on Muted Strings, the epic Growth of the Soil, "his monumental work" credited with securing him the Nobel Prize in literature in 1920. During World War II, Hamsun put his support behind the German war effort, he met with high-ranking Nazi officers, including Adolf Hitler. Nazi Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels wrote a long and enthusiastic diary entry concerning a private meeting with Hamsun.
In 1940 Hamsun wrote that "the Germans are fighting for us". After Hitler's death, he published a short obituary in which he described him as "a warrior for mankind" and "a preacher of the gospel of justice for all nations." After the war, he was detained by police on June 14, 1945, for the commission of acts of treason, was committed to a hospital in Grimstad "due to his advanced age", according to Einar Kringlen. In 1947 he was tried in Grimstad, fined. Norway's supreme court reduced the fine from 575,000 to 325,000 Norwegian kroner. After the war, Hamsun's views on the Germans during the war was a serio
Franz Kafka was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short-story writer regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature. His work, which fuses elements of realism and the fantastic features isolated protagonists facing bizarre or surrealistic predicaments and incomprehensible socio-bureaucratic powers, has been interpreted as exploring themes of alienation, existential anxiety and absurdity, his best known works include "Die Verwandlung", Der Process, Das Schloss. The term Kafkaesque has entered the English language to describe situations like those found in his writing. Kafka was born into a middle-class, German-speaking Jewish family in Prague, the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, today the capital of the Czech Republic, he trained as a lawyer, after completing his legal education, was employed full-time by an insurance company, forcing him to relegate writing to his spare time. Over the course of his life, Kafka wrote hundreds of letters to family and close friends, including his father, with whom he had a strained and formal relationship.
He became engaged to several women but never married. He died in 1924 at the age of 40 from tuberculosis. Few of Kafka's works were published during his lifetime: the story collections Betrachtung and Ein Landarzt, individual stories were published in literary magazines but received little public attention. In his will, Kafka instructed his executor and friend Max Brod to destroy his unfinished works, including his novels Der Process, Das Schloss and Der Verschollene, but Brod ignored these instructions, his work has influenced a vast range of writers, critics and philosophers during the 20th and 21st centuries. Kafka was born near the Old Town Square in Prague part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, his family were German-speaking middle-class Ashkenazi Jews. His father, Hermann Kafka, was the fourth child of Jakob Kafka, a shochet or ritual slaughterer in Osek, a Czech village with a large Jewish population located near Strakonice in southern Bohemia. Hermann brought the Kafka family to Prague.
After working as a travelling sales representative, he became a fashion retailer who employed up to 15 people and used the image of a jackdaw as his business logo. Kafka's mother, was the daughter of Jakob Löwy, a prosperous retail merchant in Poděbrady, was better educated than her husband. Kafka's parents spoke a German influenced by Yiddish, sometimes pejoratively called Mauscheldeutsch, but, as the German language was considered the vehicle of social mobility, they encouraged their children to speak Standard German. Hermann and Julie had six children. Franz's two brothers and Heinrich, died in infancy before Franz was seven. All three died during the Holocaust of World War II. Valli was deported to the Łódź Ghetto in occupied Poland in 1942, but, the last documentation of her. Ottilie was Kafka's favourite sister. Hermann is described by the biographer Stanley Corngold as a "huge, overbearing businessman" and by Franz Kafka as "a true Kafka in strength, appetite, loudness of voice, self-satisfaction, worldly dominance, presence of mind, knowledge of human nature".
On business days, both parents were absent from the home, with Julie Kafka working as many as 12 hours each day helping to manage the family business. Kafka's childhood was somewhat lonely, the children were reared by a series of governesses and servants. Kafka's troubled relationship with his father is evident in his Brief an den Vater of more than 100 pages, in which he complains of being profoundly affected by his father's authoritarian and demanding character; the dominating figure of Kafka's father had a significant influence on Kafka's writing. The Kafka family had a servant girl living with them in a cramped apartment. Franz's room was cold. In November 1913 the family moved into a bigger apartment, although Ellie and Valli had married and moved out of the first apartment. In early August 1914, just after World War I began, the sisters did not know where their husbands were in the military and moved back in with the family in this larger apartment. Both Ellie and Valli had children. Franz at age 31 moved into Valli's former apartment, quiet by contrast, lived by himself for the first time.
From 1889 to 1893, Kafka attended the Deutsche Knabenschule German boys' elementary school at the Masný trh/Fleischmarkt, now known as Masná Street. His Jewish education ended with his Bar Mitzvah celebration at the age of 13. Kafka never enjoyed attending the synagogue and went with his father only on four high holidays a year. After leaving elementary school in 1893, Kafka was admitted to the rigorous classics-oriented state gymnasium, Altstädter Deutsches Gymnasium, an academic secondary school at Old Town Square, within the Kinský Palace. German was the language of instruction, but Kafka spoke and wrote in Czech, he studied the latter at the gymnasium for eight years. Although Kafka received compliments for his Czech, he never considered himself fluent in Czech, though he spoke German with a Czech accent, he completed his Matura exams in 1901. Admitted to the Deutsche Karl-Ferdinands-Universität of Pra
The Futureheads are an English post-punk band from Sunderland. Consisting of Ross Millard, Barry Hyde, David "Jaff" Craig and Dave Hyde, their name comes from the title of The Flaming Lips album Hit to Death in the Future Head. The band's influences include new wave and post-punk bands such as Gang of Four, Devo, XTC, Wire and Fugazi; the band met at City of Sunderland College as a quartet consisting of Barry Hyde, David "Jaff" Craig, Peter Brewis, Ross Millard. Millard and Craig had been in another local band together previously, they used the Sunderland City Detached Youth Project building as a free practice space, fitting since the project was intended to get young people off the streets by using music. They first performed in 2000, through word-of-mouth their reputation in the local area grew. Hyde's younger brother Dave replaced Brewis. In an interview with Channel 4's 4Music, Barry Hyde revealed that Dave Hyde was given a golden guitar by his parents when he was young, but Barry had taken it off him to learn to strum his first chords.
Dave was left with nothing. The Futureheads played their first gig at Ashbrooke Cricket and Rugby Club in December 2000, they debuted with their "Nul Book Standard" EP and their "123 Nul EP" on 10 March 2003, that year released their first single, "First Day", on 4 August. "First Day" peaked at No. 58 in the UK Singles Chart in August 2003. The Futureheads released their self-titled debut album in September 2004 on 679 recordings. Five tracks of the tracks were produced by Andy Gill of Gang of Four; the rest of the album was produced by Paul Epworth. The song "Decent Days and Nights" from the album was featured in the video game soundtrack to Burnout 3 on PlayStation 2 and Xbox as well as EA's Rugby 2005. On 21 February 2005, a cover of a Kate Bush song, was released as a single, it reached number eight in the UK Singles Chart in its first week, was named Best Single of 2005 by NME. The band toured the United States and supported the Pixies, Foo Fighters and Snow Patrol, they performed at BBC Radio One's One Big Weekend, held in their home town of Sunderland over the weekend of 7–8 May 2005.
On 8 May 2005 Sunderland A. F. C. Picked up the Championship trophy. In tribute, the Futureheads performed; the stand-alone EP, Area was released in November 2005 while the band was working on their second album News and Tributes, according to NME in February 2006, took only five weeks to produce. The first single from the album was "Skip to the End" released on 15 May; the album News and Tributes was first released on 29 May 2006. The band became disillusioned with major label music business and being under contract, were released by 679 Recordings. Hyde said: "we were desperate to get out of the record deal, they could have kept us and made us try and make more records but we didn't want that'. Throughout the rest of 2006, The Futureheads started their own independent record label, Nul Records, started working on songs for their next album. In June 2007, they completed work on their third album, This Is Not the World, released in May 2008. Millard said, he revealed that the band was close to splitting during the time after the second album was released.
The band made a free download called "Broke Up The Time" available from their website on 9 November 2007. They announced three gigs in the UK followed by a full UK tour and now have their own label, Nul Records, set up to distribute Futureheads material. In December 2007 the band released a video of them walking around Carnaby Street, London to the single "The Beginning of the Twist", it was accompanied by a free download of a song called "Crash". The second single from their album "Radio Heart" was released on 19 May, 2008 from their album This Is Not The World followed by the release of the music video for the single on 16 April. A third single from the album, Walking Backwards, was released on 4 August 2008, their latest single, "I Wouldn't Be Like This If You Were Here", was released on 8 December 2008. In 2009 the band played at the biggest open-air festival in Europe – Przystanek Woodstock in Poland. In November 2009, the band allowed fans to download a new free track, "Struck Dumb", for a period of two weeks.
The band released their 4th album, entitled The Chaos, on 26 April 2010 in the UK. The Chaos was released in the US on 1 June 2010, on Dovecote Records The Futureheads released their fifth full-length album, Rant, on 2 April 2012. In a change from their usual style, this album is a cappella; the songs on the album are all covers consisting of classic Futureheads songs and traditional folk songs with a couple of others thrown in. Rant was nominated for the Artrocker Album of the Year award in 2012. In a 2015 interview on BBC Radio 6 Music, Dave Hyde said that The Futureheads are no longer a working band, with both his brother Barry and Jaff teaching. However, the band got together to record a health awareness video using their song Heartbeat Song for BUPA, released in April 2016. In January 2019, the band announced they had reformed, with a new album finished, having been written and recorded during 2018, first tour dates since 2013. Ross Millard is a member of Frankie & the Heartstrings, contributing to their third album Decency in 2015.
Dave Hyde is one-half of the du
Aztec Camera were a Scottish pop/new wave band formed by Roddy Frame, the group's singer and only consistent member. Formed in 1980, Aztec Camera released a total of six albums: High Land, Hard Rain, Love, Stray and Frestonia; the band garnered popular success for the songs "Oblivious", "Somewhere in My Heart" and "Good Morning Britain". Aztec Camera first appeared on a Glasgow cassette-only compilation of local unsigned bands on the Pungent Records label, affiliated with the Fumes Fanzine run by Danny Easson and John Gilhooly. Fumes and Pungent Records championed several Glasgow bands; the band's first UK single release was sold in a 7" format by Postcard Records - a Glasgow-based independent record label cofounded by Edwyn Collins and Alan Horne - in 1981. The single featured the song "Just Like Gold" and a B-side entitled "We Could Send Letters". Frame, aged 16 years, met Collins for the first time during the Postcard period when the latter was 21 years old. A second single released in 1981, featured the songs "Mattress Of Wire" and "Lost Outside The Tunnel".
Following the two 7" releases with Postcard, the group signed with Rough Trade Records in the UK and Sire Records in the US for their debut album. At this point, the band were a quartet: Roddy Frame, Bernie Clark, Campbell Owens and Dave Ruffy. Aztec Camera's debut album, High Land, Hard Rain was produced by John Brand and Bernie Clarke for the Rough Trade record label; the album was released in April 1983 and was distributed in different formats on Domino Recording Co. Ltd. in the US. The album was successful, garnering significant critical acclaim, peaked at number 129 on the Billboard 200. Frame revealed that the song "Oblivious" was consciously written as a Top of the Pops-type pop song and received a corresponding degree of popularity. During the recording process for the album, Frame used a different guitar for every song. For the song "Orchid Girl", Frame explained in 2013 - during the 30th anniversary tour - that he was attempting to merge the influences of his favourite guitarist at the time, Wes Montgomery, punk rock icon Joe Strummer.
In a late 1990s television interview, Frame explained that a "boy" image was associated with him during this era, that he was annoyed by it at the time, as he was taking his music seriously - "you don't want to be called'boy'. After High Land Hard Rain, Bernie Clarke left the band, was replaced by Malcolm Ross on second guitar and backing vocals. Aztec Camera changed record labels once again for the release of their second album, released through WEA. Frame revealed in a May 2014 BBC radio interview that he was not informed of the ownership arrangements of the record deal, stating that he was unaware as an 18-year-old that the record company would own the rights to all of his corresponding recordings. After High Land, Hard Rain, Frame spent a significant amount of time living in New Orleans, United States, listening to Bob Dylan's album Infidels. Upon reading that Dire Straits' guitarist and singer Mark Knopfler produced the album, Frame began writing songs based on a sound that he thought Knopfler could work with.
Frame signed the band to the WEA record label - at the time his manager was Rob Johnson - and secured Knopfler as the producer for Aztec Camera's second album, released in 1984. Frame's experimental mindset in relation to music emerged on Knife, as the duration of the titular song is nearly nine minutes and synthesizers appear throughout the album. Prior to the album's release, the band previewed a selection of songs as part of a performance for the BBC television show Rock Around The Clock and the song "All I Need is Everything" received radio airplay subsequent to release. In a 2007 interview alongside Collins, Frame explained further: He's a great guitarist. Mark Knopfler's recording techniques were great - you would have liked him,'cos that was... it was quite a thing.'Cos everyone was going digital, going MIDI and all that, his thing was all about using the right microphone. If you use the right microphone you don't have to use too much EQ and all that stuff, it was all about that. Yeah, I kinda liked that - the right amp, the right kind of board and stuff.
At the time that the band's third album Love was created, Frame was the only original member of the band involved with the project. Frame explained in August 2014 that he contemplated the conception of Love during a three-year hiatus following the release of Knife. Frame said that he moved further away from the British "indie ethic" and was listening to the "pop end of hip hop", including artists such as Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewis, the Force MDs and Alexander O'Neill. Frame wanted to make a record based on such influences and "Working In A Goldmine" was the first song to achieve this a
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi