Joseph Boyd (sailor)
Boyd enlisted in the Navy 4 April 1803 as a steward. On 16 February 1804 he took part in the expedition which burned Philadelphia following her capture by the Tripolitanians. Boyd later became a clerk.
Boyd enlisted in the Navy 4 April 1803 as a steward. On 16 February 1804 he took part in the expedition which burned Philadelphia following her capture by the Tripolitanians. Boyd later became a clerk.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers. They were developed in the late 19th century by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" were "large and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been shortened to "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War. Before World War II destroyers were light vessels with little endurance for unattended ocean operations. After the war, the advent of the guided missile allowed destroyers to take on the surface combatant roles filled by battleships and cruisers; this resulted in larger and more powerful guided missile destroyers more capable of independent operation.
At the start of the 21st century, destroyers are the global standard for surface combatant ships, with only two nations operating the heavier class cruisers, with no battleships or true battlecruisers remaining. Modern guided missile destroyers are equivalent in tonnage but vastly superior in firepower to cruisers of the World War II era, are capable of carrying nuclear tipped cruise missiles. At 510 feet long, a displacement of 9,200 tons, with armament of more than 90 missiles, guided missile destroyers such as the Arleigh Burke-class are larger and more armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers; some European navies, such as the French, Spanish, or German, use the term "frigate" for their destroyers, which leads to some confusion. The emergence and development of the destroyer was related to the invention of the self-propelled torpedo in the 1860s. A navy now had the potential to destroy a superior enemy battle fleet using steam launches to fire torpedoes. Cheap, fast boats armed with torpedoes called torpedo boats were built and became a threat to large capital ships near enemy coasts.
The first seagoing vessel designed to launch the self-propelled Whitehead torpedo was the 33-ton HMS Lightning in 1876. She was armed with two drop collars to launch these weapons, these were replaced in 1879 by a single torpedo tube in the bow. By the 1880s, the type had evolved into small ships of 50–100 tons, fast enough to evade enemy picket boats. At first, the threat of a torpedo boat attack to a battle fleet was considered to exist only when at anchor. In response to this new threat, more gunned picket boats called "catchers" were built which were used to escort the battle fleet at sea, they needed significant seaworthiness and endurance to operate with the battle fleet, as they became larger, they became designated "torpedo boat destroyers", by the First World War were known as "destroyers" in English. The anti-torpedo boat origin of this type of ship is retained in its name in other languages, including French, Portuguese, Greek, Dutch and, up until the Second World War, Polish. Once destroyers became more than just catchers guarding an anchorage, it was realized that they were ideal to take over the role of torpedo boats themselves, so they were fitted with torpedo tubes as well as guns.
At that time, into World War I, the only function of destroyers was to protect their own battle fleet from enemy torpedo attacks and to make such attacks on the battleships of the enemy. The task of escorting merchant convoys was still in the future. An important development came with the construction of HMS Swift in 1884 redesignated TB 81; this was a large torpedo boat with three torpedo tubes. At 23.75 knots, while still not fast enough to engage enemy torpedo boats reliably, the ship at least had the armament to deal with them. Another forerunner of the torpedo boat destroyer was the Japanese torpedo boat Kotaka, built in 1885. Designed to Japanese specifications and ordered from the Glasgow Yarrow shipyards in 1885, she was transported in parts to Japan, where she was assembled and launched in 1887; the 165-foot long vessel was armed with four 1-pounder quick-firing guns and six torpedo tubes, reached 19 knots, at 203 tons, was the largest torpedo boat built to date. In her trials in 1889, Kotaka demonstrated that she could exceed the role of coastal defense, was capable of accompanying larger warships on the high seas.
The Yarrow shipyards, builder of the parts for Kotaka, "considered Japan to have invented the destroyer". The first vessel designed for the explicit purpose of hunting and destroying torpedo boats was the torpedo gunboat. Small cruisers, torpedo gunboats were equipped with torpedo tubes and an adequate gun armament, intended for hunting down smaller enemy boats. By the end of the 1890s torpedo gunboats were made obsolete by their more successful contemporaries, the torpedo boat destroyers, which were much faster; the first example of this was HMS Rattlesnake, designed by Nathaniel Barnaby in 1885, commissioned in response to the Russian War scare. The gunboat was armed with torpedoes and designed for hunting and destroying
USS Boyd was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for Joseph Boyd, who took part in Stephen Decatur's expedition into Tripoli harbor during the First Barbary War. Boyd was launched 29 October 1942 by Bethlehem Steel Co. San Pedro, sponsored by Mrs. C. W. Styer, wife of Captain Styer, commissioned 8 May 1943, Lieutenant Commander Ulysses S. G. Sharp, Jr. in command. As a unit of the Pacific Fleet, Boyd departed for Pearl Harbor 14 July 1943. After additional training she took part in the occupation of Baker Island and joined the Fast Carrier Task Force as a screening vessel for the Wake Island raid and the Gilbert Islands landings. On 26 November 1943, Boyd was credited with sinking the Imperial Japanese Navy I-39 in the Gilberts area. During the bombardment of Nauru Island Boyd was damaged by a Japanese shore battery while on a rescue mission for a US plane, shot and made an emergency landing into the water. Boyd was ordered to go pick up survivors of the plane crash at 10:33 AM.
Fifty-seven minutes they found the raft with the pilots on board. At 11:40, Boyd pulled up against the raft. Two minutes 11:42, Boyd was hit by Japanese shells; the first shell hit the engine room, severing boiling water lines, destroying the power distribution board, all of the men in the boiler room died. The second shell hit inside the #1 stack. Total casualties were 8 wounded; as a result she had to return to New Hebrides, for repairs. Following repairs Boyd arrived at Pearl Harbor 23 March 1944, she joined Task Force 58 for the Hollandia landings. She joined TF 38 for the strikes against Okinawa, northern Luzon and Formosa, Luzon, which preceded the Leyte landings. After taking part in the Battle for Leyte Gulf she screened the carriers launching strikes against Luzon. Between 31 December 1944 and 22 January 1945 Boyd served as an escort vessel, she took part in the bombardment of Iwo Jima and in the occupation of the island. She remained there on screening duty until 30 June, she rejoined the 3rd Fleet for strikes against the Japanese home islands.
One of the first vessels to return to the United States after the Japanese surrender, Boyd departed Okinawa 7 September and underwent overhaul at Mare Island Navy Yard. She moved to San Diego, arriving 14 January 1948 and was placed out of commission in reserve 15 January 1947. Recommissioned 24 November 1950, the destroyer reported to the Pacific Fleet. Following training off the west coast, Boyd departed for Korea 28 May 1951, she remained there, serving with TF 77 and on the Formosa Strait Patrol, until returning to San Diego 21 December 1951. Boyd departed San Diego 12 July 1952 for her second Korean tour, she took part in the amphibious demonstration off Kojo. She departed Korean waters in late January and arrived at San Diego 16 February 1953. After the end of the Korean fighting Boyd continued operations along the west coast and made three Far Eastern tours. Boyd received 11 battle stars for five for her Korean War service. On 1 October 1969, Boyd was decommissioned, stricken from the Naval Vessel Register, transferred to Turkey.
She served in the Turkish Navy as TCG Iskenderun. In 1981, she was scrapped; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Navsource.org: USS Boyd hazegray.org: USS Boyd USS Boyd veterans website
A chief steward is the senior crew member working in the steward's department of a ship. Since there is no purser on most ships in the United States Merchant Marine, the steward is the senior person in the department, whence its name. In the British Merchant Navy, a steward is a junior member of the department, so the term "chief steward" is always used for the senior member; the chief steward directs and assigns personnel performing such functions as preparing and serving meals. Moreover, the steward oversees cleaning and maintaining officers' quarters and steward department areas; the chief steward plans menus, compiles supply and cost control records. The steward may requisition or purchase stores and equipment. Other duties may include baking bread, croissants, pies and pastries. A chief steward's duties may overlap with those of the Steward's Assistant, the Chief Cook, other Steward's Department crew members. In the United States Merchant Marine, in order to be occupied as a chief steward a person has to have a Merchant Mariner's Document issued by the United States Coast Guard.
Because of international conventions and agreements, all chief cooks who sail internationally are documented by their respective countries. Chief stewards on large passenger vessels can be considered to be officers. Seafarer's professions and ranks Galley "Service Contract Act Directory of Occupations: 47340 CHIEF COOK/STEWARD". Dol.gov. Archived from the original on July 28, 2005. Retrieved March 3, 2007. "Workforce Management Office CHIEF COOK/STEWARD". Retrieved March 28, 2007. United States Coast Guard Merchant Mariner Licensing and Documentation web site
Stephen Decatur Jr. was a United States naval officer and commodore. He was born on the eastern shore of Maryland in Worcester County, the son of a U. S. naval officer. His father, Stephen Decatur Sr. was a commodore in the U. S. Navy, brought the younger Stephen into the world of ships and sailing early on. Shortly after attending college, Decatur followed in his father's footsteps and joined the U. S. Navy at the age of nineteen as a midshipman. Decatur supervised the construction of several U. S. naval vessels, one of which he commanded. Promoted at age 25, he is the youngest man to reach the rank of captain in the history of the United States Navy, he served under three presidents, played a major role in the early development of the American navy. In every theater of operation, Decatur's service was characterized by acts of heroism and exceptional performance, his service in the Navy took him through both Barbary Wars in North Africa, the Quasi-War with France, the War of 1812 with Britain. He was renowned for his natural ability to lead and for his genuine concern for the seamen under his command.
His numerous naval victories against Britain and the Barbary states established the United States Navy as a rising power. During this period he served aboard and commanded many naval vessels and became a member of the Board of Navy Commissioners, he built a large home in Washington, known as Decatur House, on Lafayette Square, was the center of Washington society in the early 19th century. He became an affluent member of Washington society and counted James Monroe and other Washington dignitaries among his personal friends. Decatur's career came to an early end. Decatur emerged as a national hero in his own lifetime, becoming the first post-Revolutionary War hero, his name and legacy, like that of John Paul Jones, became identified with the United States Navy. Decatur was born on January 5, 1779 in Sinepuxent, Maryland, to Stephen Decatur Sr. a merchant captain and an officer in the young American navy during the American Revolution, his wife Ann Decatur. The family of Decatur was of French descent on Stephen's father's side, while his mother's family was of Irish ancestry.
His parents had arrived from Philadelphia just three months before Stephen was born, having to flee that city during the American Revolution because of the British occupation. They returned to the same residence they had once left for Philadelphia. Decatur's family returned to Philadelphia shortly after Decatur's birth, Decatur grew up in Philadelphia graduating from the Episcopal Academy. Decatur came to love the sailing in a roundabout manner; when Stephen was eight years old, he developed a severe case of whooping cough. In those days, a supposed tonic for this condition was exposure to the salt air of the sea, it was decided that Stephen Jr. would accompany his father aboard a merchant ship on his next voyage to Europe. Sailing across the Atlantic and back proved to be an effective remedy, Decatur came home recovered. In the days following young Stephen's return he was jubilant about his adventure on the high sea and spoke of wanting to go sailing often, his parents had different aspirations his mother who had hopes that Stephen would one day become an Episcopal clergyman, tried to discourage the eight-year-old from such jaunty ambitions, fearing such would distract Stephen from his studies.
At the direction of his father, Decatur attended the Episcopal Academy, at the time an all-boys school that specialized in Latin and religion. He enrolled for one year at the University of Pennsylvania in 1795, where he better applied himself and focused on his studies. At the university, Decatur met and became friends with Charles Stewart and Richard Somers, who would become naval officers themselves. Decatur found the classic studies prosaic and life at the university disagreeable, at the age of 17, with his heart and mind set on ships and the sea, discontinued his studies there. Though his parents were not pleased with his decision, they were wise enough to now let the aspiring young man pursue his own course through life. Through his father's influence, Stephen gained employment at the shipbuilding firm of Gurney and Smith, business associates of his father, acting as supervisor to the early construction of the frigate United States, he was serving on board this vessel as a midshipman when it was launched on May 10, 1797, under the command of Commodore John Barry.
In the years leading up to the Quasi-War, an undeclared naval war with the revolutionary French Republic involving disputes over U. S. trading and shipping with Britain, the U. S. Congress passed the'Act to provide for a Naval Armament' on March 27, 1794; the act provided for the commissioning of six frigates for the Navy. It was promptly signed by George Washington that same day. There was much opposition to the bill, it was amended and allowed to pass with the condition that work on the proposed ships would stop in the event that peace with the Pasha of Algiers was obtained. Construction of the six new American frigates was progressing when, because of a peace accord with Algiers in March 1796, work was halted. After some debate and at the insistence of President Washington, Congress passed an act on April 20, 1796, allowing the construction and funding to continue, but only on the three ships nearest to completion at the time: USS United States, USS Constellation and USS Constitution. In 1798, John Barry obtained Decatur's appointment as midshipman on United States, under
Tripoli is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.158 million people in 2018. It is located in the northwest of Libya on the edge of the desert, on a point of rocky land projecting into the Mediterranean Sea and forming a bay, it includes the port of the country's largest commercial and manufacturing centre. It is the site of the University of Tripoli; the vast Bab al-Azizia barracks, which includes the former family estate of Muammar Gaddafi, is located in the city. Colonel Gaddafi ruled the country, from his residence in this barracks. Tripoli was founded in the 7th century BC by the Phoenicians. Due to the city's long history, there are many sites of archaeological significance in Tripoli. Tripoli may refer to the shabiyah, the Tripoli District. Tripoli is known as Tripoli-of-the-West, to distinguish it from its Phoenician sister city Tripoli, known in Arabic as Ṭarābulus al-Sham, meaning "Levantine Tripoli", it is affectionately called "The Mermaid of the Mediterranean", describing its turquoise waters and its whitewashed buildings.
Tripoli is a Greek name that means "Three Cities", introduced in Western European languages through the Italian Tripoli. In Arabic, it is called Ṭarābulus; the city was founded in the 7th century BC, by the Phoenicians, who gave it the Libyco-Berber name Oea, The Phoenicians were attracted to the site by its natural harbour, flanked on the western shore by the small defensible peninsula, on which they established their colony. The city passed into the hands of the rulers of Cyrenaica, although the Carthaginians wrested it from the Greeks. By the latter half of the 2nd century BC it belonged to the Romans, who included it in their province of Africa, gave it the name of "Regio Syrtica". Around the beginning of the 3rd century AD, it became known as the Regio Tripolitana, meaning "region of the three cities", namely Oea and Leptis Magna, it was raised to the rank of a separate province by Septimius Severus, a native of Leptis Magna. In spite of centuries of Roman habitation, the only visible Roman remains, apart from scattered columns and capitals, is the Arch of Marcus Aurelius from the 2nd century AD.
The fact that Tripoli has been continuously inhabited, unlike e.g. Sabratha and Leptis Magna, has meant that the inhabitants have either quarried material from older buildings, or built on top of them, burying them beneath the streets, where they remain unexcavated. There is evidence to suggest that the Tripolitania region was in some economic decline during the 5th and 6th centuries, in part due to the political unrest spreading across the Mediterranean world in the wake of the collapse of the Western Roman empire, as well as pressure from the invading Vandals. According to al-Baladhuri, Tripoli was, unlike Western North Africa, taken by the Muslims early after Alexandria, in the 22nd year of the Hijra, between 30 November 642 and 18 November 643 AD. Following the conquest, Tripoli was ruled by dynasties based in Cairo and Kairouan in Ifriqiya. For some time it was a part of the Berber Almohad empire and of the Hafsids kingdom. In 1510, it was taken by Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto for Spain, and, in 1530, it was assigned, together with Malta, to the Knights of St. John, expelled by the Ottoman Turks from their stronghold on the island of Rhodes.
Finding themselves in hostile territory, the Knights enhanced the city's walls and other defenses. Though built on top of a number of older buildings, much of the earliest defensive structures of the Tripoli castle are attributed to the Knights of St John. Having combated piracy from their base on Rhodes, the reason that the Knights were given charge of the city was to prevent it from relapsing into the nest of Barbary pirates it had been prior to the Spanish occupation; the disruption the pirates caused to the Christian shipping lanes in the Mediterranean had been one of the main incentives for the Spanish conquest of the city. The knights kept the city with some trouble until 1551, when they were compelled to surrender to the Ottomans, led by Muslim Turk Turgut Reis. Turgut Reis served as pasha of Tripoli, during his rule he adorned and built up the city, making it one of the most impressive cities along the North African Coast. Turgut was buried in Tripoli after his death in 1565, his body was taken from Malta, where he had fallen during the Ottoman siege of the island, to a tomb in the mosque he had established close to his palace in Tripoli.
The palace has since disappeared, but the mosque, along with his tomb, still stands, close to the Bab Al-Bahr gate. After the capture by the Ottoman Turks, Tripoli once again became a base of operation for Barbary pirates. One of several Western attempts to dislodge them again was a Royal Navy attack under John Narborough in 1675, of which a vivid eye-witness account has survived. Effective Ottoman rule during this period (1551
USS Philadelphia, a 1240-ton, 36-gun sailing frigate, was the second vessel of the United States Navy to be named for the city of Philadelphia. Named City of Philadelphia, she was built in 1798–1799 for the United States government by the citizens of that city. Funding for her construction was the result of a funding drive which raised $100,000 in one week, in June 1798, she was built by Samuel Humphreys, Nathaniel Hutton and John Delavue. Her carved work was done by William Rush of Philadelphia, she was laid down about November 14, 1798, launched on November 28, 1799, commissioned on April 5, 1800, with Captain Stephen Decatur, Sr. in command. She is best remembered for her burning after being captured in Tripoli. Putting to sea for duty in the West Indies to serve in the Quasi-War with France, she arrived on the Guadeloupe Station in May 1800 and relieved the frigate Constellation. During this cruise she captured five French armed vessels and recaptured six merchant ships that had fallen into French hands.
Returning home in March 1801, she was ordered to prepare for a year's cruise in the Mediterranean in a squadron commanded by Commodore Richard Dale. At his own request, Decatur was relieved of the command of President by Captain Samuel Barron; the squadron arrived at Gibraltar with Commodore Dale in the frigate President. Philadelphia was directed to cruise the Straits and blockade the coast of Tripoli, since in May 1801 the Pasha Yusuf Karamanli had threatened to wage war on the United States by chopping down the flagpole with the American flag before the U. S. consulate. Philadelphia departed Gibraltar for the United States in April 1802. In ordinary until May 21, 1803, when she recommissioned, sailed for the Mediterranean on July 28, 1803, she arrived in Gibraltar on August 24 with Captain William Bainbridge in command, two days recaptured the American brig Celia from the Moroccan ship-of-war Mirboka, brought them both into Gibraltar. During the First Barbary War, Philadelphia cruised off Tripoli until October 31, 1803, while giving chase and firing upon a pirate ship she ran aground on an uncharted reef two miles off Tripoli Harbor.
The captain, William Bainbridge, tried to refloat her, first laying the sails aback, casting off three bow anchors and shifting the guns aftward. But a strong wind and rising waves drove her further aground. Next they jettisoned many of her cannons, barrels of water, other heavy articles overboard in order to make her lighter, but this too failed, they sawed off the foremast in one last desperate attempt to lighten her. All of these attempts failed and Bainbridge, in order not to resupply the pirates, ordered holes drilled in the ship's bottom, gunpowder dampened, sails set afire and all other weapons thrown overboard before surrendering, her officers and men were made slaves of the Pasha. Philadelphia, refloated by her captors, was too great a prize to be allowed to remain in the hands of the Tripolitans, so a decision was made to recapture or destroy her; the U. S. had captured the Tripolitan ketch Mastico, renamed her Intrepid, re-rigged the ship with short masts and triangular sails to look like a local ship.
On February 16, 1804, under the cover of night and in the guise of a ship in distress that had lost all anchors in a storm and needed a place to tie up, Intrepid was sailed by a volunteer assaulting party of officers and men under Lieutenant Stephen Decatur, Jr. next to Philadelphia. The assault party boarded Philadelphia, after making sure that she was not seaworthy, burned the ship where she lay in Tripoli Harbor. Lord Horatio Nelson, known as a man of action and bravery, is said to have called this "the most bold and daring act of the Age."Her anchor was returned to the United States on April 7, 1871, when the Bashaw presented it to the captain of the visiting Guerriere. In 1904, Charles Wellington Furlong, an American adventurer went to Tripoli to investigate the sinking of Philadelphia and wrote of it in his book, The Gateway to the Sahara: Observations and Experiences in Tripoli. In this book the following account, based on records from a local synagogue, is given: Yusef Pashaw had equipped a number of corsairs....
His captains, Dghees, Romani and El-Mograbi, set sail from Tripoli and shortly sighted an American vessel. Zurrig left the others and daringly approached the ship, annoying her purposely to decoy her across the shoals, she stranded, but fired on the other vessels until her ammunition gave out, whereupon the Moslems pillaged her. The American Consul was much disheartened and tried to conclude arrangements similar to those made between the Bashaw and the Swedish Consul. Footnote 2: This of course was an erroneous idea, it may have been purposefully circulated through the town among the inhabitants other than Mohammedans. Furlong reports in the same book, that he talked to other Arabs in Tripoli who said that the ship was not burned, but moved to the Lazaretto where it was dressed up as a trophy and its guns used to call the end of Ramadan. According to the detailed account of Hadji-Mohammed Gabroom, an American ketch was able to sneak in, kill some of the 10 guards, cause the others to flee set the ship on fire.
List of sailing frigates of the United States Navy List of ships captured in the 19th century Bibliography of early American naval history This article incorporates text from the public domain Diction