Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll
Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll, 8th Earl of Argyll, chief of Clan Campbell, was a Scottish nobleman and peer. The de facto head of Scotland's government during most of the conflict of the 1640s and 50s known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, he was a major figure in the Covenanter movement that fought for the maintenance of the Presbyterian religion against the Stuart monarchy's attempts to impose episcopacy, he is remembered as the principal opponent of the royalist general James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose. He was eldest son of Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll, by his first wife Agnes Douglas daughter of William Douglas, 6th Earl of Morton, was educated at St Andrews University, where he matriculated on 15 January 1622, he had early in life, as Lord Lorne, been entrusted with the possession of the Argyll estates when his father renounced Protestantism and took arms for Philip III of Spain. Argyll was said to be of above average height, but slight in build, he had reddish hair, which darkened in life – among the Highlanders he was called "red Argyll" – and a pronounced squint.
Contemporaries said he had a charming and persuasive manner, although early in life he developed a habit of abruptly leaving the room if a conversation took a turn he did not like. Clarendon said that "his wit was pregnant, his humour gay and pleasant, except when he liked not the company or the argument". On the outbreak of the religious dispute between the king and Scotland in 1637, Lord Lorne's support was eagerly sought by Charles I, he was made a privy councillor in 1628. In 1638, the king summoned him, together with the earls of Traquair and Roxburgh, to London, but he refused to be won over, warned Charles against his despotic ecclesiastical policy, showed great hostility towards William Laud. In consequence, a secret commission was given to the Randal MacDonnell, Earl of Antrim to invade Argyll and stir up the MacDonalds against the Campbells. Argyll, who inherited the title at the death of his father in 1638 had no preference for Presbyterianism, but now took the side of the Covenanters in defence of national religion and liberties.
Argyll continued to attend the meetings of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland after its dissolution by the Marquess of Hamilton, when Episcopacy was abolished. In 1639, he sent a statement to Laud, subsequently to the king, defending the General Assembly's action. Argyll seized Hamilton's castle of Brodick in Arran. After the pacification of Berwick-upon-Tweed, he carried a motion, in opposition to James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, by which the estates secured to themselves the election of the lords of the articles, nominated by the king; this was a fundamental change to the Scottish constitution, whereby the management of public affairs was entrusted to a representative body and withdrawn from the control of the crown. An attempt by the king to deprive Argyll of his office as justiciary of Argyll failed, on the prorogation of the parliament by Charles, in May 1640, Argyll moved that it should continue its sittings and that the government and safety of the kingdom should be secured by a committee of the estates, of which he was the guiding spirit.
In June, he was trusted with a Commission of fire and sword against the royalists in Atholl and Angus, after succeeding in entrapping John Murray, 1st Earl of Atholl, he carried out with completeness and cruelty. It was on this occasion. By this time, the personal dislike and difference in opinion between Montrose and Argyll led to an open breach; the former arranged that on the occasion of Charles's approaching visit to Scotland, Argyll would be accused of high treason in the parliament. The plot, was disclosed, Montrose, among others, was imprisoned. Accordingly, when the king arrived, he found himself deprived of every remnant of influence and authority, it only remained for Charles to make a series of concessions. He transferred control over judicial and political appointments to the parliament, created Argyll a marquess in 1641, returned home, having, in Clarendon's words, made a perfect deed of gift of that kingdom. Meanwhile, there was an unsuccessful attempt to kidnap Argyll and Lanark, known as The Incident.
Argyll was instrumental in this crisis in keeping the national party faithful to what was to him evidently the common cause, in accomplishing the alliance with the Long Parliament in 1643. In January 1644, he accompanied the Scottish army into England as a member of the Committee of Both Kingdoms and in command of a troop of horse, but was soon compelled, in March, to return to suppress Royalists in the Scottish Civil War and to defend his own territories, he forced Huntly to retreat in April. In July, he advanced to abet the Irish troops now landed in Argyll, which were fighting in conjunction with Montrose, who had put himself at the head of the Royalist forces in Scotland. Neither general succeeded in obtaining an advantage over the other, or in engaging in battle. Argyll returned to Edinburgh, threw up his commission, retired to Inveraray Castle. Montrose unexpectedly followed him in December, compelling him to flee to Roseneath, devastating his territories. On 2 February 1645, while following Montrose northwards, Argyll was surprised by him at Inverlochy.
He witnessed, from his barge on the lake to which he had retired after falling from his horse, a fearful slaughter of his troops, which included 1,500 of the Campbells. He arrived at E
John Campbell, 1st Earl of Loudoun
John Campbell, 1st Earl of Loudoun was a Scottish politician and Covenanter. As a young man Campbell travelled abroad. In 1620 married the heiress of the barony of Loudoun. In 1622 his patent for an earldom stopped by Charles I because of his strenuous opposition to episcopacy. In 1633 he took leading part in organising the covenant, 1637-1638, he was a leader of the armed insurrection in Scotland in 1639 and an envoy from Scotland to Charles I in 1640. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London but was freed and joined the Scottish army of invasion in August 1640, he was sent again as an envoy to London and was made Lord Chancellor of Scotland from 1641-1660. In 1641 he was created Earl of Loudoun. During the years 1642–1647 he was envoy to Charles I from the Parliament of Scotland. In 1650 he present at the coronation of Charles II of Scotland and fought at Dunbar, he joined the highland rising of 1653, but submitted to General Monck when it became obvious that further resistance was futile. He was excepted from Cromwell's Act of Grace in 1654 and fined by Charles II in 1662.
Campbell, was the eldest son of Sir James Campbell of Lawers, his wife, daughter of James, Lord Colville of Culross. He was born in 1598, on his return from travelling abroad was knighted by James VI of Scotland. In 1620 Campbell married Margaret, the eldest daughter of George Campbell, master of Loudoun. Upon the death of her grandfather, Hugh Campbell, 1st Baron Loudoun, in December 1622, she became baroness Loudoun, her husband took his seat in the Parliament of Scotland in her right, he was created Earl of Loudoun, lord Farrinyeane and Mauchline by patent dated at Theobalds on 12 May 1633, but in consequence of his joining with the George Leslie, Earl of Rothes and others in parliament in their opposition to the court with regard to the act for empowering King Charles I to prescribe the apparel of churchmen, the patent was by a special order stopped at the chancery, the title superseded. Soon after the passing of this act, the Scottish bishops resumed their episcopal costume, in 1636 the Book of Canons Ecclesiastical and the order for using the new service-book were issued upon the sole authority of the King without consulting the general assembly.
By his opposition to the policy of the court, Loudoun became a favourite of the adherents of the popular cause. In 1638 the "tables" were formed and the covenant renewed. In these proceedings Loudoun took a prominent part, being elected elder for the Burgh of Irvine in the general assembly, which met at Glasgow in November 1638, he was appointed one of the assessors to the Moderator. In the following year, with the assistance of his friends, he seized the castles of Strathaven and Tantallon, garrisoned them for the popular party, he marched with the Scottish army, under General Leslie, to the border, acted as one of the Scottish commissioners at the short-lived Pacification of Berwick, concluded on 18 June 1639. On 3 March 1640 Loudoun and the Charles Seton, Earl of Dunfermline, as commissioners from the estates, had an interview with Charles I at Whitehall, remonstrated against the prorogation of the Parliament of Scotland by the king's commissioner before the business, brought before them had been disposed of.
No answer was given to the remonstrance, but a few days after Loudoun was committed to the Tower of London upon acknowledging that a letter produced by the Earl of Traquair was in his own handwriting. This letter was addressed "Au Roy", requested assistance from the French king, it was signed by the Earls of Montrose and Mar, Lords Loudoun and Forester, General Leslie, but was not dated. Loudoun protested without avail that it had been written before the pacification of Berwick, that it had never been sent, that if he had committed any offence, he ought to be questioned for it in Scotland and not in England. According to Dr. Birch, a warrant was made out for Loudoun's execution without trial, but this has not been sufficiently corroborated, after some months' confinement in the Tower he was liberated upon the intercession of James, Marquis of Hamilton, returned to Scotland. On 21 August in the same year the Scottish army entered England, Loudoun with it, he took part in the Battle of Newburn on 28 August, was one of the Scottish commissioners at Ripon in the following October.
Having come to an agreement for the cessation of hostilities on the 25th of the same month, the further discussion of the treaty was adjourned to London, where the Scottish commissioners "were caressed by the parliament". In August 1641 the King opened the Parliament of Scotland in person, the treaty with England was ratified, offices and titles of honour were conferred on the "prime covenanters who were thought most capable to do him service". Accordingly, "the principal manager of the rebellion", as Clarendon calls him, was appointed Lord Chancellor of Scotland on 30 September 1641, on 2 October took the oath of office, received from the King the Great Seal, since the resignation of John Spottiswoode, the Archbishop of St. Andrews, had been kept by the Marquis of Hamilton. A pension of £1,000 a year was granted him, his title of Earl of Loudoun was allowed him, with precedency from the date of the original grant; when the king found that the estates would not give their consent to the nomination either of the Earl of Morton or of Lord Almond, as lord high treasurer, the treasury was put into commission, Lo
Ralph Brownrigg or Brownrig was bishop of Exeter from 1642 to 1659. He spent that time in exile from his see, which he never visited, he did find a position there for Seth Ward. He was both a Royalist in politics, a Calvinist in religion, an unusual combination of the period. Brownrigg opposed Laudianism in Cambridge during the 1630s and at the Short Parliament Convocation of 1640. Nominated to the Westminster Assembly, he took no part in it, he studied at Ipswich, Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. He was awarded an M. A. in 1614 and a D. D. in 1626. He was Rector of St Margaret of Antioch, Barley, in Hertfordshire, in 1621, he was Master of St Catharine's College and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, but in 1646 was ejected from both these positions, by the Parliamentary government. He took refuge with Thomas Rich, lord of the manor of Sonning, he continued to preach, for example at the Temple Church, a collection of sermons of his was published posthumously. Bibliographic directory from Project Canterbury Biography Sermon from 1644
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Samuel Bolton was an English clergyman and scholar, a member of the Westminster Assembly and Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Samuel Bolton was the son of Lancashire, he was born in London in 1606, educated at Christ's College, Cambridge. In 1643 he was chosen one of the Westminster assembly of divines, he was successively minister of St. Martin's, Ludgate Street, of St. Saviour's, of St. Andrew's, Holborn, he was appointed, on the death of Thomas Bainbrigg in 1646, master of Christ's College and served as Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University in 1651. He has been identified with the Samuel Bolton who, in 1649, attended Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland on the scaffold, he died, after a long illness, on 15 October 1654. Edmund Calamy preached his funeral sermon. Bolton's publication called, The Sinfulness of Sin, was delivered as a sermon to the House of Commons of England on a solemn day of humiliation on 25 March 1646; the law sends us to the gospel. The law sends us to the gospel for our justification.
His books include: A Tossed Ship making for a Safe Harbour. He has been incorrectly identified both as a brother of Robert Bolton; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Bolton, Samuel". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Monergism.org
The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660. It followed the fiasco of the Short Parliament which had convened for only three weeks during the spring of 1640, which in turn had followed an 11-year parliamentary absence. In September 1640, King Charles I issued writs summoning a parliament to convene on 3 November 1640, he intended it to pass financial bills, a step made necessary by the costs of the Bishops' Wars in Scotland. The Long Parliament received its name from the fact that, by Act of Parliament, it stipulated it could be dissolved only with agreement of the members; the Parliament sat from 1640 until 1648. In the chaos following the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, General George Monck allowed the members barred in 1648 to retake their seats, so that they could pass the necessary legislation to allow the Restoration and dissolve the Long Parliament; this cleared the way for a new Parliament to be elected, known as the Convention Parliament. Some key members of the Long Parliament, such as Sir Henry Vane the Younger and General Edmond Ludlow, barred from the final acts of the Long Parliament, claimed it was not dissolved, its final votes a procedural irregularity by General George Monck to ensure the restoration of King Charles II of England.
On the restoration the general was awarded with a Dukedom. American Whig historian Charles Wentworth Upham believed the Long Parliament comprised "a set of the greatest geniuses for government that the world saw embarked together in one common cause" and whose actions produced an effect, which, at the time, made their country the wonder and admiration of the world, is still felt and exhibited far beyond the borders of that country, in the progress of reform, the advancement of popular liberty, he believed. The sole reason Charles I assembled Parliament in November, 1640 was to ask it to pass finance bills, since the controverted taxation of ship money was unpopular, since the Bishops' Wars had bankrupted him. Instead, the Parliament proceeded to impeach William Laud, the Archbishop of Canterbury, of high treason, on 18 December. John Finch was impeached the following day, he fled to the Netherlands with Charles's permission on 21 December; the Parliament was influenced by John Pym and his supporters.
Pym entered into a particular enumeration of the troubles of the kingdom. Early in the Long Parliament's proceedings, the house unanimously accused the Earl of Strafford of high treason, other crimes and misdemeanors; this marked a new unanimity in Irish politics, whereby Old English, Gaelic Irish and New English settlers joined together in a legal body to present evidence against governor Strafford. However, the evidence was supplied indirectly by Henry Vane the Younger through the acquisition of notes of his father Henry Vane the Elder. Vane the Elder, on the King's Privy Council, remained loyal to his King and was aghast when he learned in public hearings of the theft of his notes of the King's Privy council by his son. On 10 April, Pym's case against Strafford collapsed, but Pym made a direct appeal to the Younger Vane to produce a copy of the notes from the King's Privy Council, which the Younger Vane had discovered and secretly turned over to Pym, to his father's great anguish; these handwritten notes of the elder Vane obtained by Henry Vane the Younger were confirmed by independent testimony.
Lord Strafford had told the King: "Sir, you have done your duty, your subjects have failed in theirs. Parliament, as representatives of the people, felt betrayed, accused Strafford of raising an Irish army for the purpose of subduing England, abolishing English freedoms, collecting revenues for the King. Pym moved a Bill of Attainder, asserting Strafford's guilt and ordering that he be put to death. Charles, promised Strafford that he would not sign the attainder, so it could not be passed; the Lords opposed the severity of the death sentence imposed upon Strafford, but increased tensions and an attempted army coup in support of Strafford began to sway the issue. On 21 April, the Bill went unopposed in the Commons, the Lords acquiesced. Charles, fearing for his family's safety, signed the death warrant on 10 May. Strafford was beheaded two days later. With the King having been implicated, the Long Parliament passed the Triennial Act known as the Dissolution Act, in May 1641, to which the Royal Assent was granted.
In the meantime both Parliament and the King agreed to an independent investigation of royal involvement in Strafford's plot. This Triennial Act required Parliament to be summoned at least once every three years, stipulated that when the King failed to issue proper summons, the members could assemble on their own; this act forbade ship money without Parliament's consent, declared unlawful both fines in destraint of knighthood and forced loans cut back monopolies, abolished the Courts of Star Chamber and High Commission by the Habeas Corpus Act 1640 and the Triennial Act 1641. The doctrine of modern freedoms has, to some degree, its origins in these acts. All remaining forms of taxation were legalised and regulated by the Tonnage and Poundage Act, the billetting of s