United States Department of State
The United States Department of State referred to as the State Department, is the federal executive department that advises the President and conducts international relations. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, it was established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who ascended to the office in April 2018 after Rex Tillerson resigned. The State Department's duties include implementing the foreign policy of the United States, operating the nation's diplomatic missions abroad, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, representing the United States at the United Nations, it is led by the Secretary of State, a member of the Cabinet, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to administering the department, the Secretary of State serves as the nation's chief diplomat and representative abroad; the Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession, after the Vice President of the United States, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate.
The State Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building, a few blocks away from the White House, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C.. The U. S. Constitution, drafted in Philadelphia in September 1787 and ratified by the 13 states the following year, gave the President the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's foreign relations; the House of Representatives and Senate approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned to it a variety of domestic duties; these responsibilities grew to include management of the United States Mint, keeper of the Great Seal of the United States, the taking of the census.
President George Washington signed the new legislation on September 15. Most of these domestic duties of the Department of State were turned over to various new federal departments and agencies that were established during the 19th century. However, the Secretary of State still retains a few domestic responsibilities, such as being the keeper of the Great Seal and being the officer to whom a President or Vice President of the United States wishing to resign must deliver an instrument in writing declaring the decision to resign. On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson of Virginia Minister to France, to be the first United States Secretary of State. John Jay had been serving in as Secretary of Foreign Affairs as a holdover from the Confederation since before Washington had taken office and would continue in that capacity until Jefferson returned from Europe many months later. From 1790 to 1800, the State Department had its headquarters in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States at the time.
It occupied a building at Fifth Streets. In 1800, it moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. where it first occupied the Treasury Building and the Seven Buildings at 19th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. It moved into the Six Buildings in September 1800, where it remained until May 1801, it moved into the War Office Building due west of the White House in May 1801. It occupied the Treasury Building from September 1819 to November 1866, except for the period from September 1814 to April 1816, it occupied the Washington City Orphan Home from November 1866 to July 1875. It moved to the State and Navy Building in 1875. Since May 1947, it has occupied the Harry S. Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington. Condoleezza Rice became the second female secretary of state in 2005. Hillary Clinton became the third female secretary of state when she was appointed in 2009. In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building.
A joint venture consisting of the architectural firms of Goody and the Louis Berger Group won a $2.5 million contract in January 2014 to begin planning the renovation of the buildings on the 11.8 acres Navy Hill campus, which housed the World War II headquarters of the Office of Strategic Services and was the first headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Executive Branch and the U. S. Congress have constitutional responsibilities for U. S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U. S. foreign affairs agency, its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances U. S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It provides an array of important services to U. S. citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the United States. All foreign affairs activities—U. S. Representation abroad, foreign assistance programs, countering internatio
Real estate development
Real estate development, or property development, is a business process, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw land and the sale of developed land or parcels to others. Real estate developers are the people and companies who coordinate all of these activities, converting ideas from paper to real property. Real estate development is different from construction, although many developers manage the construction process. Developers buy land, finance real estate deals, build or have builders build projects, imagine and orchestrate the process of development from the beginning to end. Developers take the greatest risk in the creation or renovation of real estate—and receive the greatest rewards. Developers purchase a tract of land, determine the marketing of the property, develop the building program and design, obtain the necessary public approval and financing, build the structures, rent out and sell it. Sometimes property developers will only undertake part of the process.
For example, some developers source a property and get the plans and permits approved before selling the property with the plans and permits to a builder at a premium price. Alternatively, a developer, a builder may purchase a property with the plans and permits in place so that they do not have the risk of failing to obtain planning approval and can start construction on the development immediately. Developers work with many different counterparts along each step of this process, including architects, city planners, surveyors, contractors, leasing agents, etc. In the Town and Country Planning context in the United Kingdom,'development' is defined in the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 s55. Many aspects of the real estate development process require local or state licensing, such as acting as a real estate broker or sales agent along. A real estate developer is not a professional designation, there are no schools or associations who recognize or protect the term as a trademark. No single path automatically leads to success in real estate development.
Developers come from a variety of disciplines— construction, urban planning, architecture and accounting, among others. Recent specialized programs that award a Master of Real Estate Development degree are available; the graduate programs in real estate development are the most comprehensive education in the real estate industry. Other formal education includes a Master of Science in Real Estate, or an MBA. A development team can be put together in one of several ways. At one extreme, a large company might include many services, from architecture to engineering. At the other end of the spectrum, a development company might consist of one principal and a few staff who hire or contract with other companies and professionals for each service as needed. Assembling a team of professionals to address the environmental, private and political issues inherent in a complex development project is critical. A developer's success depends on the ability to coordinate and lead the completion of a series of interrelated activities efficiently and at the appropriate time.
Development process requires skills of many professionals: architects, landscape architects, civil engineers and site planners to address project design. The general contractor of the project hires subcontractors to put the architectural plans into action. Purchasing unused land for a potential development is sometimes called speculative development. Subdivision of land is the principal mechanism. Technically, subdivision describes the legal and physical steps a developer must take to convert raw land into developed land. Subdivision is a vital part of a community's growth, determining its appearance, the mix of its land uses, its infrastructure, including roads, drainage systems, water and public utilities. Land development can pose the most risk, but can be the most profitable technique as it is dependent on the public sector for approvals and infrastructure and because it involves a long investment period with no positive cash flow. After subdivision is complete, the developer markets the land to a home builder or other end user, for such uses as a warehouse or shopping center.
In any case, use of spatial intelligence tools mitigate the risk of these developers by modeling the population trends and demographic make-up of the sort of customers a home builder or retailer would like to have surrounding their new development. Real estate developments portal Construction Home construction Land consumption Land use Property investment calculator Urban sprawl
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Williamsburg is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, bordered by Greenpoint to the north. As of the 2010 United States Census, the neighborhood's population is 32,926. Since the late 1990s, Williamsburg has undergone gentrification characterized by a contemporary art scene, hipster culture, vibrant nightlife that has projected its image internationally as a "Little Berlin". During the early 2000s, the neighborhood became a center for indie electroclash. Numerous ethnic groups still inhabit enclaves within the neighborhood, including Italians, Hispanics, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans. Williamsburg is part of Brooklyn Community District 1 and its primary ZIP Codes are 11211 and 11206, it is patrolled by the 94th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 33rd District, which represents the western and southern parts of the neighborhood, the 34th District, which represents the eastern part. In 1638, the Dutch West India Company purchased the area's land from the Lenape Native Americans who occupied the area.
In 1661, the company chartered the Town of Boswijck, including land that would become Williamsburg. After the English takeover of New Netherland in 1664, the town's name was anglicized to Bushwick. During colonial times, villagers called the area "Bushwick Shore"; this name lasted for about 140 years. Bushwick Shore was cut off from the other villages in Bushwick by Bushwick Creek to the north and by Cripplebush, a region of thick, boggy shrub land which extended from Wallabout Creek to Newtown Creek, to the south and east. Bushwick residents called Bushwick Shore "the Strand". Farmers and gardeners from the other Bushwick villages sent their goods to Bushwick Shore to be ferried across the East River to New York City for sale via a market at present day Grand Street. Bushwick Shore's favorable location close to New York City led to the creation of several farming developments. In 1802, real estate speculator Richard M. Woodhull acquired 13 acres near what would become Metropolitan Avenue North 2nd Street.
He had Colonel Jonathan Williams, a U. S. Engineer, survey the property, named it Williamsburgh in his honor. A 13-acre development within Bushwick Shore, Williamsburg expanded during the first half of the nineteenth century and seceded from Bushwick and formed its own independent city. Williamsburg was incorporated as the Village of Williamsburgh within the Town of Bushwick in 1827. In two years it had a fire company, a post office and a population of over 1,000; the deep drafts along the East River encouraged industrialists, many from Germany, to build shipyards around Williamsburg. Raw material was shipped in, finished products were sent out of factories straight to the docks. Several sugar barons built processing refineries. Now all are gone except the now-defunct Domino Sugar. Other important industries included brewing. On April 18, 1835, the Village of Williamsburg annexed a portion of the Town of Bushwick; the Village consisted of three districts. The first district was called the "South Side".
The names "North Side" and "South Side" remain in common usage today, but the name for the Third District has changed often. The New Village became populated by Germans and for a time was known by the sobriquet of "Dutchtown". In 1845, the population of Williamsburgh was 11,500. Reflecting its increasing urbanization, Williamsburg separated from Bushwick as the Town of Williamsburg in 1840, it became the City of Williamsburg in 1852, organized into three wards. The old First Ward coincides with the South Side and the Second Ward with the North Side, with the modern boundary at Grand Street; the Third Ward was to the east of these, stretching from Union Avenue east to Bushwick Avenue beyond, Bushwick. In 1855, the City of Williamsburg, along with the adjoining Town of Bushwick, were annexed into the City of Brooklyn as the so-called Eastern District; the First Ward of Williamsburg became Brooklyn's 13th Ward, the Second Ward Brooklyn's 14th Ward, the Third Ward Brooklyn's 15th and 16th Wards. During its period as part of Brooklyn's Eastern District, the area achieved remarkable industrial and economic growth, local businesses thrived.
Wealthy New Yorkers such as Cornelius Vanderbilt and railroad magnate Jubilee Jim Fisk built shore-side mansions. Charles Pratt and his family founded the Pratt Institute, the great school of art & architecture, the Astral Oil Works, which became part of Standard Oil. Corning Glass Works was founded here before moving upstate to New York. German immigrant, chemist Charles Pfizer founded Pfizer Pharmaceutical in Williamsburg, the company maintained an industrial plant in the neighborhood through 2007, although its headquarters were moved to Manhattan in the 1960s. Brooklyn's Broadway, ending in the ferry to Manhattan, became the area's lifeline; the area proved popular for household product manufacturers. Factories for Domino Sugar, Esquire Shoe Polish, Dutch Mustard and many others were established in the late 19th and early 20th century. Many of these factory buildings are now being converted to non-industrial uses residential; the population was at first German, but many Jews from the Lower East side of Manhattan came to the area after the completion of the Williamsburg Bridge in 1903
Moroccan Jews are the Jews who live or have lived in Morocco. Some Jews settled among the Berbers, they were met by a second wave of migration from the Iberian peninsula in the period preceding and following the 1492 Alhambra Decree, when the Jews were expelled from kingdoms of Spain, soon afterwards, from Portugal as well. This second immigration wave modified Moroccan jewry, who embraced the Andalusian Sephardic liturgy, making the Moroccan Jews switch to a Sephardic identity. At its peak in the 1940s, Morocco's Jewish population exceeded 250,000, but due to the migration of Moroccan Jews to Israel and other nations, including Operation Yachin from 1961 to 1964, this number has been reduced to 5,000; the vast majority of Moroccan Jews now live in Israel, where they constitute the second-largest Jewish community, approximatively half a million. Other communities are found in France, Spain, the United States and South America in Venezuela and Argentina. Moroccan Jews constitute an ancient community, immigrating to the region as early as 70 CE.
Until the 1950s the majority of Morocco's Jews were still living in Morocco. In accordance with the norms of the Islamic legal system, Jewish Moroccans had separate legal courts pertaining to "personal law" under which communities were allowed to rule themselves under their own system. After Israel's independence in 1948, due to domestic strife in the 1950s, the next several decades saw waves of Jewish emigration to Israel and Canada. Moroccan Jews emigrated for a variety of reasons; some have emigrated to Israel for religious reasons, some faced persecution, others left for better economic prospects than they faced in post-colonial Morocco. With every Arab-Israeli war, tensions between Arabs and Jews would rise, sparking more Jewish emigration. By the time of the Yom Kippur War in 1973, the majority of Morocco's Jewish population had emigrated; as a protectorate of France, parts of Morocco were influenced by French culture, while the same is true of the portions of the country that belonged to Spain.
Traditionally, the Jews were classified as being French-Moroccan or Spanish-Moroccan depending on where in Morocco they lived, remnants of these classifications can be felt today. These differences are reflected in language, last names and liturgy. Most Jews in Morocco lived in desolate areas during the late 1930s; this was in part due to increased taxation by the French protectorate. In 1936, a Jewish man, named Léon Blum, was appointed as prime minister of France; this gave. Nearby Algerian Jews were granted right of passage to France, this only furthered the desire of Moroccan Jews to embrace French culture to the extent of the Algerian Jews. Early photographs of Moroccan Jewish families, taken in the early 20th century by German explorer and photographer Hermann Burchardt, are now held at the Ethnological Museum of Berlin. A small community of around 2,000–2,500 Jews live in Morocco today. However, in a increasing trend, young men from the community are emigrating to Israel and France; as of 2017, according to The Economist, "No Arab country has gone to the lengths of Morocco to revive its Jewish heritage."
The country has the Arab world's only Jewish museum. More than 50,000 Israelis visit Morocco annually. Morocco: In 2012 it was estimated that 2,000–2,500 Jews still lived in Morocco in Casablanca. Other towns are said to have smaller, aging populations. Israel: The 1950s saw large waves of Jewish emigration from Morocco to Israel. Many Moroccan Jews were transferred to peripheral development towns while others settled in larger, established cities. Today, Jews of Moroccan descent can be found all across Israel. France: Large communities in France include Paris, Strasbourg and Nice. Argentina: Mainly in Buenos Aires and Rosario. Brazil: Amazonian Jews in Belem and Rio de Janeiro, with small communities scattered throughout the Amazon region. In 2009 made 200 years of the first wave of immigration to Amazon region. Canada: In the 1950s Canada began extending visas to Jews from Morocco. Large communities developed in Toronto. Moroccans were attracted to Canada because of its high quality of life and to Montreal in particular because of the French language.
Toronto is known for its significant Moroccan population originating from cities such as Tangiers and Tetouan. In the recent past, however, an emergence of French-Moroccan musical liturgy and customs has been noticed in this dominant Moroccan city. For example, the traditional Moroccan Bakashot, classical music sung by Sephardic Jews in the winter months across countries in the Middle East on Friday night, has come to life in recent productions by Magen David Congregation and Abir Ya'akob Congregation. Venezuela: Concentrated in Caracas. Gibraltar: The Jewish community in Gibraltar originates from Tangiers and Tetouan. United States: In 1972 the Moroccan Jewish Organization was founded. Founding Members created Moroccan Services & a Synagogue in Forest Hills, NY named Shaar Hashamayim Sephardic Synagogue. Members and Participants of MJO went on to create other Moroccan Synagogues and Batei Midrashot / Houses of Study in Manhattan, Fort Lee, NJ, Cedarhurst and Philadelphia, PA; the Jewish quarters in Morocco were called mellahs.
Jews in Morocco
The Hotel Chelsea – called the Chelsea Hotel, or the Chelsea – is a historic New York City hotel and landmark built between 1883 and 1885, known for the notability of its residents over the years. The 250-unit hotel is located at 222 West 23rd Street, between Seventh and Eighth Avenues, in the neighborhood of Chelsea, Manhattan; the building has been a designated New York City landmark since 1966, on the National Register of Historic Places since 1977. It has been the home of numerous writers, musicians and actors. Though the Chelsea no longer accepts new long-term residencies, the building is still home to many who lived there before the change in policy. Arthur C. Clarke wrote 2001: A Space Odyssey while staying at the Chelsea, poets Allen Ginsberg and Gregory Corso chose it as a place for philosophical and artistic exchange, it is known as the place where the writer Dylan Thomas was staying in room 205 when he became ill and died several days in a local hospital, of pneumonia on November 9, 1953, where Nancy Spungen, girlfriend of Sid Vicious of the Sex Pistols, was found stabbed to death on October 12, 1978.
Arthur Miller wrote a short piece, "The Chelsea Affect", describing life at Hotel Chelsea in the early 1960s. As of August 1, 2011, the hotel closed for renovations, it is to reopen in 2019. Built between 1884 and 1885 and opened for initial occupation in 1884, the twelve-story red-brick building, now the Hotel Chelsea was one of the city's first private apartment cooperatives, it was designed by Philip Hubert of the firm of Hubert, Pirrson & Company in a style, described variously as Queen Anne Revival and Victorian Gothic. Among its distinctive features are the delicate, flower-ornamented iron balconies on its facade, which were constructed by J. B. and J. M. Cornell and its grand staircase, which extends upward twelve floors; this staircase is only accessible to registered guests, although the hotel does offer monthly tours to others. At the time of its construction, the building was the tallest in New York. Hubert and Pirsson had created a "Hubert Home Club" in 1880 for "The Rembrandt", a six-story building on West 57th Street intended as housing for artists.
This early cooperative building had rental units to help defray costs, provided servants as part of the building staff. The success of this model led to other "Hubert Home Clubs", the Chelsea was one of them. Successful, its surrounding neighborhood constituted the center of New York's theater district; however within a few years the combination of economic stresses, the suspicions of New York's middle class about apartment living, the opening up of Upper Manhattan and the plentiful supply of houses there, the relocation of the city's theater district bankrupted the Chelsea. The building reopened as a hotel in 1905, managed by Knott Hotels and resident manager A. R. Walty. After the hotel went bankrupt, it was purchased in 1939 by Joseph Gross, Julius Krauss, David Bard, these partners managed the hotel together until the early 1970s. With the passing of Joseph Gross and Julius Krauss, the management fell to Stanley Bard, David Bard's son. On June 18, 2007, the hotel's board of directors ousted Bard as the hotel's manager.
Dr. Marlene Krauss, the daughter of Julius Krauss, David Elder, the grandson of Joseph Gross and the son of playwright and screenwriter Lonne Elder III, replaced Stanley Bard with the management company BD Hotels NY. In May 2011, the hotel was sold to real estate developer Joseph Chetrit for US $80 million; as of August 1, 2011, the hotel stopped taking reservations for guests in order to begin renovations. The renovations prompted complaints by the remaining tenants of health hazards caused by the construction; these were investigated by the city's Building Department. In November 2011, the management ordered all of the hotel's many artworks taken off the walls for their protection and cataloging, a move which some tenants interpreted as a step towards forcing them out as well. In 2013, Ed Scheetz became the Chelsea Hotel's new owner after buying back five properties from Joseph Chetrit, his partner in King & Grove Hotels, David Bistricer; the Hotel Chelsea plans to reopen in 2018. Located in the Chelsea since 1930 is the restaurant El Quijote, owned by the same family until 2017 when it was sold to the new owner of the hotel.
In late March 2018 the eatery closed for renovations. During its lifetime Hotel Chelsea has provided a home to many famous writers and thinkers including Mark Twain, O. Henry, Herbert Huncke, Dylan Thomas, Arthur C. Clarke, Sam Shepard, Arthur Miller, Tennessee Williams, Jack Kerouac, Brendan Behan, Thomas Wolfe, Valerie Solanas, William S. Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso, Arnold Weinstein,Charles R. Jackson, author of The Lost Weekend, committed suicide in his room on September 21, 1968. Joseph O'Neill and his wife moved there in 1998, they raised three sons there; the hotel has been a home to actors and film directors such as Stanley Kubrick, Shirley Clarke, Mitch Hedberg, Dave Hill, Miloš Forman, Lillie Langtry, Ethan Hawke, Dennis Hopper, Squat Theatre Company, Eddie Izzard, Uma Thurman, Elliott Gould, Elaine Stritch, Michael Imperioli, Jane Fonda, Russell Brand, the Warhol film star Viva and her daughter Gaby Hoffmann, Edie Sedgwick. Much of the Hotel Chelsea's history has been colored by the musicians who have resided or visited there.
Some of the most prominent names include the Grateful Dead, Tom Waits, Patti Smith, Jim Morrison, I
Upper West Side
The Upper West Side, sometimes abbreviated UWS, is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan, New York City, bounded by Central Park and the Hudson River, West 59th Street and West 110th Street. Like the Upper East Side, the Upper West Side is an affluent residential area with many of its residents working in commercial areas of Midtown and Lower Manhattan, it has the reputation of being New York City's cultural and intellectual hub, with Columbia University and Barnard College located just past the north end of the neighborhood, the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts located at the south end. The Upper West Side is considered to be among New York City's wealthiest neighborhoods; the Upper West Side is part of Manhattan Community District 7 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10023, 10024, 10025, 10069. It is patrolled by the 24th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Upper West Side is bounded on the south by 59th Street, Central Park to the east, the Hudson River to the west, 110th Street to the north.
The area north of West 96th Street and east of Broadway is identified as Manhattan Valley. The overlapping area west of Amsterdam Avenue to Riverside Park was once known as the Bloomingdale District. From west to east, the avenues of the Upper West Side are Riverside Drive, West End Avenue, Amsterdam Avenue, Columbus Avenue, Central Park West; the 66-block stretch of Broadway forms the spine of the neighborhood and runs diagonally north/south across the other avenues at the south end of the neighborhood. Broadway enters the neighborhood at its juncture with Central Park West at Columbus Circle, crosses Columbus Avenue at Lincoln Square, Amsterdam Avenue at Verdi Square, merges with West End Avenue at Straus Park. Traditionally the neighborhood ranged from the former village of Harsenville, centered on the old Bloomingdale Road and 65th Street, west to the railroad yards along the Hudson north to 110th Street, where the ground rises to Morningside Heights. With the construction of Lincoln Center, its name, though not the reality, was stretched south to 58th Street.
With the arrival of the corporate headquarters and expensive condos of the Time Warner Center at Columbus Circle, the Riverside South apartment complex built by Donald Trump, the area from 58th Street to 65th Street is referred to as Lincoln Square by realtors who acknowledge a different tone and ambiance than that associated with the Upper West Side. This is a reversion to the neighborhood's historical name; the Upper West Side is part of Manhattan Community District 7 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10023, 10024, 10025, 10069. It is patrolled by the 24th Precincts of the New York City Police Department; the long high bluff above useful sandy coves along the North River was little used or traversed by the Lenape people. A combination of the stream valleys, such as that in which 96th Street runs, wetlands to the northeast and east, may have protected a portion of the Upper West Side from the Lenape's controlled burns. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the Upper West Side-to-be contained some of colonial New York's most ambitious houses, spaced along Bloomingdale Road.
It became infilled with smaller, more suburban villas in the first half of the nineteenth century, in the middle of the century, parts had become decidedly lower class. The name "Bloomingdale District" was used to refer to a part of the Upper West Side – the present-day Manhattan Valley neighborhood – located between 96th and 110th Streets and bounded on the east by Amsterdam Avenue and on the west by Riverside Drive, Riverside Park, the Hudson River, its name was a derivation of the description given to the area by Dutch settlers to New Netherland from Bloemendaal, a town in the tulip region. The Dutch Anglicized the name to "Bloomingdale" or "the Bloomingdale District", to the west side of Manhattan from about 23rd Street up to the Hollow Way, it consisted of villages along a road known as the Bloomingdale Road. Bloomingdale Road was renamed The Boulevard in 1868, as the farms and villages were divided into building lots and absorbed into the city. By the 18th century it contained numerous farms and country residences of many of the city's well-off, a major parcel of, the Apthorp Farm.
The main artery of this area was the Bloomingdale Road, which began north of where Broadway and the Bowery Lane join and wended its way northward up to about modern 116th Street in Morningside Heights, where the road further north was known as the Kingsbridge Road. Within the confines of the modern-day Upper West Side, the road passed through areas known as Harsenville, Strycker's Bay, Bloomingdale Village. With the building of the Croton Aqueduct passing down the area between present day Amsterdam Avenue and Columbus Avenue in 1838–42, the northern reaches of the district became divided into Manhattan Valley to the east of the aqueduct and Bloomingdale to the west. Bloomingdale, in the latter half of the 19th century, was the name of a village that occupied the area just south of 110th street. Much of the riverfront of the Upper West Side was a shipping and manufacturing corridor; the Hudson River Railroad line right-of-way was granted in the late 1830s to connect New York City to Albany, soon ran along the riverbank.
One major non-industrial deve