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Josef Sommer

Maximilian Josef Sommer is a German-American stage and film actor. He was born in Greifswald and raised in North Carolina, the son of Elisabeth and Clemens Sommer, a Professor of Art History at the University of North Carolina, he studied at the Carnegie Institute of Technology. He has Maria. Sommer made his acting debut at the age of nine in a North Carolina production of Watch on the Rhine, he made his film debut in Dirty Harry and appeared in films such as The Stepford Wives, Close Encounters Of The Third Kind, Still of the Night, Peter Weir's thriller Witness opposite Harrison Ford, Malice, Patch Adams, X-Men: The Last Stand. He appeared as 38th President Gerald Ford opposite Gena Rowlands in the made-for-TV movie The Betty Ford Story. In 1974, he appeared in the role of Roy Mills on CBS television daytime drama The Guiding Light, played George Barton in the 1983 TV version of Agatha Christie's Sparkling Cyanide, he has had starring roles in two short-lived series and Under Cover. As of 2007, he has appeared in 100 films.

Some of his more famous roles have been as a corrupt politician. Yet Sommer displayed abundant humanity without being seen on screen when he lent his talents as the poignant Narrator in Sophie's Choice, for which Meryl Streep won an Academy Award for Best Actress. Though a much-respected and lauded thespian of more than one performing art, this seasoned character actor played a rare leading role—opposite the titular-titled, eponymous character played by Sylvia Kristel—as the film noir-esque detective in the quirky, cult horror comedy Dracula's Widow, a role that Sommer appeared to have relished, as reflected by his creatively colorful and enthusiastic performance. Josef Sommer on IMDb Josef Sommer at the Internet Broadway Database Josef Sommer at the Internet Off-Broadway Database

James Imrie

James Imrie was a Scottish footballer who played as goalkeeper, for Kettering Town, Crystal Palace, Luton Town, Doncaster Rovers. He started off playing for Dunbeath Star, in Scotland before moving to England to join Kettering. Palace bought 5 players from Kettering, including Imrie, in March 1929; this was a record at that time. In August 1931, he was transferred to Luton where became the regular keeper, playing 63 games in his two seasons there. Imrie was brought to Doncaster for the start of the 1933–34 season by secretary-manager David Menzies who came from the same part of Scotland, he kept a clean sheet in a 1 -- 0 home victory over New Brighton. He went on to play 140 Cup games for the club. In April 1939, over 4,000 turned up for his benefit match against Leeds United of the First Division; this was to be his last game for Rovers. Crystal Palace Division 3 Runners-up 1928–29 Division 3 Runners-up 1930–31Doncaster Rovers Division 3 Champions 1934–35 Division 3 Runners-up 1937–38 Division 3 Runners-up 1938–39


Tetrahydrofuran is an organic compound with the formula 4O. The compound is classified as heterocyclic compound a cyclic ether, it is a water-miscible organic liquid with low viscosity. It is used as a precursor to polymers. Being polar and having a wide liquid range, THF is a versatile solvent. About 200,000 tonnes of tetrahydrofuran are produced annually; the most used industrial process involves the acid-catalyzed dehydration of 1,4-butanediol. Ashland/ISP is one the biggest producers of this chemical route; the method is similar to the production of diethyl ether from ethanol. The butanediol is derived from condensation of acetylene with formaldehyde followed by hydrogenation. DuPont developed a process for producing THF by oxidizing n-butane to crude maleic anhydride, followed by catalytic hydrogenation. A third major industrial route entails hydroformylation of allyl alcohol followed by hydrogenation to 1,4-butanediol. THF can be synthesized by catalytic hydrogenation of furan. Certain sugars can be converted to THF, although this method is not practiced.

Furan is thus derivable from renewable resources. In the presence of strong acids, THF converts to a linear polymer called poly glycol known as polytetramethylene oxide: n C4H8O → −n−This polymer is used to make elastomeric polyurethane fibers like Spandex; the other main application of THF is as an industrial solvent for polyvinyl chloride and in varnishes. It is an aprotic solvent with a dielectric constant of 7.6. It is a moderately polar solvent and can dissolve a wide range of nonpolar and polar chemical compounds. THF is water-miscible and can form solid clathrate hydrate structures with water at low temperatures. THF has been explored as a miscible co-solvent in aqueous solution to aid in the liquefaction and delignification of plant lignocellulosic biomass for production of renewable platform chemicals and sugars as potential precursors to biofuels. Aqueous THF augments the hydrolysis of glycans from biomass and dissolves the majority of biomass lignin making it a suitable solvent for biomass pretreatment.

THF is used in polymer science. For example, it can be used to dissolve polymers prior to determining their molecular mass using gel permeation chromatography. THF dissolves PVC as well, thus it is the main ingredient in PVC adhesives, it can be used to liquefy old PVC cement and is used industrially to degrease metal parts. THF is used as a component in mobile phases for reversed-phase liquid chromatography, it has a greater elution strength than methanol or acetonitrile, but is less used than these solvents. THF is used as a solvent in 3D printing, it can be used to clean clogged 3D printer parts, as well as when finishing prints to remove extruder lines and add a shine to the finished product. In the laboratory, THF is a popular solvent, it is more basic than diethyl ether and forms stronger complexes with Li+, Mg2+, boranes. It is a popular solvent for hydroboration reactions and for organometallic compounds such as organolithium and Grignard reagents. Thus, while diethyl ether remains the solvent of choice for some reactions, THF fills that role in many others, where strong coordination is desirable and the precise properties of ethereal solvents such as these allows fine-tuning modern chemical reactions.

Commercial THF contains substantial water that must be removed for sensitive operations, e.g. those involving organometallic compounds. Although THF is traditionally dried by distillation from an aggressive desiccant, molecular sieves are superior. THF is a weak Lewis base. Typical complexes are of the stoichiometry MCl33; such compounds are used reagents. In the presence of a solid acid catalyst, THF reacts with hydrogen sulfide to give tetrahydrothiophene. THF is a nontoxic solvent, with the median lethal dose comparable to that for acetone. Reflecting its remarkable solvent properties, it penetrates the skin. THF dissolves latex and is handled with nitrile or neoprene rubber gloves, it is flammable. One danger posed by THF follows from its tendency to form explosive peroxides on storage in air. To minimize this problem, commercial samples of THF are inhibited with butylated hydroxytoluene. Distillation of THF to dryness is avoided because the explosive peroxides concentrate in the residue. Polytetrahydrofuran 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran Trapp mixture Other cyclic ethers: oxirane, oxane Loudon, G. Mark.

Organic Chemistry. New York: Oxford University Press. P. 318. ISBN 9780981519432. International Chemical Safety Card 0578 NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards U. S. OSHA info on THF "2-Methyltetrahydrofuran, An alternative to Tetrahydrofuran and Dichloromethane". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 2007-05-23

Surface phonon

In solid state physics, a surface phonon is the quantum of a lattice vibration mode associated with a solid surface. Similar to the ordinary lattice vibrations in a bulk solid, the nature of surface vibrations depends on details of periodicity and symmetry of a crystal structure. Surface vibrations are however distinct from the bulk vibrations, as they arise from the abrupt termination of a crystal structure at the surface of a solid. Knowledge of surface phonon dispersion gives important information related to the amount of surface relaxation, the existence and distance between an adsorbate and the surface, information regarding presence and type of defects existing on the surface. In modern semiconductor research, surface vibrations are of interest as they can couple with electrons and thereby affect the electrical and optical properties of semiconductor devices, they are most relevant for devices where the electronic active area is near a surface, as is the case in two-dimensional electron systems and in quantum dots.

As a specific example, the decreasing size of CdSe quantum dots was found to result in increasing frequency of the surface vibration resonance, which can couple with electrons and affect their properties. Two methods are used for modeling surface phonons. One is the "slab method", which approaches the problem using lattice dynamics for a solid with parallel surfaces, the other is based on Green's functions. Which of these approaches is employed is based upon what type of information is required from the computation. For broad surface phonon phenomena, the conventional lattice dynamics method can be used. Surface phonons are represented by a wave vector along the surface, q, an energy corresponding to a particular vibrational mode frequency, ω; the surface Brillouin zone for phonons consists of two dimensions, rather than three for bulk. For example, the face centered cubic surface is described by the directions ΓX and ΓM, referring to the direction and direction, respectively; the description of the atomic displacements by the harmonic approximation assumes that the force on an atom is a function of its displacement with respect to neighboring atoms, i.e. Hooke's law holds.

Higher order anharmonicity terms can be accounted by using perturbative methods. The positions are given by the relation m i u ¨ i α = − ∑ j, β ϕ i α, j β u j, β where i is the place where the atom would sit if it were in equilibrium, mi is the mass of the atom that should sit at i, α is the direction of its displacement, ui,α is the amount of displacement of the atom from i, ϕ i α, j β are the force constants which come from the crystal potential; the solution to this gives the atomic displacement due to the phonon, given by u l, m, κ, α = v l, κ, α e i where the atomic position i is described by l, m, κ, which represent the specific atomic layer, l, the particular unit cell it is in, m, the position of the atom with respect to its own unit cell, κ. The term x is the position of the unit cell with respect to some chosen origin. Phonons can be labeled by the manner. If the vibration occurs lengthwise in the direction of the wave and involves contraction and relaxation of the lattice, the phonon is called a "longitudinal phonon".

Alternatively, the atoms may vibrate perpendicular to wave propagation direction. In general, transverse vibrations tend to have smaller frequencies than longitudinal vibrations; the wavelength of the vibration lends itself to a second label. "Acoustic" branch phonons have a wavelength of vibration, much bigger than the atomic separation so that the wave travels in the same manner as a sound wave. Phonons take on both labels such that transverse acoustic and optical phonons are denoted TA and TO, respectively; the type of surface phonon can be characterized by its dispersion in relation to the bulk phonon modes of the crystal. Surface phonon mode branches may occur in specific parts of the SBZ or encompass it across; these modes can show up both in the bulk phonon dispersion bands as what is known as a resonance or outside these bands as a pure surface phonon mode. Thus surface phonons can be purely surface existing vibrations, or the expression of bulk vibrations in the presence of a surface, known as a surface-excess property.

A particular mode, the Rayleigh phonon mode, exists across the entire BZ an

West Point on the Eno

West Point on the Eno is a city park and historical center covering 388 acres in Durham, Durham County, North Carolina. Several historical structures are conserved on the site: West Point Mill - a reproduction colonial-era mill, now a museum. Hugh Mangum Museum of Photography - located in the restored tobacco packhouse, features historic photographs from the late 19th and early 20th century from negatives found in the packhouse historic camera equipment McCown-Mangum House - home to one of the mill's owners, restored 1850's farmhouse with late 19th-century furnishings, open for toursOther facilities include: Amphitheatre - includes a large open field, lawn seating, electricity, parking 5 miles of trails Picnic facilities Canoe access to the Eno River Natural Play Space - a play area for children The Eno Indians first used this area to fish and grow crops. Arrowheads left behind by the tribe can still be found today; when white settlers came to the area they noticed the springs that contained freshwater, which motivated them to invest in building mills across the area.

The first mill built in the Eno was named Synott's Mill, which started operating in 1752 by Michael Synott, an legendary pioneer, who had problems in his personal life and appeared in court often. Shortly after Michael Synott died in 1780 the area was purchased by William Thetford and Charles Abercrombie, who built West Point Mill. While these mills were being produced a community became known as West Point; the community was successful for a period of time but all of its inhabitants died out or moved on. West Point Mill served its owners for 160 years until it was shut down by a paratrooper named Jacob Eller returning from the war in 1942, the last mill on the Eno to do so, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. West Point on the Eno - City of Durham West Point on the Eno - Eno River Association

Juan Manén

Juan Manén was a Spanish violinist and composer, born in Barcelona. His progress in music was so rapid. Having studied the violin under Clemente Ibarguren, he appeared as a violinist, met with such success that in Germany he was compared to his famous countryman Sarasate, he attracted much attention as a composer, not only in Spain, but to a greater degree in Germany, where he resided at different times for protracted periods. His works comprise: the operas Giovanni di Napoli, Der Fackeltanz and Neró i Acté with his own libretto, he made a completion-cum-arrangement of Beethoven's Violin Concerto in C, which otherwise only survives in its first 259 measures." Joan Manén was born in Catalonia. Precociously gifted, he learnt solfège and piano with his father from the age of three, at seven played Chopin concertos in public. Meanwhile, at five, he had begun to study the violin with Vicente Negrevernis; the study of the piano and the violin is kept alike and with little time he develops an unusual facility for sight-reading all kinds of scores.

In 1890 his father succeeded in convincing Clemente Ibarguren -formed in Paris- to give violin lessons to his son. They set two classes per week, he attained astonishing technical mastery and at the age of nine made his début in Latin America. In the summer of 1892 Juanito's first public presentation takes place at the Nuevo Casino in Castellón, where he is a pianist and violinist in five successful concerts; the programs appear in the pieces "Adiós a la Alhambra" de Jesus de Monasterio, "Air varié" by Charles de Beriot, "Balade et Polonaise" by Henry Vieuxtemps among others. A press excerpt shows his success: "Indeed, it does not cease to be surprising in its own years, to see the ease and the ingenuity with which he manages the bow, the tuning and clarity of the sound and the perfection of his articulation, conditions are well directed, over time they will make the artist-child, what the French call a virtuoso ", he made his European début as a violinist in 1898, when he was hailed as a virtuoso of the first rank.

Self-taught as a composer, Manén had begun to write at 13, in 1900 he conducted a concert of his own works in Barcelona. It was in 1894 when his father, Joan Manén Abellan, believed that it was not enough that his son triumphed as a virtuoso of the violin and decided to start it in composition; as Joan Manén himself explains in the first volume of "My experiences", his father gave him a blank paper, hoping that he, without knowledge of harmony, would begin to compose some work. The first intents were an absolute failure, but after a while and in an intuitive way, he began to be aware of his talent as a composer. Manén was an involuntary self-taught person because throughout his childhood and adolescence his father, an entertainer, did not allow him to study composition at any conservatory. Looking at the history of music, it is difficult to find in the world of composition such an extraordinary case of self-learning, it must be remembered that his father, the only teacher of his son, was an amateur musician with few musical studies that only played the piano discreetly.

Several teachers offered to give classes of harmony and composition but the father used to say: "He will only learn it from the much music he reads. The instinct when possessed is the best teacher. " The ability to read in sight of the little Joan was extraordinary. He himself tells us that his father gave him many symphonic works and operas so he read them in the piano. In spite of the difficulty they were having, the child, his first opera, Juana de Nápoles, was well received at the Gran Teatre del Liceu from Barcelona, he followed this with Acté, for which he wrote his own libretto. He spent time in Germany, where he acquired an admiration for Wagner and Richard Strauss, which can be observed in his orchestral writing. Strauss's influence on his harmony can be heard in his songs, he composed prolifically in many genres, but destroyed, disowned or radically revised everything he had composed before 1907. This led him, for example completely to rewrite Acté - increasing the complexity of the texture - as Neró i Acté.

Manén made numerous arrangements, both instrumental and vocal, of Spanish and Catalan folk melodies, traditional dance styles appear in his works. His music is tonal in idiom and predominantly lyrical, there are thematic connections between movements, his writings include a treatise on the violin. In 1927 he became a member of the Spanish Academy of Arts. In 1930 he founded and presided over the Barcelona Philharmonic Society, an influential entity in the Barcelona musical atmosphere that programmed several concerts, his strong and demanding character and his indolent attitude towards the Franco regime made him, at the same time and hated by the society of the moment. He d