The New-York Mirror was a weekly newspaper published in New York City from 1823 to 1842, succeeded by The New Mirror in 1843 and 1844. Its producers launched a daily newspaper named The Evening Mirror, which published from 1844 to 1898; the Mirror was founded by George Pope Morris and Samuel Woodworth in August 1823. The journal was a weekly publication, it included coverage of arts and literature in addition to local news. Circulation flagged in the 1840s and at the end of 1842 the paper was closed. In 1843 Morris partnered with popular writer Nathaniel Parker Willis to revamp the business, together they relaunched the newspaper as The New Mirror, which published weekly for eighteen months, they established The Evening Mirror in 1844. In all three incarnations, the paper employed many well known literary figures of the day. Edgar Allan Poe worked for the newspaper as a critic until February 1845. In the January 29, 1845 issue, the Mirror was the first to publish Poe's poem "The Raven" with the author's name.
In his introduction to the poem, Willis called it "unsurpassed in English poetry for subtle conception, masterly ingenuity of versification, consistent, sustaining of imaginative lift... It will stick to the memory of everybody who reads it." Willis and Morris left the publication in 1846. After Willis, the newspaper was edited by a noted enemy of Poe. Fuller published attacks on Poe made by Charles Frederick Briggs and Thomas Dunn English in May and June 1846. A letter printed by the Mirror in the July 23, 1846 issue caused Poe to sue the newspaper for libel and defamation of character. Poe was awarded $225.06 as well as an additional $101.42 in court costs. The New-York Mirror at Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore The New-York Mirror at HathiTrust:Volume 1: August 2, 1823 – July 24, 1824 Volume 2: July 31, 1824 – July 23, 1825 Volume 3: July 30, 1825 – July 22, 1826 Volume 4: July 29, 1826 – July 7, 1827 Volume 5: July 14, 1827 – July 5, 1828 Volume 6: July 12, 1828 – July 4, 1829 Volume 7: July 11, 1829 – July 3, 1830 Volume 8: July 10, 1830 – July 2, 1831 Volume 9: July 9, 1831 – June 30, 1832 Volume 10: July 7, 1832 – June 29, 1833 Volume 11: July 6, 1833 – June 28, 1834 Volume 12: July 5, 1834 – June 27, 1835 Volume 13: July 4, 1835 – June 25, 1836 Volume 14: July 2, 1836 – June 24, 1837 Volume 15: July 1, 1837 – June 23, 1838 Volume 16: June 30, 1838 – June 22, 1839 Volume 17: June 29, 1839 – June 20, 1840 Volume 18 numbers 1–26: June 27, 1840 – December 19, 1840 Volume 19: January 2, 1841 – December 25, 1841The New-York Mirror at Google Books:Volume 20 numbers 1–26: January 1, 1842 – June 25, 1842The New Mirror at HathiTrust:Volume 1: April 8, 1843 – September 30, 1843 Volume 2: October 7, 1843 – March 30, 1844 Volume 3: April 6, 1844 – September 28, 1844
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Electrotyping is a chemical method for forming metal parts that reproduce a model. The method was invented by Moritz von Jacobi in Russia in 1838, was adopted for applications in printing and several other fields; as described in an 1890 treatise, electrotyping produces "an exact facsimile of any object having an irregular surface, whether it be an engraved steel- or copper-plate, a wood-cut, or a form of set-up type, to be used for printing. In art, several important "bronze" sculptures created in the 19th century are electrotyped copper, not bronze at all. In printing, electrotyping had become a standard method for producing plates for letterpress printing by the late 1800s, it complemented the older technology of stereotyping. By 1901, stereotypers and electrotypers in several countries had formed labor unions around these crafts; the unions persisted into the 1970s, but by the late 20th century, after more than a century in widespread use for preparing plates, the two technologies had been bypassed by the transitions to offset printing and to new techniques for the preparation of printing plates.
As with metal casting and stereotyping, a mold is first formed from the model. Since electrotyping involves wet chemical processes and is done near room temperature, the molding material can be soft. Materials such as wax, gutta-percha, ozokerite were used; the mold's surface is made electrically conducting by coating it thinly with fine graphite powder or paint. A wire is attached to the conducting surface, the mold is suspended in an electrolyte solution. Electrotyping is activated by electric currents that flow between anode wires that are immersed in the solution and the wire connected to the coated mold. For copper electrotyping, a typical aqueous electrolyte contains copper sulfate and sulfuric acid, the anode is copper; the electric current causes copper atoms to dissolve from the anode's surface and to enter the electrolyte as copper ions. Copper ions are taken up by the mold's conducting surface at the same rate at which copper dissolves from the anode, thus completing the electrical circuit.
When the copper layer on the mold grows to the desired thickness, the electric current is stopped. The mold and its attached electrotype are removed from the solution, the electrotype and the mold are separated. An animation of the electrotyping process was produced in 2011 by the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Other metals besides copper can be electrotyped. There is a second type of electrotyping, used in which the copper film is deposited onto the outside of a form, is not separated from it. In this use the form is waterproofed plaster, which remains as a core after electrotyping. In German this method is known as Kerngalvanoplastik. Electrotyping is related to electroplating, which permanently adds a thin metallic overlayer to a metallic object instead of creating a freestanding metal part. Electrotyping and electroforming both produce metal parts, but differ in technical details. Electroforming involves the production of a metallic part around a metallic mandrel, although the term is sometimes used more broadly to encompass all electrodeposition processes.
As noted above, electrotyping forms the part using a non-conducting mold or form whose surface has been made conducting by applying a thin coating of graphite or metal powder. At present, most sources credit Moritz Hermann Jacobi with the invention of "galvanoplasty" or electrotyping in 1838. Nineteenth-century accounts credited Thomas Spencer or C. J. Jordan with the invention in England, or Joseph Alexander Adams in the United States; the electrotyping industry was limited for some decades by the sources of the electric currents needed to activate the deposition of metal films into the mold. In the initial work, the Daniell cell was used to provide these currents; the Daniell cell was replaced by the Smee cell after the latter's invention by Alfred Smee in 1840. Both of these cells are forerunners of contemporary electrical batteries. By the 1870s, mechanical generators were being used. One of the first applications of electrotyping was in printing. Electrotyping was used to make copper reproductions of engraved metal plates or wooden carvings, which were used to print artwork.
The electrotypes could be incorporated along with movable type to compose the formes for printing. Jacobi published his first account of electrotyping in October 1838. In 1839, electrotyping was used by Russian printers for government documents. In England, the first use of electrotyping for printing appeared in the London Journal of April 1840, other English examples are known f
Oldwick, New Jersey
Oldwick is an unincorporated community located within Tewksbury Township in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States. The area is served as United States Postal Service ZIP Code 08858; as of the 2000 United States Census, the population for ZIP Code Tabulation Area 08858 was 177. The 2010 census data indicate a population of 144. Oldwick was known as New Germantown, it has a mixture of Victorian, New England and Georgian style homes, is protected by historic legislation. Historic sites within Oldwick include the Oldwick Historic District. Zion Lutheran Church in Oldwick was the oldest Lutheran parish in New Jersey. Justus Falckner of New York, the first Lutheran clergyman ordained in America, led the worshipers at the founding ceremony on August 1, 1714; the noted German Lutheran pastor, Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, was a member of this congregation from 1759 to 1760. Oldwick is the corporate headquarters of the A. M. Best rating agency, is the location of Mane Stream the Somerset Hills Handicapped Riding Center for adaptive riding and equine assisted therapy.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise associated with Oldwick include: George David Weiss and former President of the Songwriters Guild of America
Tewksbury Township, New Jersey
Tewksbury Township is a township located in Hunterdon County, New Jersey and is located within the New York Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 5,993, reflecting an increase of 452 from the 5,541 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 738 from the 4,803 counted in the 1990 Census; the township was first mentioned as holding a township meeting on March 11, 1755, as having been formed from Lebanon Township, though the exact circumstances of its formation by charter are unknown. Tewksbury was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. Portions of the township were taken to form Califon borough. Portions of the township were acquired from Readington Township in 1832 and 1861, portions were transferred to Clinton Township in 1871 and 1891; the township's name is thought to be from Tewkesbury and the two established a sister city relationship in 2003. The original settlers were of English extraction.
However, a large German contingent settled in the area around 1749 and theirs became the strongest influence when Tewksbury became a township. The enclave of Oldwick, with a mixture of Victorian, New England and Georgian style homes is protected by historic legislation. Zion Lutheran Church in Oldwick is the oldest German Lutheran parish in New Jersey. Oldwick is home to Mane Stream, a Professional Association of Therapeutic Horsemanship Premier Accredited Center for therapeutic horseback riding. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 31.699 square miles, including 31.526 square miles of land and 0.173 square miles of water. Tewksbury Township borders Califon, Clinton Township, Lebanon Township and Readington Township in Hunterdon County. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Apgars Corner, Cokesbury, Farmersville, Fox Hill, Laurel Farms, Lower Fairmount, New Germantown, Pottersville and Vernoy; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,993 people, 2,189 households, 1,768.712 families residing in the township.
The population density was 190.1 per square mile. There were 2,323 housing units at an average density of 73.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 94.16% White, 0.83% Black or African American, 0.03% Native American, 2.92% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.82% from other races, 1.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.49% of the population. There were 2,189 households out of which 34.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.0% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.2% were non-families. 15.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.05. In the township, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 15.2% from 25 to 44, 38.5% from 45 to 64, 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47.3 years. For every 100 females there were 97.5 males.
For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 96.7 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $160,224 and the median family income was $189,833. Males had a median income of $128,177 versus $90,833 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $91,644. About 0.9% of families and 1.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.3% of those under age 18 and 1.9% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 5,541 people, 1,986 households, 1,662 families residing in the township; the population density was 175.2 people per square mile. There were 2,052 housing units at an average density of 64.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 96.82% White, 0.52% African American, 1.88% Asian, 0.27% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.53% of the population. There were 1,996 households out of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 77.2% were married couples living together, 5.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.3% were non-families.
12.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.05. In the township the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 3.6% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 33.7% from 45 to 64, 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.7 males. The median income for a household in the township was $135,649, the median income for a family was $150,189. Males had a median income of $100,000 versus $57,500 for females; the per capita income for the township was $65,470. About 1.6% of families and 2.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 1.5% of those age 65 or over. Tewksbury Township is governed under the Township form of government; the five-member Township Committee is elected directly by the voters a