It's a Wonderful Life
It's a Wonderful Life is a 1946 American Christmas fantasy drama film produced and directed by Frank Capra, based on the short story and booklet The Greatest Gift, which Philip Van Doren Stern wrote in 1939 and published in 1943. The film is one of the most beloved in American cinema, has become traditional viewing during the Christmas season; the film stars James Stewart as George Bailey, a man who has given up his dreams in order to help others, whose imminent suicide on Christmas Eve brings about the intervention of his guardian angel, Clarence Odbody. Clarence shows George all the lives he has touched, how different life in his community of Bedford Falls would be if he had never been born. Despite performing poorly at the box office due to stiff competition at the time of its release, the film has become a classic and is a staple of Christmas television around the world. Theatrically, the film's break-even point was $6.3 million twice the production cost, a figure it didn't come close to achieving on its initial release.
An appraisal in 2006 reported: "Although it was not the complete box office failure that today everyone believes... it was a major disappointment and confirmed, at least to the studios, that Capra was no longer capable of turning out the populist features that made his films the must-see, money-making events they once were."It's a Wonderful Life is now considered one of the greatest films of all time. It was nominated for five Academy Awards, including Best Picture, has been recognized by the American Film Institute as one of the 100 best American films made, as number 11 on its initial 1998 greatest movie list, as number 20 on its revised 2007 greatest movie list, as number one on its list of the most inspirational American films of all time. Capra revealed that it was his personal favorite among the films he directed and that he screened it for his family every Christmas season. On Christmas Eve 1945, in Bedford Falls, New York, George Bailey contemplates suicide; the prayers of his family and friends reach heaven, where Clarence Odbody, Angel 2nd class, is assigned to save George, in return for which he will earn his angel wings.
To prepare him for his mission, Clarence is shown flashbacks of George's life. The first is from 1919, when 12-year-old George saves his younger brother Harry from drowning in a frozen lake. At his after-school job, George realizes that the druggist, Mr. Gower, distraught over his son's death from flu, has accidentally added poison to a child's prescription, intervenes to stop him from causing harm. In 1928, George plans to leave on a world tour and attend college. At Harry's high-school graduation party, George is reintroduced to Mary Hatch, who has had a crush on him from childhood, their walk home is interrupted by news that George's father, has died of a stroke. George postpones his travel so he can sort out the family business, Bailey Brothers' Building and Loan. Henry F. Potter, the richest and meanest man in town, wishes to dissolve the Building and Loan to eliminate it as a competitor; the board of directors votes to keep the Building and Loan open, on condition that George stay to run it.
George gives his college tuition to Harry on the condition that Harry take over the Building and Loan when he graduates. Four years in 1932, Harry returns from college married and with a job offer from his father-in-law. Although Harry is ready to honor his commitments to George and the Building and Loan, George learns that the job has excellent prospects and won't allow his brother to turn it down; as a result, George never does leave Bedford Falls but ends up falling in love with Mary and they marry. But on their way to their honeymoon, they witness a run on the bank and use their $2,000 honeymoon savings to keep the Building and Loan solvent and out of Potter's control until the panic subsides. George establishes Bailey Park, a development of modest houses financed by the Building and Loan that offers home ownership in contrast to rentals in Potter's overpriced slums; the unscrupulous Potter attempts to lure George into becoming his assistant, offering him $20,000 a year. During World War II, George is ineligible for service because of his deaf ear.
Harry becomes a Navy pilot and earns the Medal of Honor by shooting down a kamikaze plane headed for a troop transport. On Christmas Eve morning 1945, as the town prepares a hero's welcome for Harry, Uncle Billy goes to the bank to deposit $8,000 of the Building and Loan's cash; when Potter enters, Billy taunts him by grabbing the newspaper out of his lap and reading the headline about Harry aloud. Billy returns the newspaper to Potter; when the teller asks him for the money for the deposit, Billy discovers that he has misplaced the cash. Potter discovers the envelope and, seeing an opportunity to ruin the Baileys and quash the Building and Loan, says nothing; when a bank examiner arrives to review the Building and Loan's records, George realizes that scandal and criminal charges will follow. After retracing Billy's steps without success, George berates him goes home and takes out his frustration on his family. George appeals to Potter for a loan and offers his life insurance policy with only $500 in equity as collateral.
Based on the policy's $15,000 nominal value, Potter says that George is worth more dead than alive and phones the police to have him arrested. Geo
Bwana Devil is a 1952 U. S. adventure B movie written and produced by Arch Oboler and stars Robert Stack, Barbara Britton, Nigel Bruce. Bwana Devil is based on the true story of the Tsavo maneaters and filmed with the Natural Vision 3D system; the film is notable for sparking the first 3D film craze in the motion picture industry, as well as for being the first feature-length 3D film in color and the first 3D sound feature in English. The advertising tagline was: The Miracle of the Age!!! A LION in your lap! A LOVER in your arms! The film is set in British East Africa in the early 20th century. Thousands of workers are building the Uganda Railway, Africa's first railroad, intense heat and sickness make it a formidable task. Two men in charge of the mission are Dr. Angus Ross. A pair of man-eating lions are on the loose and disrupt the undertaking. Hayward attempts to overcome the situation, but the slaughter continues. Britain sends three big-game hunters to kill the lions. With them comes Jack's wife.
After the game hunters are killed by the lions, Jack sets out for all to kill them. A grim battle between Jack and the lions endangers his wife. Jack proves he is not a weakling; the plot was based on a well-known historical event, that of the Tsavo maneaters, in which many workers building the Uganda Railway were killed by lions. These incidents were the basis for the book The Man-eaters of Tsavo, the story of the events as written by Lt. Col. J. H. Patterson, the British engineer who killed the animals; the story was the basis for the film The Ghost and the Darkness with Michael Douglas and Val Kilmer. By 1951 film attendance had fallen from 90 million in 1948 to 46 million. Television was seen as the culprit and Hollywood was looking for a way to lure audiences back. Cinerama had premiered on September 30, 1952 at the Broadway Theater in New York and was a success there, but its bulky and expensive three-projector system and huge curved screen were impractical, if not impossible, to duplicate in any but the largest theaters.
Former screenwriter Milton Gunzburg and his brother Julian thought they had a solution with their Natural Vision 3D film process. They shopped it around Hollywood. 20th Century Fox was focusing on the introduction of CinemaScope and had no interest in another new process. Both Columbia and Paramount passed it up. Only John Arnold, who headed the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer camera department, was impressed enough to convince MGM to take an option on it, but they let the option lapse. Milton Gunzburg turned his focus to independent producers and demonstrated Natural Vision to Arch Oboler and writer of the popular Lights Out radio show. Oboler was impressed enough to option it for his next film project. Oboler said he had overheard Joseph Biroc and the camera crew talking about 3D while filming The Twonky and Oboler became interested. Oboler announced the project in March 1952, he said it would be called Lion of Gulu and would include footage shot in Africa several years beforehand. Filming was to start in May.
It was always going to be in National Vision. Howard Duff and Hope Miller were the first stars signed. Duff and Miller dropped out and were replaced by Robert Stack and Barbara Britton; the title of Oboler's film was changed to Bwana Devil in June 1952. The film was shot in the San Fernando Valley; the Paramount Ranch, now located in The Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, sat in for an African savanna. There is now a hiking trail in the area named "The Bwana Trail" to denote the locations used in Bwana Devil. Authentic African footage shot by Arch Oboler in 1948 was incorporated into the film. Ansco Color film was used, instead of the more cumbersome Technicolor process. Lloyd Nolan appeared in a prologue for the film; the film was given Code approval in two dimension but not in three dimension due to a kissing scene. Approval was given; the film premiered under the banner of "Arch Oboler Productions" on November 26, 1952 with a twin engagement at the Paramount Theaters in Hollywood and downtown Los Angeles.
As at all U. S. screenings of feature-length 3D films in the 1950s, the polarized light method was used and the audience wore 3D glasses with gray Polaroid filters. The anaglyph color filter method was only used for a few short films during these years; the two-strip Natural Vision projection system required making substantial alterations to a theater's projectors and providing its screen with a special non-depolarizing surface. The film was a runaway success with audiences, it opened in San Francisco on December 13, Dallas and San Antonio on December 25, New York on February 18, 1953. M. L. Gunzburg presents 3D, a short film produced by Bob Clampett and featuring Beany and Cecil, was screened preceding the film. Long thought lost, the short rejoined Bwana Devil for screenings at the Egyptian Theater in 2003 and 2006. Natural Vision announced. United Artists bought the rights to Bwana Devil from Arch Oboler Productions for $500,000 and a share of the profits and began a wide release of the film in March as a United Artists film.
A lawsuit followed, in which producer Edward L. Alperson Jr. claimed that he was part owner of the film after purchasing a share of it for $1,000,000 USD. The courts decided in Oboler's favor, as Alperson's claim was unsubstantiated and "under the table"; the other major studios reacted by releasing their own 3D films. Warner Brothers optioned the Natural Vision process for House of Wax, it premiered on April 10, 1953 and was advertised as "the
Famous Players-Lasky Corporation was an American motion picture and distribution company created on July 19, 1916, from the merger of Adolph Zukor's Famous Players Film Company—originally formed by Zukor as Famous Players in Famous Plays—and the Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company; the deal, guided by president Zukor resulted in the incorporation of eight film production companies, making the Famous Players-Lasky Corporation one of the biggest players of the silent film era. Famous Players-Lasky, under the direction of Zukor, is best known for its vertical integration of the film industry and block booking practices. In September 1927, Famous Players-Lasky was reorganized under the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation becoming the Paramount Pictures Corporation; the Balaban and Katz Historical Foundation now owns the Famous Players trademark. The former Famous Players-Lasky Movie Ranch at Lasky Mesa in the Simi Hills is now within the Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve; the Astoria studio was designated a national historic district and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.
The district encompasses six contributing buildings. In 1914, film-production companies Famous Players Films and Jesse L. Lasky Feature Plays signed a distribution deal with Paramount Pictures Corporation. Under the agreement Hodkinson would distribute the two companies' films through a 65/35 arrangement in which the producer agreed to take only 65% of film profits with 35% of the gross revenue going to Hodkinson's Paramount. While the agreement seemed like a good deal and Lasky realized that they could make much higher revenues if they could integrate the production and distribution of their films. Accordingly, less than a year into their distribution contracts the two men began looking for a way to buy Hodkinson out of Paramount and to incorporate the three companies. In late 1915 Zukor began buying as much Paramount stock as possible, including stock belonging to Hiram Abrams, a member of the Paramount board of directors. On July 13, 1916, at Paramount Corporation's annual board meeting, Hodkinson found himself ousted from the presidency and replaced by Abrams, who won the seat by a single vote.
After accepting the presidency, Abrams announced to the board, "On behalf of Adolph Zukor, who has purchased my shares in Paramount, I call this meeting to order."Within a week of removing Hodkinson, on July 19, 1916, Famous Players and the Lasky Feature Play Company merged to form Famous Players-Lasky, with Zukor as President and Jesse L. Lasky as Vice President. For a brief period Famous Players-Lasky acted as a holding company for its subsidiaries- Famous Players, Feature Play, Oliver Morosco Photoplay, Cardinal, Paramount Pictures Corporation and The George M. Cohan Film Corporation. However, on December 29, 1917, all of the subsidiaries were incorporated into one entity called the Famous Players-Lasky Corporation. However, Zukor was not satisfied with consolidation; the cost of producing films was rising – screenplays cost more to purchase and the rise of the star system meant that celebrities were demanding higher salaries. Zukor needed to increase revenue, he would do so over the next ten years by integrating film production and exhibition into one corporation.
In 1919, Famous Players-Lasky faced a boycott from the First National Exhibitions Circuit, a group that controlled nearly 600 theaters nationwide. The Circuit disagreed with the Corporation's distribution practices, which required theaters to purchase large blocks of feature films sight-unseen. In addition to selling strategic blocks of features, theater owners were offered options such as "program distribution", in which the exhibitor booked a single evening's worth of entertainment, "star series" in which the exhibitor signed up for a given number of pictures per year featuring a particular star. "Selective Bookings" in which exhibitors were allowed to purchase a single film, made up only a small percentage of the Corporation's offerings. The Circuit's protest of these practices and boycott of Famous Players-Lasky films put the Corporation in desperate need of its own theaters. In 1919, Zukor began directing the purchase of theater chains across the nation. In the Northeast, Zukor acquired Alfred Black's Black's New England Theaters, Inc. and in the South, Zukor acquired S.
A. Lynch's Southern Enterprises, which owned 200 theaters and was at the time the exclusive Paramount distributor in 11 Southern states. In order to weaken First National, Zukor sent Lynch and Black to acquire theaters held by First National members employing heavy-handed tactics. By the mid-1920s, the Famous Players-Lasky Corporation was one of the largest theater owners in the world, with a controlling interest in the Rialto and Criterion theater chains. However, in 1921 the corporation hit a brief stumbling block when Zukor's practice of block booking films and buying up theatres led to an FTC antitrust suit. Financial problems within the movie industry as a result of the Great Depression pushed Famous Players-Lasky Company, with $2,020,024 in debts but only $134,718 in assets, into receivership August 3, 1933. On August 30, 1921, the Federal Trade Commission formally charged Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, Realart Pictures Corporation, The Stanley Company of America, Stanley Booking Corporation, Black New England Theaters, Inc.
Southern Enterprises, Inc. Saenger Amusement Company, Adolph Zukor, Jesse L. Lasky, Jules Mastbaum, Alfred S. Black, S. A. Lynch, Ernest V. Richards, Jr. with restraint of trade as part of an ongoing investigation i
Goldwyn Pictures Corporation was an American motion picture production company that operated from 1916 to 1924 when it was merged with two other production companies to form the major studio, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The studio proved moderately successful, but became most famous due to its iconic Leo the Lion trademark. Although Metro was the nominal survivor, the merged studio inherited Goldwyn's old facility in Culver City, California where it would remain until 1986; the merged studio retained Goldwyn's Leo the Lion logo. Lee Shubert of Shubert Theater was an investor in the company. Goldwyn Pictures Corporation was founded on November 19, 1916 by Samuel Goldwyn partnering with Broadway producers Edgar and Archibald Selwyn using an amalgamation of both last names to create the name. Goldfish had left Lasky's Feature Play Company, of which he was a co-founder, in 1916 when Feature Play merged with Famous Players. Margaret Mayo, Edgar's wife & play writer, Arthur Hopkins, a Broadway producer, joined the trio as writer and director general.
At the beginning, Goldwyn Pictures rented production facilities from Solax Studios when it and many other early film studios in America's first motion picture industry were based in Fort Lee, New Jersey. The company's first release was Polly of the Circus, an adaptation of Mayo's play, in September 1917 starting Mae Marsh. By April 1917, Goldwyn Pictures agreed to rent the Universal Pictures studios in Fort Lee having the second largest stage, had two film companies operating at the time with plans for more production companies; the company management planned on having 12 films done by September 1, 1917 with out distributing the films so as to be able to show advanced footage to the theaters. Goldfish associated the company with Columbia University via Professor Victor Freeburg's Photoplay Writing class in 1917 to increase the company's artistic standings; the company released other production companies films with Marie Dressler's Dressler Producing Corporation film, The Scrub Lady, in 1917.
The company was forced in October 1917 to switch out The Eternal Magalene for Fighting Odds, both starring Maxine Elliott, after the National Board of Review cleared the Magalene movie while censors in Pennsylvania state and Chicago city did not approve the film. Thais starring Mary Garden was released in late 1917, a costly loss. In January 1918, Goldfish signed director Raoul Walsh and prematurely announced it as there were two years left on Walsh's contract with Fox. With Thais being the company's second costly loss, Goldwyn decreased film budgets by not using theater divas to cross over to film and reducing design driven films. Instead, he rely on comedies starring Mabel Normand. In August 1918, Goldwyn Pictures signed Will Rogers, at that time a Broadway Follies favorite, to star in a Rex Beach production, Laughing Bill Hyde, filmed at the Fort Lee studio for release in September; the company purchased the Triangle Studios in Culver City in 1918. Goldwyn headed west out to Culver City in the Winter of 1918 which opening operations there caused an increase in film expenses.
Seeing an opportunity in December, Samuel Goldfish had his name changed to Samuel Goldwyn. In 1919, Frank Joseph "Joe" Godsol became an investor in Goldwyn Pictures. Goldwyn began looking to follow other film companies, like Loews Theaters/Metro Pictures and First National, into vertical integration. Goldwyn and the company backers were looking at renting the Astor Theatre for movie premiers instead with the Capitol Theatre's financial problems in May 1920, the backer purchased a controlling interest in that theater. Shubert and Godsol, did not want the theater to rely only on Goldwyn films and operated it separately from the company. By 1920 in addition owning its Culver City studio, Goldwyn Pictures was renting two New York studios and nearly ceased operations in Fort Lee. After personality clashes, Sam Goldwyn left the company in 1922. Lee Shubert of Shubert Theater contacted Marcus Loew about merging the company with Loew's Metro. Loew agreed to the merger. Louis B. Mayer heard about the pending merger and contacted Loew about adding his Louis B. Mayer Productions into the post merger company, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
A 1965 fire in an MGM storage facility destroyed many negatives and prints, including the best-quality copies of every Goldwyn picture produced prior to 1924. On March 25, 1986, Ted Turner and his Turner Broadcasting System purchased pre-May 1986 MGM films from Kirk Kerkorian for $600 million. Polly of the Circus Tillie the Scrubwoman Thirty a Week Samuel Goldwyn Productions, Samuel Goldwyn's next production company Samuel Goldwyn Studio, informal name for the Pickford-Fairbanks Studios lot in Hollywood; the Samuel Goldwyn Company, founded by Samuel Goldwyn, Jr. in 1979, active through 1997 Samuel Goldwyn Films, founded by Samuel Goldwyn, Jr. Goldwyn Pictures on IMDb American Film Institute Catalog Goldwyn Pictures Corp. Goldwyn Distributing Corp. Silent Era.com Goldwyn Distributing Corporation Goldwyn Pictures Corporation Goldwyn Producing Corporation
Louis Daniel Armstrong, nicknamed Satchmo and Pops, was an American trumpeter, composer and occasional actor, one of the most influential figures in jazz. His career spanned five decades, from the 1920s to the 1960s, different eras in the history of jazz. In 2017, he was inducted into the Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame. Armstrong was raised in New Orleans. Coming to prominence in the 1920s as an "inventive" trumpet and cornet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting the focus of the music from collective improvisation to solo performance. Around 1922, he followed Joe "King" Oliver, to Chicago to play in the Creole Jazz Band. In the Windy City, he networked with other popular jazz musicians, reconnecting with his friend, Bix Beiderbecke, made new contacts, which included Hoagy Carmichael and Lil Hardin, he earned a reputation at "cutting contests", relocated to New York in order to join Fletcher Henderson's band. With his recognizable rich, gravelly voice, Armstrong was an influential singer, demonstrating great dexterity as an improviser, bending the lyrics and melody of a song for expressive purposes.
He was very skilled at scat singing. Armstrong is renowned for his charismatic stage presence and voice as much as for his trumpet playing. Armstrong's influence extends well beyond jazz, by the end of his career in the 1960s, he was regarded as a profound influence on popular music in general. Armstrong was one of the first popular African-American entertainers to "cross over", that is, whose skin color became secondary to his music in an America, racially divided at the time, he publicly politicized his race to the dismay of fellow African Americans, but took a well-publicized stand for desegregation in the Little Rock crisis. His artistry and personality allowed him access to the upper echelons of American society highly restricted for black men. Armstrong stated that he was born on July 4, 1900. Although he died in 1971, it was not until the mid-1980s that his true birth date, August 4, 1901, was discovered by Tad Jones by researching baptismal records. At least three other biographies treat the July 4th birth date as a myth.
Armstrong was born in New Orleans on August 4, 1901 to William Armstrong. Albert was from Boutte and gave birth at home when she was about sixteen. William Armstrong abandoned the family shortly after. About two years he had a daughter, Beatrice "Mama Lucy" Armstrong, raised by Albert. Louis Armstrong was raised by his grandmother until the age of five when he was returned to his mother, he spent his youth in poverty in a rough neighborhood known as The Battlefield. At six he attended the Fisk School for Boys, a school that accepted black children in the racially segregated system of New Orleans, he did odd jobs for a family of Lithuanian Jews. While selling coal in Storyville, he heard spasm bands, groups that played music out of household objects, he heard the early sounds of jazz from bands that played in brothels and dance halls such as Pete Lala's, where King Oliver performed. The Karnoffskys treated him like family. Knowing he lived without a father, they nurtured him. In his memoir Louis Armstrong + the Jewish Family in New Orleans, La. the Year of 1907, he described his discovery that this family was subject to discrimination by "other white folks" who felt that they were better than Jews: "I was only seven years old but I could see the ungodly treatment that the white folks were handing the poor Jewish family whom I worked for."
He wore a Star of David pendant for the rest of his life and wrote about what he learned from them: "how to live—real life and determination." His first musical performance may have been at the side of the Karnoffsky's junk wagon. To distinguish them from other hawkers, he tried playing a tin horn to attract customers. Morris Karnoffsky gave Armstrong an advance toward the purchase of a cornet from a pawn shop; when Armstrong was eleven, he dropped out of school. His mother moved into a one-room house on Perdido Street with him and her common-law husband, Tom Lee, next door to her brother Ike and his two sons. Armstrong joined a quartet of boys, he got into trouble. Cornetist Bunk Johnson said. In his years Armstrong credited King Oliver, he said about his youth, "Every time I close my eyes blowing that trumpet of mine—I look right in the heart of good old New Orleans... It has given me something to live for." Borrowing his stepfather's gun without permission, he fired a blank into the air and was arrested on December 31, 1912.
He spent the night at New Orleans Juvenile Court was sentenced the next day to detention at the Colored Waif's Home. Life at the home was spartan. Mattresses were absent. Meals were little more than bread and molasses. Captain Joseph Jones used corporal punishment. Armstrong developed his cornet skills by playing in the band. Peter Davis, who appeared at the home at the request of Captain Jones, became Armstrong's first teacher and chose him as bandleader. With this band, the thirteen year-old. On June 14, 1914, Armstrong was released into the custody of his father and his new stepmother, Gertrude, he lived in this household with two stepbrothers for several months. After Gertrude gave birth to a daughter, Armstrong's father never welcomed him, so he returned to his mother, Mary Albert. In her small home, he had to share a bed with his sister, his mother still lived in The Battlefield
Adventures of Superman (TV series)
Adventures of Superman is an American television series based on comic book characters and concepts that Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster created in 1938. The show was the first television series to feature Superman and began filming in 1951 in California on RKO-Pathé stages and the RKO Forty Acres back lot. Cereal manufacturer Kellogg's sponsored the show; the show, produced for first-run television syndication rather than a network, has disputed first and last air dates, but they are accepted as September 19, 1952, April 28, 1958. The show's first two seasons were filmed in white. Adventures of Superman was not shown in color until 1965, when the series was syndicated to local stations. George Reeves played Clark Kent/Superman, with Jack Larson as Jimmy Olsen, John Hamilton as Perry White, Robert Shayne as Inspector Henderson. Phyllis Coates played Lois Lane in the first season, with Noel Neill stepping into the role in the second and seasons. Superman battles crooks and other villains in the fictional city of Metropolis while masquerading "off duty" as Daily Planet reporter Clark Kent.
Lois Lane and Jimmy Olsen, Clark's colleagues at the office find themselves in dangerous situations that only Superman's timely intervention can resolve. Its opening theme is known as The Superman March. In 1987, selected episodes of the show were released on VHS. In 2006, the series became available in its entirety on DVD to coincide with the DVD release of Superman Returns, the first Superman feature film to emerge after two decades without such a movie; the feature film Hollywoodland was released in 2006, dramatizing the show's production and the death of its star George Reeves. In 1951, California exhibitor and B-movie producer Robert L. Lippert released a 58-minute black-and-white movie starring George Reeves and Phyllis Coates called Superman and the Mole Men with a script by Robert Maxwell and direction by Lee Sholem; the film served as a pilot for Adventures of Superman and prompted the first season to go into production in August/September of the same year. The series discontinued production and remained unaired until September 1952, when cereal manufacturer Kellogg's agreed to sponsor the show, as the company had done with the Superman radio series.
The success of the series came as a complete surprise to the cast. The initial feature film and the Mole Men, was subsequently edited into a two-part story called "The Unknown People" and was televised late in the first season, it was the only multi-part story of the series. After the first season's filming was completed, actress Phyllis Coates made other commitments and did not return as Lois Lane for the second season. Noel Neill, who had played the character in both Columbia theatrical serials stepped into the role and remained until the series' cancellation; the core cast thereafter remained intact, with Phillips Tead joining the regulars in the last seasons as the eccentric recurring character Professor Pepperwinkle. To promote and advertise the show, cast members Reeves and Larson were able to gain extra money by appearing in Kellogg's commercials during the second season. However, Noel Neill was never approached for these because sponsors worried that scenes of Clark Kent having breakfast with Lois Lane would be too suggestive.
From the beginning, the series was filmed like a movie serial with principals wearing the same costumes throughout the show to expedite out-of-sequence shooting schedules and save budgetary costs. For instance, all scenes that took place in the "Perry White Office" set would be filmed back to back for future placement in various episodes, confusing to the actors. Money was further saved by using Clark's office as Lois's office with a simple change of wall hangings, thus dispensing with additional set construction. Other scenic shortcuts were employed. In the last seasons, for example, few exterior location shoots were conducted, with episodes being filmed entirely in the studio. Reeves's red and yellow Superman costume was brown and white so that it would come through photographically in appropriate gray tones on black-and-white film. After two seasons the producers began filming the show in a rarity for the time. Filming of the color episodes began in late 1954, they were broadcast in monochrome starting in early 1955.
Because of the added cost of filming in color, the producers cut the number of episodes per season in half. Each 26-week season would feature 13 reruns of the older black-and-white shows; the monochrome prints of the color episodes had to be treated so that there would be a somewhat similar contrast in the colors of Reeves's new costume to that from the earlier seasons, with the contrast increasing each season, as the gray tones of the blue and red colors would otherwise have been rendered nearly indistinguishable. Throughout the last 50 episodes, a lackadaisical attitude toward flubbed lines prevailed, ascribed to morale deterioration among cast and crew with the added expense of color filming and salary disputes. Producer Whitney Ellsworth admitted: "Sometimes there was just garbage in the rushes, but we were forced to use what we had, rather than relight the set and go again." Phyllis Coates, like George Reeves, was a popular lead in B features of the period. For the TV series, Reeves asked.
Coates created a sharp, strong-willed Lois Lane, an enterprising reporter who tries to outscoop Clark Kent. Jack Larson's Jimmy Olsen is a Daily Planet intern, ofte
Attack (1956 film)
Attack known as Attack!, is a 1956 American war film. It was directed by Robert Aldrich and starred Jack Palance, Eddie Albert, Lee Marvin, William Smithers, Robert Strauss, Richard Jaeckel, Buddy Ebsen and Peter van Eyck; the cinematographer was Joseph Biroc. "A cynical and grim account of war", the film is set in the latter stages of World War II and tells the story of a front-line combat unit led by a cowardly captain out of his depth, as well as a tougher subordinate and an executive officer who both threaten to do away with him. As the official trailer put it: "Not every gun is pointed at the enemy!" The film won the 1956 Italian Film Critics Award. Europe 1944: Fragile Fox is a company of the US National Guard based in a Belgian town near the front line, they are led by Captain Erskine Cooney. Cooney freezes under fire and cannot bring himself to send more men into battle to reinforce those under attack; the increasing and unnecessary loss of life caused by Cooney's actions is lowering unit morale and trying the patience of platoon leader Lieutenant Joe Costa.
The executive officer, Lt. Harold Woodruff, is the "voice of reason" who tries to keep the peace between Cooney and Costa. Woodruff tries to get Cooney reassigned to a desk job, it is well known. Clyde Bartlett, who has known the Cooney family since he was a 14-year-old clerk in the office of Cooney's father, a politically powerful judge; the judge's influence could be useful to Bartlett's post-war political ambitions. When the Germans launch the Battle of the Bulge, Bartlett orders Cooney to seize the town of La Nelle. Unsure whether the Germans are there or not, Cooney overrules an all-out attack and decides that Costa should lead a reconnaissance mission. Costa agrees, provided that both Cooney and Woodruff promise to send reinforcements if necessary; as the platoon approaches La Nelle, the men come under fire – the town, as it turns out, is held by German troops backed up by mortars and tanks. Most of Costa's squad is wounded, he and the survivors take refuge in a farmhouse. When Costa calls for reinforcements, Cooney begins drinking.
Costa and his men capture a German SS officer and a soldier, but when tanks start shelling the house, he has no choice but to retreat. He furiously tells Woodruff over the radio to warn Cooney that he's "coming back!" In the confusion Costa goes missing in action. The rest of the men manage to get back to town; the men show their contempt for Cooney. Bartlett reprimands Cooney for failing to send in his entire company to take La Nelle; as a result, the Germans are advancing on their position. Bartlett threatens to arrest Cooney if he falls back, as it would leave another company unprotected and the Germans would be able to "roll up the entire front line"; when Cooney begs to be reassigned, an enraged Bartlett strikes him. Woodruff threatens Bartlett saying he will tell the commanding general, Gen. Parsons, the whole story. With the pressure building up inside him, Cooney turns to drink again, but Woodruff smashes the bottle. After that, Cooney has a mental breakdown. Feeling sorry for him, Woodruff tells him to sleep it off and is about to assume command when Costa reappears, determined to kill Cooney.
As they argue, they are told by Corporal Jackson. Costa disables an enemy tank with a bazooka, but is gravely wounded when another tank he disables drives over his arm. Woodruff, Bernstein and Snowden take refuge in a basement, followed shortly afterward by Cooney. Bernstein's leg is broken, they try to get out. Costa appears. With only minutes to live, he appeals to God to give him enough strength to kill Cooney, but collapses and dies. Cooney suggests surrendering though they have not been discovered. Woodruff warns him; when Cooney does, Woodruff kills him. Woodruff insists that Tolliver place him under arrest, they take turns shooting Cooney's body themselves, all except Snowden, who has gone to see if the Germans heard the shots. American reinforcements arrive, the Germans retreat. Told by the men that Cooney was killed by the Germans, Bartlett–who has figured out that it wasn't the Germans but Cooney's own men who killed him–puts Woodruff in command. Bartlett gives him a field promotion to captain, but announces that he is going to nominate Cooney for the Distinguished Service Cross award.
Outraged, Woodruff accuses Bartlett of orchestrating the whole thing in order to get rid of Cooney and gain favor with his powerful father. Bartlett remarks that Woodruff has too much to lose if he makes the whole affair public, but as the film ends, Woodruff calls the commanding general, Gen. Parsons, on the radio to file a full report; the film was based on Norman Brooks' stage play Fragile Fox. Director Aldrich bought the rights when he failed to obtain those for Irwin Shaw's The Young Lions and Norman Mailer's The Naked and the Dead. Aldrich never had read it and liked what it said about war. Due to the nature of the film, which cast some officers as either cowards or Machiavellian manipulators, the US Defense Department refused to grant production assistance. Critics attacked this attitude, pointing out the heroic and noble behavior of other officers like Costa and Woodr