Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the Allied occupation of Japan following World War II. It issued SCAP Directive to the Japanese government, aiming to transform it into a non-terrorist nation. In Japan, the position was referred to as GHQ, as SCAP referred to the offices of the occupation, including a staff of several hundred U. S. civil servants as well as military personnel. Some of these personnel wrote a first draft of the Japanese Constitution, which the National Diet ratified after a few amendments. Australian, British and New Zealand forces under SCAP were organized into a sub-command known as British Commonwealth Occupation Force; these actions led MacArthur to be viewed as the new Imperial force in Japan by many Japanese political and civilian figures being considered to be the rebirth of the shōgun-style government which Japan was ruled under until the start of the Meiji Restoration. Biographer William Manchester argues that without MacArthur's leadership, Japan would not have been able to make the move from an imperial, totalitarian state, to a democracy.
At his appointment, MacArthur announced that he sought to "restore security and self-respect" to the Japanese people. One of the largest of the SCAP programs was Public Health and Welfare, headed by U. S. Army Colonel Crawford F. Sams. Working with the SCAP staff of 150, Sams directed the welfare work of the American doctors, organized new Japanese medical welfare systems along American lines; the Japanese population was physically badly worn down and medicines were scarce, sanitary systems had been bombed out in larger cities. His earliest priorities were in distributing food supplies from the U. S. Millions of refugees from the defunct overseas Empire were pouring in in bad physical shape, with a high risk of introducing smallpox and cholera; the outbreaks that did occur were localized, as emergency immunization, quarantine and delousing prevented massive epidemics. Sams, promoted to Brigadier General in 1948, worked with Japanese officials to establish vaccine laboratories, reorganize hospitals along American lines, upgrade medical and nursing schools, bring together Japanese, U.
S. teams that dealt with disasters, child care, health insurance. He set up an Institute of Public Health for educating public health workers and a National Institute of Health for research, set up statistical divisions and data collection systems. SCAP arrested 28 suspected war criminals on account of crimes against peace, but it did not conduct the Tokyo trials. President Harry Truman had negotiated Japanese surrender on the condition the Emperor would not be executed or put on trial. SCAP carried out that policy; as soon as November 26, 1945, MacArthur confirmed to admiral Mitsumasa Yonai that the emperor's abdication would not be necessary. Before the war crimes trials convened, SCAP, the IPS and Shōwa officials worked behind the scenes not only to prevent the imperial family being indicted, but to slant the testimony of the defendants to ensure that no one implicated the Emperor. High officials in court circles and the Shōwa government collaborated with Allied GHQ in compiling lists of prospective war criminals, while the individuals arrested as Class A suspects and incarcerated in Sugamo Prison solemnly vowed to protect their sovereign against any possible taint of war responsibility.
As Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, MacArthur decided not to prosecute Shiro Ishii and all members of the bacteriological research units in exchange for germ warfare data based on human experimentation. On May 6, 1947, he wrote to Washington that "additional data some statements from Ishii can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as "War Crimes" evidence." The deal was concluded in 1948. According to historian Herbert Bix in Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, "MacArthur's extraordinary measures to save the Emperor from trial as a war criminal had a lasting and profoundly distorting impact on Japanese understanding of the lost war." Above the political and economic control SCAP had for the seven years following Japan's surrender, SCAP had strict control over all of the Japanese media, under the formation of the Civil Censorship Detachment of SCAP. The CCD banned a total of 31 topics from all forms of media.
These topics included: Criticism of SCAP. All Allied countries. Criticism of Allied policy pre- and post-war. Any form of imperial propaganda. Defense of war criminals. Praise of "undemocratic" forms of government, though praise of SCAP itself was permitted; the atomic bomb. Black market activities. Open discussion of allied diplomatic relations. Although some of the CCD censorship laws relaxed towards the end of SCAP, some topics, like the atomic bomb, were taboo until 1952 at the end of the occupation. MacArthur was succeeded as SCAP by General Matthew Ridgway when MacArthur was relieved by President Harry S. Truman during the Korean War in April 1951; when the Treaty of San Francisco came into effect on April 28, 1952, the post of SCAP lapsed. Bix, Herbert P.. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-019314-0. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04686-1.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, he was a five-star general in the United States Army and served as supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe, he was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front. Born David Dwight Eisenhower in Denison, Texas, he was raised in Kansas in a large family of Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry, his family had a strong religious background. His mother was born a Lutheran, married as a River Brethren, became a Jehovah's Witness. So, Eisenhower did not belong to any organized church until 1952, he cited constant relocation during his military career as one reason. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and married Mamie Doud, with whom he had two sons. During World War I, he was denied a request to serve in Europe and instead commanded a unit that trained tank crews.
Following the war, he served under various generals and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1941. After the U. S. entered World War II, Eisenhower oversaw the invasions of North Africa and Sicily before supervising the invasions of France and Germany. After the war, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff and took on the role as president of Columbia University. In 1951–52, he served as the first Supreme Commander of NATO. In 1952, Eisenhower entered the presidential race as a Republican to block the isolationist foreign policies of Senator Robert A. Taft, who opposed NATO and wanted no foreign entanglements, he won that election and the 1956 election in landslides, both times defeating Adlai Stevenson II. He became the first Republican to win since Herbert Hoover in 1928. Eisenhower's main goals in office were to contain the expansion of the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. In 1953, he threatened the use of nuclear weapons until China agreed to peace terms in the Korean War.
China did agree and an armistice resulted that remains in effect. His New Look policy of nuclear deterrence prioritized inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing funding for expensive Army divisions, he continued Harry S. Truman's policy of recognizing the Republic of China as the legitimate government of China, he won congressional approval of the Formosa Resolution, his administration provided major aid to help the French fight off Vietnamese Communists in the First Indochina War. After the French left he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam, he supported local military coups against democratically-elected governments in Guatemala. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli and French invasion of Egypt, he forced them to withdraw, he condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action. During the Syrian Crisis of 1957 he approved a CIA-MI6 plan to stage fake border incidents as an excuse for an invasion by Syria's pro-Western neighbours.
After the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the Space Race. He deployed 15,000 soldiers during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed when a U. S. spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. He approved the Bay of Pigs invasion, left to his successor, John F. Kennedy, to carry out. On the domestic front, Eisenhower was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by invoking executive privilege. Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and sent Army troops to enforce federal court orders that integrated schools in Little Rock, Arkansas, his largest program was the Interstate Highway System. He promoted the establishment of strong science education via the National Defense Education Act. Eisenhower's two terms saw widespread economic prosperity except for a minor recession in 1958.
In his farewell address to the nation, Eisenhower expressed his concerns about the dangers of massive military spending deficit spending and government contracts to private military manufacturers. Historical evaluations of his presidency place him among the upper tier of U. S. presidents. The Eisenhauer family migrated from Karlsbrunn in Nassau-Saarbrücken, to North America, first settling in York, Pennsylvania, in 1741, in the 1880s moving to Kansas. Accounts vary as to when the German name Eisenhauer was anglicized to Eisenhower. Eisenhower's Pennsylvania Dutch ancestors, who were farmers, included Hans Nikolaus Eisenhauer of Karlsbrunn, who migrated to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1741. Hans's great-great-grandson, David Jacob Eisenhower, was Eisenhower's father and was a college-educated engineer, despite his own father Jacob's urging to stay on the family farm. Eisenhower's mother, Ida Elizabeth Eisenhower, born in Virginia, of German Protestant ancestry, moved to Kansas from Virginia, she married David on September 23, 1885, in Lecompton, Kansas, on the campus of their alma mater, Lane University.
David owned a general store in Hope, but the business failed due to economic conditions and the family became impoverished. The Eisenhowers lived in Texas from 1889 until 1892, returned to Kansas, with $24 to their name at the time. David worked as a railroad mechanic and at a creamery. By 1898, the parents provided a suitable home for their large family; the future pr
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
Zaibatsu is a Japanese term referring to industrial and financial business conglomerates in the Empire of Japan, whose influence and size allowed control over significant parts of the Japanese economy from the Meiji period until the end of World War II. They were succeeded by the Keiretsu in the second half of the 20th century; the term "zaibatsu" was coined in 19th century Japan from the Sino-Japanese roots zai 財 and batsu 閥. Although zaibatsu themselves existed from the 19th century, the term was not in common use until after World War I. By definition, the zaibatsu were large family-controlled vertical monopolies consisting of a holding company on top, with a wholly owned banking subsidiary providing finance, several industrial subsidiaries dominating specific sectors of a market, either or through a number of subsidiary companies; the zaibatsu were the heart of economic and industrial activity within the Empire of Japan, held great influence over Japanese national and foreign policies. The Rikken Seiyūkai political party was regarded as an extension of the Mitsui group, which had strong connections with the Imperial Japanese Army.
The Rikken Minseitō was connected to the Mitsubishi group, as was the Imperial Japanese Navy. By the start of World War II, the Big Four zaibatsu alone had direct control over more than 30% of Japan's mining and metals industries and 50% control of the machinery and equipment market, a significant part of the foreign commercial merchant fleet and 70% of the commercial stock exchange; the zaibatsu were viewed with suspicion by both the right and left of the political spectrum in the 1920s and 1930s. Although the world was in the throes of a worldwide economic depression, the zaibatsu were prospering through currency speculation, maintenance of low labour costs and on military procurement. Matters came to a head in the League of Blood Incident of March 1932, with the assassination of the managing director of Mitsui, after which the zaibatsu attempted to improve on their public image through increased charity work; the "Big Four" zaibatsu of, in chronological order of founding, Mitsui and Yasuda are the most significant zaibatsu groups.
Two of them and Mitsui, have roots in the Edo period while Mitsubishi and Yasuda trace their origins to the Meiji Restoration. Throughout Meiji to Shōwa, the government employed their financial powers and expertise for various endeavors, including tax collection, military procurement and foreign trade. Beyond the Big Four, consensus is lacking as to which companies can be called zaibatsu, which cannot. After the Russo-Japanese War, a number of so-called "second-tier" zaibatsu emerged as the result of business conglomerations and/or the award of lucrative military contracts; some more famous second-tier zaibatsu included the Okura and Nakajima groups, among several others. The early zaibatsu permitted some public shareholding of some subsidiary companies, but never of the top holding company or key subsidiaries; the monopolistic business practices by the zaibatsu resulted in a closed circle of companies until Japanese industrial expansion on the Asian mainland began in the 1930s, which allowed for the rise of a number of new groups, including Nissan.
These new zaibatsu differed from the traditional zaibatsu only in that they were not controlled by specific families, not in terms of business practices. The zaibatsu had been viewed with some ambivalence by the Japanese military, which nationalized a significant portion of their production capability during World War II. Remaining assets were highly damaged by the destruction during the war. Under the Allied occupation after the surrender of Japan, a successful attempt was made to dissolve the zaibatsu. Many of the economic advisors accompanying the SCAP administration had experience with the New Deal program under the American President and were suspicious of monopolies and restrictive business practices, which they felt to be both inefficient, to be a form of corporatocracy. During the occupation of Japan, sixteen zaibatsu were targeted for complete dissolution, twenty-six more for reorganization after dissolution. Among the zaibatsu that were targeted for dissolution in 1947 were Asano, Nakajima, Nissan and Okura.
In addition, Yasuda dissolved itself in 1946. The controlling families' assets were seized, holding companies eliminated, interlocking directorships, essential to the old system of inter-company coordination, were outlawed. Matsushita, while not a zaibatsu, was also targeted for breakup, but was saved by a petition signed by 15,000 of its union workers and their families. However, complete dissolution of the zaibatsu was never achieved because the U. S. government rescinded the orders in an effort to reindustrialize Japan as a bulwark against communism in Asia. Zaibatsu as a whole were considered to be beneficial to the Japanese economy and government, the opinions of the Japanese public, of the zaibatsu workers and management, of the entrenched bureaucracy regarding plans for zaibatsu dissolution ranged from unenthusiastic to disapproving. Additionally, the changing politics of the occupation during the reverse course served as a crippling, if not terminal, roadblock to zaibatsu elimination.
Today, the influence of the zaibatsu can still be seen in the form of financial groups and larger companies whose origins reach back to the original zaibatsu sharing the sa
National Bank of Detroit
The National Bank of Detroit renamed NBD Bank, was a bank that operated in the Midwestern United States. Following its merger with First National Bank of Chicago, the bank was acquired and merged into Bank One, at which point the NBD name was discontinued. Today, what was once NBD is owned by JPMorgan Co.. NBD was founded in 1933 in Detroit in the midst of widespread bank failures during the Great Depression. Spurred by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to help stabilize the nation's banking system, NBD's shares were equally owned by General Motors and by the U. S. government under the RFC. The bank opened for business on March 24, 1933. Charles T. Fisher Jr. of the automobile body manufacturing family became a Director and the President in 1938, serving until his death in 1958. By 1945, GM had divested its ownership of bank stock, by 1947 RFC had ended its involvement in the bank as well. In September 1993, Charles T. Fisher III step down as chairman and chief executive officer of NBD Bancorp and was replaced by Thomas H. Jeffs II as president and Verne G. Istock as chairman and chief executive officer.
In 1995, NBD merged with the First National Bank of Chicago. First Chicago NBD merged with Bank One, which eliminated the NBD name. Bank One was itself purchased by JPMorgan Co.. As of March 2006, most former NBD branches carry the Chase name. NBD had branches in Toronto and Windsor and overseas in London's Finsbury Circus, in Tokyo, in Frankfurt. From 1959 until 1995, NBD was headquartered in the National Bank of Detroit Building. Up until the 1970s, retail banks located within the state of Michigan were restricted to building branches within their home counties, but could have a branch office outside their home county only if that branch was located within a 25-mile radius of their main offices. Starting in 1972, the state legislature began to allow the formation of multibank holding companies. To take advantage of this new law, the National Bank of Detroit formed the National Detroit Corporation on January 1, 1973 as its holding company; the holding company began to offer stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticket symbol NBD.
National Detroit Corp. was renamed NBD Bancorp in 1981. In November 1974, National Detroit Corporation made its first acquisitions outside the Detroit area by the acquisition of the Grand Valley National Bank in Grandville for $3.4 million. The acquisition was first announced in February 1974. In December 1974, National Detroit Corporation announced the pending acquisition of the Lansing-based Bank of Commerce; the acquisition was finalized in September 1975 for $3 million in cash. In October 1977, National Detroit Corporation announced the pending acquisition of the Saginaw-based First State Bank of Saginaw for $9.4 million. The acquisition was finalized in November 1978 for $8.3 million. In July 1978, National Detroit Corporation announced the pending acquisition of the Alpena-based Peoples Bank and Trust of Alpena for about $11 million in cash and notes. In February 1979, National Detroit Corporation announced the pending acquisition of the Benton Harbor-based Farmers and Merchants National Bank.
The acquisition was finalized in January 1980. In August 1979, National Detroit Corporation announced the pending acquisition of the Cadillac-based West Michigan Financial Corp. for about $21.3 million. The acquisition was finalized in July 1980. In September 1979, National Detroit Corporation announced the pending acquisition of the Ann Arbor-based National Ann Arbor Corp. for about $29 million in cash and notes. Shortly after National Detroit changed its name to NBD Bancorp, the acquisition was finalized in May 1981. In October 1980, National Detroit Corporation announced the pending acquisition of the Roscommon-based Roscommon State Bank for about $9.9 million in cash and notes. In November 1980, National Detroit Corporation announced the pending acquisition of the Sandusky-based Wolverine State Bank for about $11.2 million. The acquisition was finalized in November 1981. In April 1983, NBD Bancorp announced the pending acquisition of the Pontiac-based Pontiac State Bank for $19.2 million. The acquisition was finalized in August 1984.
In March 1984, NBD Bancorp acquired the deposits from the failed National Bank & Trust Co. of Traverse City from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. In August 1984, NBD Bancorp announced the pending acquisition of the Flint-based United Michigan Corp. for $77.8 million. The acquisition was finalized in March 1985 for more than $78 million. In August 1985, NBD Bancorp announced the pending acquisition of the Port Huron-based Peoples Bank of Port Huron for $22 million. In December 1985, NBD Bancorp announced the pending acquisition of the Grand Rapids-based Union Bancorp for $104 million; the acquisition was finalized in June 1986. In September 1986, NBD Bancorp announced the pending acquisition of the Wyandotte-based OmniBank, the holding company for Wyandotte Savings Bank, for $51 million; the acquisition was finalized in January 1987. In April 1990, NBD Bancorp acquired the assets and the 8 offices of the failed Taylor-based New Guaranty Federal Savings & Loan Association from the Resolution Trust Corporation.
NBD Bancorp made its first out-of-state move in May 1985 by announcing the pending acquisition of Midwest Commerce Corp. of Elkhart. The acquisition was finalized in May 1986 at a cost of $61 million in stock. In June 1991, NBD Bancorp announced the pending acquisition of the Merrillville-based Gainer Bank for $134 million in stock; the acquisition was completed in the following January. In December 1991, NBD Bancorp announced th
The Marshall Plan was an American initiative passed in 1948 to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $12 billion in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. Replacing the previous Morgenthau Plan, it operated for four years beginning on April 3, 1948; the goals of the United States were to rebuild war-torn regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, improve European prosperity, prevent the spread of Communism. The Marshall Plan required a lessening of interstate barriers, a dropping of many regulations, encouraged an increase in productivity, as well as the adoption of modern business procedures; the Marshall Plan aid was divided amongst the participant states on a per capita basis. A larger amount was given to the major industrial powers, as the prevailing opinion was that their resuscitation was essential for general European revival. Somewhat more aid per capita was directed towards the Allied nations, with less for those, part of the Axis or remained neutral.
The largest recipient of Marshall Plan money was the United Kingdom, followed by France and West Germany. Some eighteen European countries received Plan benefits. Although offered participation, the Soviet Union refused Plan benefits, blocked benefits to Eastern Bloc countries, such as Hungary and Poland; the United States provided similar aid programs in Asia, but they were not part of the Marshall Plan. Its role in the rapid recovery has been debated. Most reject the idea that it alone miraculously revived Europe, since the evidence shows that a general recovery was under way; the Marshall Plan's accounting reflects that aid accounted for less than 3% of the combined national income of the recipient countries between 1948 and 1951, which means an increase in GDP growth of only 0.3%. After World War II, in 1947, industrialist Lewis H. Brown wrote at the request of General Lucius D. Clay, A Report on Germany, which served as a detailed recommendation for the reconstruction of post-war Germany, served as a basis for the Marshall Plan.
The initiative was named after United States Secretary of State George Marshall. The plan had bipartisan support in Washington, where the Republicans controlled Congress and the Democrats controlled the White House with Harry S. Truman as President; the Plan was the creation of State Department officials William L. Clayton and George F. Kennan, with help from the Brookings Institution, as requested by Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Marshall spoke of an urgent need to help the European recovery in his address at Harvard University in June 1947; the purpose of the Marshall Plan was to aid in the economic recovery of nations after WWII and to reduce the influence of Communist parties within them. To combat the effects of the Marshall Plan, the USSR developed its own economic plan, known as the Molotov Plan, in spite of the fact that large amounts of resources from the Eastern Bloc countries to the USSR were paid as reparations, for countries participating in the Axis Power during the war.
The phrase "equivalent of the Marshall Plan" is used to describe a proposed large-scale economic rescue program. The reconstruction plan, developed at a meeting of the participating European states, was drafted on June 5, 1947, it offered the same aid to the Soviet Union and its allies, but they refused to accept it, as doing so would allow a degree of US control over the communist economies. In fact, the Soviet Union prevented its satellite states from accepting. Secretary Marshall became convinced Stalin had no interest in helping restore economic health in Western Europe. President Harry Truman signed the Marshall Plan on April 3, 1948, granting $5 billion in aid to 16 European nations. During the four years the plan was in effect, the United States donated $17 billion in economic and technical assistance to help the recovery of the European countries that joined the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation; the $17 billion was in the context of a US GDP of $258 billion in 1948, on top of $17 billion in American aid to Europe between the end of the war and the start of the Plan, counted separately from the Marshall Plan.
The Marshall Plan was replaced by the Mutual Security Plan at the end of 1951. The ERP addressed each of the obstacles to postwar recovery; the plan did not focus on the destruction caused by the war. Much more important were efforts to modernize European industrial and business practices using high-efficiency American models, reducing artificial trade barriers, instilling a sense of hope and self-reliance. By 1952, as the funding ended, the economy of every participant state had surpassed pre-war levels. Over the next two decades, Western Europe enjoyed unprecedented growth and prosperity, but economists are not sure what proportion was due directly to the ERP, what proportion indirectly, how much would have happened without it. A common American interpretation of the program's role in European recovery was expressed by Paul Hoffman, head of the Economic Cooperation Administration, in 1949, when he told Congress Marshall aid had provided the "critical margin" on which other investment needed for European recovery depended.
The Marshall Plan was one of the first elements of European integration, as it erased trade barriers and set up institutions to co
In Western usage, the phrase post-war era or postwar era refer to the time since the end of World War II though many nations involved in this war have been involved in other wars since. More broadly, a post-war period or postwar period is the interval following the end of a war. A post-war period can become an interwar period or interbellum, when a war between the same parties resumes at a date. By contrast, a post-war period marks the cessation of conflict entirely; the term "post-war" can have different meanings in different countries and refer to a period determined by local considerations based on the effect of the war there. In Britain, "post-war" refers to the period from the election of Clement Attlee in 1945 to that of Margaret Thatcher in 1979, a period of so-called post-war consensus, while it may refer to a shorter period, ending in 1960 or shortly after and corresponding to the 1950s era, hence 1945–1960. Considering the post-war era as equivalent to the Cold War era, post-war sometimes includes the 1980s, putting the end at 26 December 1991, with the Dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The 1990s and the 21st century are considered to be part of the post-war era. Interwar period Aftermath of the September 11 attacks Postbellum Pre-war Reconstruction Era of the U. S. Post–Cold War era