Hollywood Anti-Nazi League
The Hollywood Anti-Nazi League was founded in Los Angeles in 1936 by Otto Katz and others to organize members of the American film industry to oppose fascism and Nazism. Although it was a communist front organization, run by the American popular front, like many such communist front groups, it ceased all anti-Nazi activities immediately upon the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in August 1939. In 1936 the CPUSA ordered Otto Katz to raise funds and to found the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League. To kick off his work, Katz held a fundraising dinner, which was attended by, among others, Irving Thalberg, Jack L. Warner, David O. Selznick. John Joseph Cantwell, Cardinal of Los Angeles, was on hand to bless the proceedings and artist Gloria Stuart was involved in the Leagues founding. Katz formed the HANL under the auspices of the mother of all front groups and his cofounder, Hubertus zu Löwenstein, held an organizational meeting at the Wilshire Ebell Theatre in Los Angeles. At the meeting, screenwriter Donald Ogden Stewart and author Dorothy Parker, fellow members of the Algonquin Round Table, were named respectively chairman and honorary chairman by acclamation.
The HANL was the first American anti-Nazi organization that was not overtly linked to American Jews, there was, in fact, friction between the League and other organized Jewish groups in Los Angeles. Although the HANL was a communist front organization, its membership spanned the political spectrum. Stewart, Herbert Biberman, Robert Rossen, Francis Edward Faragoh, the HANL had both liberal and conservative members who were not in the CPUSA. The League claimed a membership of 5000, although Leo Rosten thought that this figure was exaggerated, by 1937 the board of directors of the HANL included Jack Warner and Carl Laemmle, as well as the head of the Hollywood division of the CPUSA, John Howard Lawson. The League inaugurated its founding with a party at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles in October 1936. In attendance were Irving Berlin, and Gale Sondergaard, Los Angeles mayor Frank Shaw gave a speech, as did Eddie Cantor who, perhaps having had let his passion get the better of him, claimed that Nazi agents had tried to prevent his attendance.
The HANL published a newspaper, the Hollywood Anti-Nazi News, beginning in October 1936 and another journal. By 1937 the League was running two radio programs on Los Angeles station KFWB, mostly scripted by Donald Stewart and Herbert Biberman and it had local sections in Silver Lake, Beverly Hills, and other neighborhoods around Los Angeles County. Among these other activities, the League sponsored a variety of dinners, the HANL organized boycotts of German products and picketed meetings of the Los Angeles chapter of the German American Bund. The HANL publicized visits of prominent fascists to Los Angeles in order to shame their hosts, including Vittorio Mussolini, Mussolini was visiting Los Angeles in order to study film-making. The morning of his arrival, September 25,1937, the HANL ran ads in Hollywood trade papers, Mussolini stayed with producer Hal Roach during his time in Hollywood
Will H. Hays
William Will Harrison Hays, Sr. was a United States politician, chairman of the Republican National Committee, U. S. Postmaster General, from 1922–1945, the first chairman of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, Hays was born in Sullivan, Indiana, on November 5,1879, and attended Wabash College in Crawfordsville, Indiana. He was the manager of Warren G. Hardings successful campaign for the Presidency of the United States in the 1920 election and was subsequently appointed Postmaster General, while serving in the Harding Administration, he became peripherally involved in the Teapot Dome scandal. Oilman Harry Ford Sinclair devised a scheme in which twenty five cents was diverted from the sale of every barrel of oil sold from the oil field leases that were the focus of the Teapot Dome scandal. Sinclair testified that he loaned Will H. Hays, then-chairman of the Republican National Committee, $185,000 worth of Liberty Bonds, Sinclair gave Hays $75,000 as an outright gift to the Committee.
At the time, Hays was attempting to pay off the 1920 Republican campaign debt, Hays approached a number of wealthy men and told them that if they would contribute to pay down the Committees debt, he would reimburse them for their contributions with Liberty Bonds. When asked how much money Sinclair had contributed to the Republican Party, in 1928, after more details of Sinclairs scheme had emerged, Hays was called to testify again. Hays told the story of Sinclairs contribution, including the donation of $185,000 in Liberty Bonds. He stated that he had not mentioned the bonds in his earlier testimony because the Committee had not asked about any bonds, Hays resigned his cabinet position on January 14,1922, to become President of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America shortly after the organizations founding. He began his new job, at a $35,360 annual salary, there was speculation that he would be paid between $100,000 and $150,000 a year. In his new position in Hollywood, Hays main roles were to persuade individual state censor boards not to ban specific films outright, Hays attempted to reduce studio costs by advising individual studios on how to produce movies to reduce the likelihood that the film would be cut.
Each board kept its standards secret, so Hays was forced to intuit what would or would not be permitted by each board. At first he applied what he called The Formula but it was not particularly successful, from that he developed a set of guidelines he called The Donts, in general his efforts at pre-release self-censorship were unsuccessful in quieting calls for federal censorship. For several months in 1929, Martin Quigley, Joseph Breen, Father FitzGeorge Dinneen S. J. and Father Wilfred Parsons discussed the desirability of a new and more stringent code of behavior for the movies. With the blessing of Cardinal George W. Mundelein of Chicago, Father Lord authored the code, which became known as The Production Code, The Code. It was presented to Will Hays in 1930 who said, My eyes nearly popped out when I read it and this was the very thing I had been looking for. The studio heads were enthusiastic and they agreed to make The Code the rule of the industry. From 1930 to 1934, the Production Code was only effective in fighting back calls for federal censorship
Saint Joseph's University
The University was founded in 1851 as Saint Josephs College by the Society of Jesus. Saint Josephs is the seventh oldest Jesuit university in the United States and it has 17 centers and institutes, including the prestigious Kinney Center for Autism Education & Support and Pedro Arrupe Center for Business Ethics. Saint Josephs has grown in size and scope since 2001 with the addition of the Maguire Campus, construction of new campus buildings. For the 2014 U. S. News and World Report rankings, in the Masters Universities category, the Saint Josephs University athletics teams are called the Hawks. The Hawks are a NCAA Division I program that compete in the Atlantic-10 Conference, the official colors of the University are crimson and grey. The school mascot is the famous Hawk, which never stops flapping its wings while in costume, approximately,100 Jesuits live on campus with 18 serving as faculty. The universitys Jesuit Community lives in the Loyola Center, directly across the street from Barbelin Hall, the Loyola Center joins Manresa Hall, which is the home of the infirm Jesuits, and features a Carriage House.
Other Jesuit residences include St. Alphonsus House and Faber Hall, a few Jesuits live in residence halls, the university president maintains an apartment in the Merion Gardens Apartment building. The university uses its Jesuit identity in its branding. The university began The Magis campaign in 2013 to highlight this commitment to living greater, the Magis is taken from the motto of the society of Jesus Ad maiorem Dei gloriam, meaning for For the greater glory of God. The university promotes the Jesuit principle of cura personalis or Care for the whole person, the university requires undergraduates to complete a rigorous general education program that focuses heavily on traditional liberal arts disciplines. Every general education class is titled 154, which stands for the year 1540 AD when the Society of Jesus was accepted by the Pope, on September 27,2015, Pope Francis, himself a Jesuit, made a stop at the University during his two-day visit to Philadelphia. The Seal of Saint Josephs University signifies many things that show the history, many of the symbols are not unique to Saint Josephs and appear on the seals of other Jesuit educational institutions.
The wolves are over a pot to show the generosity of the Loyola family towards the poor. Tradition claims that the Loyolas provided so much food for their soldiers that even the wolves had enough to eat, IHM are the letters JES in Greek, which stands for Jesus. This symbol regularly represents the Jesuits, the stripes signify the 7 sons of the House of Loyola, who died defending their home from the Moors. The lily is used to represent Saint Joseph, wherever he is present. The seal is the graphical representation of Saint Josephs and its uniquely Jesuit identity
Roman Catholic High School
Roman Catholic, or simply Roman, as it is often called, was founded by Thomas E. Cahill, a 19th-century Philadelphia merchant. He saw the need to create a school that offered a free Catholic education for boys and he died before he saw his vision come to life, the wishes that he laid out in his will were followed. As such, Roman Catholic opened its doors in 1890 and offered an education to boys. Due to increased costs of staff and facilities, free admission to the school ended in the 1960s, in 1985, the Archdiocese slated the school for closing due to lowering enrollment. However, the alumni association, with the blessing of Philadelphias John Cardinal Krol. Romans Alumni Association, which had existed for over 70 years, came together to raise funds, the rector of the school even applied to have the building itself kept as a historic landmark, which was accepted. The significance of the landmark designation means the building on the corner of Broad. Also, its exterior must always stay the same — though it not have to remain a school.
Roman Catholic High School was built to hold about 750 to 800 students, because of high demand, it is above capacity and holds closer to 1100. To select its students, the school holds an entrance test every October, November, of the 600 or 700 students that apply, only about 300 to 350 will be accepted. Students who do well on these tests may receive scholarships ranging from a few hundred dollars to as much as $4000 a year, about 40 students receive scholarships. Roman, like high schools, has a tracking system, that is, first track, second track. Roman, however, is unique in that it tracks its honors class into three classes, while students in the honors classes learn the same material at the same pace, it creates a better learning system to have students of the same level together. Beginning with the 2012-2013 school year, Roman announceed the implementation of a 1,1 iPad initiative, due to the ever-changing face of education, students require different tools and strategies. The initiative will allow students and teachers to individualize and differentiate instruction in a way that is familiar to todays students, students will work on essential 21st century skill sets needed to meet state and national standards.
The article included the story of Joe, a 59-year-old who spoke of his abuse at the hands of Father McGuigan when in the grade at Roman Catholic High School. The school is located on the northeast corner of Broad and Vine Streets, faced in marble, it stands on a granite foundation. The building originally had a 150-foot marble tower topped in copper, the original three-story building received a two-story additional wing in 1953, where the physics and biology labs and the cafeteria are located
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Governments, private organizations and individuals may engage in censorship. When an individual such as an author or other creator engages in censorship of their own works or speech, Censorship could be direct or indirect, in which case it is referred to as soft censorship. Direct censorship may or may not be legal, depending on the type, there are no laws against self-censorship. In 399 BC, Greek philosopher, defied attempts by the Greek state to censor his philosophical teachings and was sentenced to death by drinking a poison, hemlock. Socrates student, Plato, is said to have advocated censorship in his essay on The Republic, in contrast to Plato, Greek playwright Euripides defended the true liberty of freeborn men, including the right to speak freely. In 1766, Sweden became the first country to abolish censorship by law, the rationale for censorship is different for various types of information censored, Moral censorship is the removal of materials that are obscene or otherwise considered morally questionable.
Pornography, for example, is often censored under this rationale, especially child pornography, Military censorship is the process of keeping military intelligence and tactics confidential and away from the enemy. This is used to counter espionage, which is the process of gleaning military information, political censorship occurs when governments hold back information from their citizens. This is often done to control over the populace and prevent free expression that might foment rebellion. Religious censorship is the means by which any material considered objectionable by a religion is removed. This often involves a dominant religion forcing limitations on less prevalent ones, one religion may shun the works of another when they believe the content is not appropriate for their religion. Strict censorship existed in the Eastern Bloc, throughout the bloc, the various ministries of culture held a tight rein on their writers. Cultural products there reflected the needs of the state. Party-approved censors exercised strict control in the early years, in the Stalinist period, even the weather forecasts were changed if they suggested that the sun might not shine on May Day.
Under Nicolae Ceauşescu in Romania, weather reports were doctored so that the temperatures were not seen to rise above or fall below the levels which dictated that work must stop. Independent journalism did not exist in the Soviet Union until Mikhail Gorbachev became its leader, the predominant newspaper in the Soviet Union, had a monopoly. Foreign newspapers were available if they were published by Communist Parties sympathetic to the Soviet Union. Possession and use of copying machines was tightly controlled in order to hinder production and distribution of samizdat, illegal self-published books, possession of even a single samizdat manuscript such as a book by Andrei Sinyavsky was a serious crime which might involve a visit from the KGB
The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the Academy Award of Merit, which has become commonly known by its nickname Oscar. The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS, the awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online. The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music and recording – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 89th Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2016, were held on February 26,2017, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, the ceremony was hosted by Jimmy Kimmel and was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,048 Oscars have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 88th, the first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16,1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people.
The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel, the cost of guest tickets for that nights ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the industry of the time. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes, winners were announced to media three months earlier, that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11,00 pm on the night of the awards. The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and he had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier, this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, for the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27,1957, until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies always end with the Academy Award for Best Picture.
The Academy awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting, see § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. The five spokes represent the branches of the Academy, Writers, Producers. The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio El Indio Fernández, sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons design. The statuettes presented at the ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze
Toronto is the most populous city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. With a population of 2,731,571, it is the fourth most populous city in North America after Mexico City, New York City, and Los Angeles. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited the area now known as Toronto for thousands of years, the city itself is situated on the southern terminus of an ancient Aboriginal trail leading north to Lake Simcoe, used by the Wyandot and the Mississauga. Permanent European settlement began in the 1790s, after the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase of 1787, the British established the town of York, and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York, York was renamed and incorporated as the city of Toronto in 1834, and became the capital of the province of Ontario during the Canadian Confederation in 1867. The city proper has since expanded past its original borders through amalgamation with surrounding municipalities at various times in its history to its current area of 630.2 km2.
While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, and television production, and is home to the headquarters of Canadas major national broadcast networks and media outlets. Toronto is known for its skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere. The name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquois word tkaronto and this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, in the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagonon the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, French traders founded Fort Rouillé on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750, but abandoned it in 1759.
During the American Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario, the new province of Upper Canada was in the process of creation and needed a capital. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto, in 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, instead naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the towns natural harbour, sheltered by a long sandbar peninsula. The towns settlement formed at the end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the towns capture, the surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. US soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation, the sacking of York was a primary motivation for the Burning of Washington by British troops in the war
Jean Renoir was a French film director, actor and author. As a film director and actor, he more than forty films from the silent era to the end of the 1960s. His films La Grande Illusion and The Rules of the Game are often cited by critics as among the greatest films ever made and he was ranked by the BFIs Sight & Sound poll of critics in 2002 as the fourth greatest director of all time. Among numerous honors accrued during his lifetime, he received a Lifetime Achievement Academy Award in 1975 for his contribution to the picture industry. Renoir was the son of the painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Renoir was born in the Montmartre district of Paris, France. He was the son of Aline Renoir and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. His elder brother was Pierre Renoir, a French stage and film actor, Renoir was the uncle of Claude Renoir, the son of Pierre, a cinematographer who worked with Jean Renoir on several of his films. Renoir was largely raised by Gabrielle Renard, his nanny and his mothers cousin, shortly before his birth, she had come to live with the Renoir family.
She introduced the boy to the Guignol puppet shows in Montmartre. He wrote in his 1974 memoirs My Life and My Films, She taught me to see the face behind the mask and she taught me to detest the cliché. Gabrielle was fascinated by the new invention, and when Renoir was only a few years old she took him to see his first film. As a child, Renoir moved to the south of France with his family and he and the rest of the Renoir family were the subjects of many of his fathers paintings. His fathers financial success ensured that the young Renoir was educated at boarding schools, from which, as he wrote. At the outbreak of World War I, Renoir was serving in the French cavalry, after receiving a bullet in his leg, he served as a reconnaissance pilot. After the war, Renoir followed his fathers suggestion and tried his hand at making ceramics and he was particularly inspired by Erich von Stroheims work. In 1924, Renoir directed Une Vie Sans Joie or Catherine and she was his fathers last model. At this stage, his films did not produce a return, Renoir gradually sold paintings inherited from his father to finance them.
During the 1930s Renoir enjoyed great success as a filmmaker, in 1931 he directed his first sound films, On purge bébé and La Chienne
Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI, born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939. He was the first sovereign of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state on 11 February 1929 and he took as his papal motto, Pax Christi in Regno Christi, translated The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ. During his pontificate, the hostility with the Italian government over the status of the papacy. He was unable to stop the persecution of the Church and the killing of clergy in Mexico, Spain and he canonized important saints, including Thomas More, Petrus Canisius, Konrad von Parzham, Andrew Bobola and Don Bosco. Pius XI created the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism and he took a strong interest in fostering the participation of lay people throughout the Catholic Church, especially in the Catholic Action movement. The end of his pontificate was dominated by speaking out against Hitler and Mussolini and defending the Catholic Church from intrusions into Catholic life and he died on 10 February 1939 in the Apostolic Palace and is buried in the Papal Grotto of Saint Peters Basilica.
In the course of excavating space for his tomb, two levels of burial grounds were uncovered which revealed bones now venerated as the bones of St. Peter. Achille Ratti was born in Desio, in the province of Milan, in 1857 and he was ordained a priest in 1879 and embarked on an academic career within the Church. He obtained three doctorates at the Gregorian University in Rome, and from 1882 to 1888 was a professor at the seminary in Padua and his scholarly specialty was as an expert paleographer, a student of ancient and medieval Church manuscripts. Eventually, he left teaching to work full-time at the Ambrosian Library in Milan. During this time, he edited and published an edition of the Ambrosian Missal and he became chief of the Library in 1907 and undertook a thorough programme of restoration and re-classification of the Ambrosians collection. He was a mountaineer in his spare time, reaching the summits of Monte Rosa. The combination of a pope would not be seen again until the pontificate of John Paul II.
In 1911, at Pope Pius Xs invitation, he moved to the Vatican to become Vice-Prefect of the Vatican Library, in October 1918, Benedict was the first head of state to congratulate the Polish people on the occasion of the restoration of their independence. In March 1919, he nominated ten new bishops and, soon after, Ratti was consecrated as a titular archbishop in October 1919. Benedict XV and Nuncio Ratti repeatedly cautioned Polish authorities against persecuting the Lithuanian and Ruthenian clergy, Ratti intended to work for Poland by building bridges to men of goodwill in the Soviet Union, even to shedding his blood for Russia. Benedict, needed Ratti as a diplomat, not as a martyr, the nuncios continued contacts with Russians did not generate much sympathy for him within Poland at the time. After Pope Benedict sent Ratti to Silesia to forestall potential political agitation within the Polish Catholic clergy, on 20 November, when German Cardinal Adolf Bertram announced a papal ban on all political activities of clergymen, calls for Rattis expulsion climaxed
Samuel Goldwyn, known as Samuel Goldfish, was a Jewish Polish American film producer. He was most well known for being the founding contributor and executive of several motion picture studios in Hollywood and his awards include the 1973 Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award, the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award in 1947, Goldwyn was born Szmuel Gelbfisz in Warsaw, Kingdom of Poland, Russian Empire, to a Hasidic, Polish Jewish family. His parents were Aaron Dawid Gelbfisz, a peddler, and his wife, at an early age, he left Warsaw on foot and penniless. He made his way to Birmingham, United Kingdom, where he remained with relatives for a few years using the name Samuel Goldfish and he was 16 when his father died. In 1898, he emigrated to the United States, but fearing refusal of entry, he got off the boat in Nova Scotia, Canada and he found work in upstate Gloversville, New York, in the bustling garment business. Soon his innate marketing skills made him a successful salesman at the Elite Glove Company.
After four years, as vice-president of sales, he moved back to New York City, in 1913, Goldfish along with his brother-in-law Jesse L. Lasky, Cecil B. DeMille, and Arthur Friend formed a partnership, The Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company, film rights for the stage play, The Squaw Man were purchased for $4,000 and Dustin Farnum was hired for the leading role. Shooting for the first feature made in Hollywood began on December 29,1913. In 1914, Paramount was an exchange and exhibition corporation headed by W. W. Hodkinson. Looking for more movies to distribute, Paramount signed a contract with the Lasky Company on June 1,1914 to supply 36 films per year, one of Paramounts other suppliers was Adolph Zukors Famous Players Company. The two companies merged on June 28,1916 forming The Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, Zukor had been quietly buying Paramount stock, and two weeks prior to the merger, became president of Paramount Pictures Corporation and had Hodkinson replaced with Hiram Abrams, a Zukor associate.
With the merger, Zukor became president of both Paramount and Famous Players-Lasky, with Goldfish being named chairman of the board of Famous Players-Lasky, and Jesse Lasky first vice-president. After a series of conflicts with Zukor, Goldfish resigned as chairman of the board, Goldfish was out as an active member of management, although he still owned stock and was a member of the board of directors. Famous Players-Lasky would part of Paramount Pictures Corporation. In 1916, Goldfish partnered with Broadway producers Edgar and Archibald Selwyn, seeing an opportunity, he had his name legally changed to Samuel Goldwyn, which he used for the rest of his life. Goldwyn Pictures proved successful but it is their Leo the Lion trademark for which the organization is most famous, on April 10,1924, Goldwyn Pictures was acquired by Marcus Loew and merged into his Metro Pictures Corporation