Sigmund Zois Freiherr von Edelstein referred as Sigmund Zois was a Carniolan nobleman, natural scientist and patron of the arts. He is considered one of the most influential figures of the Enlightenment Era in the Slovene Lands of Habsburg Austria. Sigmund's father Michelangelo Zois was a merchant from Lombardy that moved to Ljubljana, where he made a considerable fortune in dealing with iron and holding mines, his second marriage was to a Carniolan noblewoman from the family Kappus von Pichelstein. He owned large estates both in Carniola and on the Karst Plateau, Sigmund was born in Trieste, in one of his father's mansions; the Carniolan noble family Kappus von Pichelstein on Zois's mother's side was a prosperous family that had lived at Kamna Gorica in Upper Carniola for centuries, where the family had owned an iron foundry and an iron mine since the late Middle Ages since the 12th century. Marcus Antonius Kappus von Pichelstein worked as a Jesuit missionary in Sonora. From there he wrote letters to his relatives in Carniola.
In these letters he described discoveries by research expeditions in Arizona and California and described the living conditions, the climate, other details. Carolus Josephus Kappus von Pichelstein, a nephew of Marcus Antonius, was member of the Academia Operosorum, founded in Ljubljana in 1693 after the example of similar academies in Italy. Vladimir Kappus von Pichelstein, a Slovene writer and publisher, was from the Kappus family. After attending several private schools, Sigmund Zois moved to Reggio in the duchy of Modena where he continued his education, he enjoyed making new acquaintances. However, his way of life was soon truncated by gout, a disease with which he would be stricken the rest of his life. After returning to Ljubljana to assist in business, he studied natural sciences with Gabriel Gruber and Giuseppe Maffei and inherited his father's wealth in 1777. Leaving the management of his economic entities to his cousin, he developed a strong interest in sciences and started to meet with Baltazar Hacquet, who taught anatomy in Ljubljana from 1773 to 1787, several Slovene intellectuals of the time.
In the early 1780s, his mansion in Ljubljana became a fostering center for liberal intellectuals at the center of the Slovene enlightenment. Jurij Japelj and Blaž Kumerdej, Anton Tomaž Linhart, Valentin Vodnik and Jernej Kopitar were the most prominent members of what became known as the “Zois circle”. Zois was their patron, mentoring them and granting them necessary financial support for their cultural and scientific efforts, thus becoming the central figure of the Slovenian enlightenment, he was a deist and his views were rational and empirical. He opposed the French revolution and supported the moderate enlightened constitutionalism of Leopold II. In Ljubljana, Zois initiated and sponsored the construction of roads, the foundation of the botanical garden and a theatre and the enlargement of the lyceal library, his great commitment in sciences contrasted in neglecting the needs of the farmers on his estates, who waged surrection in 1783 and were oppressed by Zois' managers. Only after the French Revolution he ordered obligation towards his subjects, fearing for his properties.
In 1784, Zois was visited by mineralogist Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu. From 1797 onwards, Sigmund Zois didn't leave his mansion in Ljubljana anymore; the literary opus of Sigmund Zois, of modest quality and little influence, includes many literary forms and genres, ranging from arias for the opera to lyrics for folk music, although only a minor part of his work has been preserved. His translation of the poem Lenore by Gottfried August Burger was regarded as a complete failure, Zois himself came to the conclusion that the Slovene language was "too mediocre and rough" to allow for such a literary achievement, he would be disproven only some decades by France Prešeren who managed to compose a complex and exceptional translation of the same poem. Zois is regarded as a father of Slovene literary criticism, most of his literary reviews can be found in his correspondence with Valentin Vodnik. Zois, considered to have been the wealthiest Carniolan of his time, died in Ljubljana, his funeral was attended by a huge crowd.
Zois was known as a mineralogist and geologist. In 1795, he mounted two expeditions to explore the land around the Triglav mountain. In 1805, Abraham Gottlob Werner described the mineral zoisite and named it after Zois, who sent him its specimens from Saualpe in Carinthia, his collection of minerals is kept at the Natural History Museum of Slovenia. He was involved in botany and zoology, his ornithological writings Nomenclatura carniolica, contain the first records of Slovene names of the majority of the birds living in Carniola and were the foundation for the Slovene ornithological nomenclature. He supported the work of his brother, the botanist Karl Zois, among other things, discovered the Campanula zoysii, a unknown Carniolan flower; the highest national scientific award in Slovenia, as well as a state-founded scholars
Ferdinand I of Austria
Ferdinand I was the Emperor of Austria from 1835 until his abdication in 1848. As ruler of Austria, he was President of the German Confederation, King of Hungary and Bohemia, King of Lombardy–Venetia and holder of many other lesser titles. Ferdinand succeeded on the death of his father Francis II and I on 2 March 1835, he was incapable of ruling his empire because of his mental deficiency, so his father, before he died, made a will which promulgated that Ferdinand should consult Archduke Louis on all aspects of internal policy and urged him to be influenced by Prince Metternich, Austria's Foreign Minister. Following the Revolutions of 1848, Ferdinand abdicated on 2 December 1848, he was succeeded by Franz Joseph. Following his abdication, he lived in Hradčany Palace, until his death in 1875. Ferdinand married Maria Anna of the sixth child of Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia, they had no children. Ferdinand was the eldest son of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily.
As a result of his parents' genetic closeness, Ferdinand suffered from epilepsy, neurological problems, a speech impediment. He was educated by Baron Josef Kalasanz von Erberg, his wife Josephine, by birth a Countess von Attems. Ferdinand has been depicted as feeble-minded and incapable of ruling, but although he had epilepsy, he kept a coherent and legible diary and has been said to have had a sharp wit, but having as many as twenty seizures per day restricted his ability to rule with any effectiveness. Though he was not declared incapacitated, a Regent's Council steered the government; when Ferdinand married Princess Maria Anna of Savoy, the court physician considered it unlikely that he would be able to consummate the marriage. When he tried to consummate the marriage, he had five seizures, he is best remembered for his command to his cook: when told he could not have apricot dumplings because apricots were out of season, he said "I am the Emperor, I want dumplings!". As the revolutionaries of 1848 were marching on the palace, he is supposed to have asked Metternich for an explanation.
When Metternich answered that they were making a revolution, Ferdinand is supposed to have said "But are they allowed to do that?" He was convinced by Felix zu Schwarzenberg to abdicate in favour of his nephew, Franz Joseph who would occupy the Austrian throne for the next sixty-eight years. Ferdinand recorded the events in his diary: "The affair ended with the new Emperor kneeling before his old Emperor and Lord, to say, me, asking for a blessing, which I gave him, laying both hands on his head and making the sign of the Holy Cross... I embraced him and kissed our new master, we went to our room. Afterwards I and my dear wife heard Holy Mass... After that I and my dear wife packed our bags." Ferdinand was the last King of Bohemia to be crowned as such. Due to his sympathy with Bohemia he was given the Czech nickname "Ferdinand V, the Good". In Austria, Ferdinand was nicknamed "Ferdinand der Gütige", but ridiculed as "Gütinand der Fertige", he is interred in tomb number 62 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna.
He used the titles:His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty Ferdinand the First, By the Grace of God Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, fifth by this name, King of the Lombardy and Venice, King of Dalmatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Illyria. Archduke of Austria Grand duke of Tuscany and Cracow. Lord of Trieste and over the Windic March. Ferdinand's parents were double first cousins. Therefore, Ferdinand only had four great-grandparents, being descended from each of them twice. Further back in his ancestry there is more pedigree collapse due to the close intermarriage between the Houses of Austria and Spain and other Catholic monarchies. Charles II of Spain List of heirs to the Austrian throne Rulers of Germany family tree, he was related to every other ruler of Germany. Tomáš Kleisner, "Medals of the Emperor Ferdinand the Good 1793-1875" Prague 2013 ISBN 978-80-7036-396-6 "Biography of Emperor Ferdinand" Literature by and about Ferdinand I in the German National Library catalogue Works by and about Ferdinand I of Austria in the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek Ferdinand I In: Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon, 2, Leipzig, 1837, pp. 25–26 Ferdinand I In: Brockhaus' Kleines Konversations-Lexikon, 1, Leipzig, 1911, p. 569 Ferdinand I of Austria in: Austria-Forum Entry about Ferdinand I of Austria in the database Gedächtnis des Landes on the history of the state of Lower Austria
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A chamberlain is a senior royal official in charge of managing a royal household. The chamberlain superintends the arrangement of domestic affairs and was also charged with receiving and paying out money kept in the royal chamber; the position was honoured upon a high-ranking member of the nobility or the clergy a royal favourite. Roman emperors appointed this officer under the title of cubicularius; the papal chamberlain of the Pope enjoys extensive powers, having the revenues of the papal household under his charge. As a sign of their dignity, they bore a key, which in the seventeenth century was silvered, fitted the door-locks of chamber rooms, since the eighteenth century it had turned into a symbolic, albeit splendid, rank-insignia of gilded bronze. In many countries there are ceremonial posts associated with the household of the sovereign. Many institutions and governments – monasteries and cities – had the post of chamberlain, who had charge of finances; the Finance Director of the City of London is still called the Chamberlain, while New York City had such a chamberlain, who managed city accounts, until the early 20th century.
From the Old French chamberlain, Modern French chambellan, from Old High German Chamarling, whence the Medieval Latin cambellanus, camerlengus. Some of the principal posts known by this name: Kammerherr, or Kämmerer Grand Chamberlain of The Councils of BruneiAround the year of 2012, The Grand Chamberlain of The Council, Alauddin bin Abu Bakar, on emergency broadcast had announced the divorce between the Sultan and his third wife. June 7, 2015; the Grand Chamberlain of Brunei announced the newborn prince of Deputy Sultan, Crown Prince of Brunei Koubikoularios Parakoimomenos Praepositus sacri cubiculi Hofmarskallen Kammerherre Kammerdame Grand Chamberlain of France Grand Chamberman of France Kammerherr, or Kämmerer Kammerherr, or Kämmerer Reichskämmerer Lord Chamberlain of the Archduchess Grand Chamberlain of Japan and Chamberlain of Japan Lord Chamberlain of Norway Podkomorzy Chamberlain-Major of Portugal Chamberlain of the Prince of Portugal Admissionales Praepositus sacri cubiculi Cubicularius Ober-Kammerherr or Kammerherr (Russian: Обер-камергер or Камергер}.
Postelnichiy was the ceremonial post at the court of a Grand Duke. In 1772, at the court of the Tsar the German term Kammerherr was introduced; the Ober-Kammerherr was responsible for the audiences granted to members of the Royal Family. Since the beginning of the 18th century, the Ober-Kammerherr was the most senior appointed official of the Russian Imperial Court associated with the household of the sovereign; the most notable figures were: Prince Alexander Danilovich Menshikov 1727 - 1728 Prince Ivan Alekseevich Dolgorukov 1730 - 1740 Duke Ernst Johann von Biron 1730 - 1740 Count Pyotr Borisovich Sheremetev 1761 - 1768 Boris Vladimirovich Stürmer 1916 - 1917, the last Ober-Kammerherr of Tsar Nicholas II. Kaznac In Sweden there are eight serving chamberlains and four serving cabinet chamberlains at the royal court; the chamberlains are not employed by the court but serve during ceremonial occasions such as state visits and official dinners. In Thailand the head of the Bureau of the Royal Household is titled the Lord Chamberlain.
He has several Grand Chamberlains as his deputy in charge of a specific portfolio. Lord Great Chamberlain Lord Chamberlain Chamberlain of the City of London Chamberlain of the Exchequer, treasury official in the English Exchequer Lord Chamberlain of Scotland Chamberlain of the City of New York Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church Papal Gentleman Court appointment
The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806; the Kingdom of Hungary – as Regnum Independens – was administered by its own institutions separately from the rest of the empire. After Austria was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was adopted, joining together the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria to form Austria-Hungary; the power of nationalism to create new states was irresistible in the 19th century, the process could lead to collapse in the absence of a strong nationalism.
The Austrian Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities and languages that served as the bases for separatist nationalism, it had a large army with good forts. Its naval resources were so minimal, it typified by Metternich. They employed a grand strategy for survival that balanced out different forces, set up buffer zones, kept the Habsburg empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War; the Empire overnight disintegrated into multiple states based on nationalism. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt and Regensburg. On 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6; this measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, but the actual consequence of the Imperial Recess was the end of the empire.
Taking this significant change into consideration, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors. In 1804, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria, in which all his lands were included. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, which had functioned as a composite monarchy for about three hundred years, he did so because he foresaw either the end of the Holy Roman Empire, or the eventual accession as Holy Roman Emperor of Napoleon, who had earlier that year adopted the title of an Emperor of the French. To safeguard his dynasty's imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Apart from now being included in a new "Kaiserthum", the workings of the overarching structure and the status of its component lands at first stayed much the same as they had been under the composite monarchy that existed before 1804.
This was demonstrated by the status of the Kingdom of Hungary, a country that had never been a part of the Holy Roman Empire and which had always been considered a separate realm—a status, affirmed by Article X, added to Hungary's constitution in 1790 during the phase of the composite monarchy and described the state as a Regnum Independens. Hungary's affairs remained administered by its own institutions, thus no Imperial institutions were involved in its government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805. On 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by General Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm; the French victory resulted in the capture of many cannons. Napoleon's army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, which concluded with an armistice on 6 December 1805; the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to ally themselves with the French and assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, Maximilian IV Joseph, the prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria, proclaimed himself King, followed by the Duke of Württemberg Frederick III on 11 December. Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden, was given the title of Grand Duke on 12 December; each of these new states became French allies. The Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleon's German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Francis II agreed to the humiliating Treaty of Pressburg, which in practice meant the dissolution of the long-lived Holy Roman Empire and a reorganization under a Napoleonic imprint of the German territories lost in the process into a precursor state of what became modern Germany, those possessions nominally having been part of the Holy Roman Empire within the present boundaries of Germany, as well as other measures weakening Austria and the Habsburgs in other ways. Certain Austrian holdings in
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Carniola was a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia. Although as a whole it does not exist anymore, Slovenes living within the former borders of the region still tend to identify with its traditional parts Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola, to a lesser degree with Inner Carniola. In 1991, 47% of the population of Slovenia lived within the borders of the former Duchy of Carniola. A state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Austrian Circle and a duchy in the hereditary possession of the Habsburgs part of the Austrian Empire and of Austria-Hungary, the region was a crown land from 1849, when it was subdivided into Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola, Inner Carniola, until 1918, its capital was Krainburg, for a short period Stein, from the second half of the 13th century, Laibach or Ljubljana. Nowadays, its territory is entirely located in Slovenia, except for a small part in northwest Italy, around Fusine in Valromana. Carniola in its final form, established in 1815, encompassed 9,904 km2.
In 1914, before the beginning of World War I, it had a population of under 530,000 inhabitants. The Julian and Karavanken Alps traverse the country; the highest mountain peaks are 4,200 feet. The principal rivers are Sava, Tržič Bistrica, Kamnik Bistrica, Ljubljanica, Mirna and Kolpa, which serves as a boundary with Croatia; the principal lakes are Black Lake, spreading into seven lakes, of which the highest is over 6,000 feet above sea level. It was known to the Romans as Lugea palus, is a natural curiosity. Dante Alighieri mentions it in his Divine Comedy; the Ljubljana Marshes cover an area of 76 square miles. Hot and mineral springs are to be found at Sušica, Šmarjetske, Medijske. There is an interesting cave at Postojna. Agriculture thrives better in Upper than in Lower Carniola; the Vipava Valley is famous for its wine and vegetables, for its mild climate. The principal exports are all kinds of vegetables, clover-seed, carvings and honey. In the mineral kingdom the principal products are iron, quicksilver, manganese and zinc.
Upper Carniola has the most industries, among the products being lumber, woollen stuffs, lace, straw hats, wicker-work, tobacco. The railroads are the Juzna, the Prince Rudolf, the Bohinjska, the Kamniska, the Dolenjska, the Vrhniska; the principal cities and towns are: Kamnik, Kranj, Tržič, Vipava, Turjak, Metlika, Novo Mesto, Vače. The mean average temperature in spring is 56 °F. Of the inhabitants 95 per cent were Slovenes, kinsmen to the Croats. In the districts of Gottschee and Črnomelj dwell the people of White Carniola for a connecting link between the Croats and Slovenes. One-half of the Germans live in Gottschee, 5,000 in Ljubljana, 3,500 at Novo Mesto, 1,000 at Radovljica; the Germans at Gottschee were settled there by Otho, Count of Ortenburg, in the fourteenth century, they preserve their Tyrolean German dialect. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Lombards settled in Carniola, followed by Slavs around the sixth century AD; as a part of the Holy Roman Empire, the area was successively ruled by Bavarian and local nobility, by the Austrian Habsburgs continuously from 1335 to 1918, though beset by many raids from the Ottomans and rebellions by local residents against Habsburg rule from the 15th to the 17th centuries.
From about 900 AD until the 20th century, Carniola's ruling classes and urban areas spoke German, while the peasantry spoke Slovene. The capital of Carniola situated at Kranj, was moved to Kamnik and to the current capital of Slovenia, Ljubljana. Sixth century – Slovene settlements. Eighth century – Carniola a part of the Empire of Charlemagne. 10th century – Carniola a separate country. 1278 – Death of Ottokar II of Bohemia. Carniola absorbed in the Habsburg dominions. 14th century – The province under Albert III. 15th–16th centuries – Ravages of the Ottomans. 1527–1564 – Progress of the Reformation in Carniola. 1564 – Death of Ferdinand I. Carniola under the Archduke Charles. Religious persecutions begin. 1763 – Political administration of "Inner Austria" centralized at Graz. 1790 – Accession of Leopold II. Partial revival of autonomy. 1797 – First French invasion. 1805 – Second French invasion. 1809 – Treaty of Schönbrunn. Carniola under French rule. 1814 – Congress of Vienna. Carniola restored to Austria.
Before the coming of the Romans, the Taurisci dwelt in the north of Carniola, the Pannonians in the southeast, the Iapodes or Carni, a Celtic tribe, in the southwest. Carniola formed part of the Roman province of Pannonia. In the time of Augustus all the region from Aemona to the Kolpa river belonged to the province of Savia. After the fall of the Western Roman Emp