Emmerich Joseph de Dalberg
Emmerich Joseph Wolfgang Heribert de Dalberg, 1st Duke of Dalberg was a German diplomat, elevated to the French nobility in the Napoleonic era and who held senior government positions during the Bourbon Restoration. Emmerich Joseph Wolfgang Heribert von Dalberg was born in Mainz capital of the Electorate of Mainz, on 31 May 1773, his father was a statesman of Baden. Emmerich was the nephew of Karl Theodor von Dalberg, arch-chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire, Prince primate of the Confederation of the Rhine and Grand-Duke of Frankfurt, his family meant him to pursue a clerical career, he studied at the University of Göttingen in Lower Saxony. Dalberg was at Vienna in the Imperial Chancellery when the stance of his uncle, who had taken the French side, ended his diplomatic career with the Austrian court, he was named Councillor to the King of Bavaria. After the Treaty of Lunéville between the French Republic and Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, he was accredited to Paris as minister of the Margrave of Baden.
He negotiated the marriage of the young Charles, Grand Duke of Baden, with Princess Stéphanie de Beauharnais, niece of the Empress Josephine. Talleyrand befriended him and arranged for him to marry Mlle. de Brignoles, one of the ladies of the Empress. After the Treaty of Vienna in 1809, Dalberg was naturalized as a French citizen and charged with negotiating Napoleon's marriage with Marie Louise of Austria. On 14 April 1810, he was created a duke of the Empire as duc de Dalberg, he was made a Councilor of State on 14 October 1810, with a large endowment. When Talleyrand was disgraced, he fell from favor. After Napoleon was defeated and Talleyrand both joined the French provisional government of 1814, both assisted at the Congress of Vienna. On 22 July 1814, King Louis XVIII of France gave Dalberg the Grand Cordon of the Legion of Honour. Dalberg left France during the Hundred Days, when Napoleon returned from exile, he returned after the second Bourbon Restoration. On 17 August 1815, he was made a Peer of Minister of State.
On 26 January 1816, he was appointed ambassador to Turin. In the chamber of peers, he showed himself in favor of the Charter of 1814. Towards the end of the Restoration, he retired to his castle, Schloss Herrnsheim, where he died on 27 April 1833, his daughter, Marie Louise de Dalberg, married Sir Ferdinand Acton, 7th Baronet, who assumed the additional surname of Dalberg. After Sir Ferdinand's death in 1837, she married Granville Leveson-Gower. Remarques sur les émigrés et leurs droits à l'occasion de leur bannissement de nos provinces Documents historiques sur la mort du duc d'Enghien Considérations sur le projet d'une alliance entre l'Autriche et la Suisse Mémoire sur le Palatinat Citations Sources
Henri Jacques Guillaume Clarke
Henri-Jacques-Guillaume Clarke, 1st Count of Hunebourg, 1st Duke of Feltre, born to Irish parents from Lisdowney, Co. Kilkenny, in Landrecies, was a politician and Marshal of France. Clarke was one of the most influential and charismatic Franco-Irish generals in the French army during the Napoleonic period, he had close links to the Irish Brigade of France. His father served in Dillon's Regiment and his mother's father and several uncles served in Clare's Regiment. With the outbreak of the French Revolution, Clarke served in the early French Revolutionary Wars in the Army of the Rhine, by 1793 had been promoted to général de brigade. In 1795 Clarke was arrested. After his release, Clarke lived in Alsace until Lazare Carnot sent him to Italy to serve as Napoleon Bonaparte's chief topographical officer, until he was sent to Sardinia. After 18 Brumaire, Clarke served as Chief of the Topographical Bureau, State Councillor, state secretary for the army and navy. During the war against Austria in 1805, Clarke was appointed governor of Vienna and during the war against Prussia in 1806 he served as governor of Erfurt and of Berlin.
Louis-Alexandre Berthier's position as both Chief of Staff and Minister of War proved overwhelming, in 1807 Napoleon relocated the Ministry of War to Paris, naming Clarke to head it. Clarke took control of the Ministry and began developing its authority, first by taking over the responsibilities of the Ministry of War Administration and by encroaching upon other Ministries' administrative areas, his role in thwarting the British invasion of the Netherlands, the Walcheren Campaign in 1809, lead to the emperor creating him "Duke of Feltre". Napoleon came to depend on his authority and he was instrumental in organizing the administration and building the Grande Armée in 1811-12; as chief military organizer, he claimed authority over conscription, the production of all military items and health services. This led both to an expansion of his own authority. In 1812, when Claude Françoise Malet attempted his coup in Paris, Clarke saw an opportunity to expand his authority yet further. Anne Jean Marie René Savary, the Minister of Police and Clarke's main rival by 1812, was arrested by Malet and Clarke moved in to provide military police powers.
Napoleon, was alarmed by Clarke's assumption of power in his absence and upon his return to Paris in December 1812 reappointed Savary. Although he needed Clarke's centralized Ministry in 1813, he never trusted Clarke after the Malet affair, in November 1813 appointed an strong administrator, Pierre Daru, as Minister of War Administration. Daru began building his own authority, during 1814 the army suffered as both Clarke and Daru sparred over administrative responsibilities and authority; as the Allies approached Paris, Clarke found himself with the responsibility to defend the capital but with split authority. He found himself mobilizing the population. In the end, his efforts at defense were ineffectual and he was one of the generals pressing for Napoleon's abdication. After Napoleon's abdication he was replaced as Minister of War by Dupont de l'Étang but Louis XVIII of France made him a Peer of France; when Napoleon landed in Southern France in March 1815 to reclaim his throne, Clarke was again made Minister of War and served until the Bourbon government fled.
When the King fled to Ghent, Clarke followed him. After Napoleon's second abdication, Clarke was made Minister of War once more and served in that capacity until 1817 when Gouvion Saint-Cyr took over, he was given command of the 15th Military Division. In 1816 he was made a Marshal of France. Clarke died in 1818. McGarry, S. Irish Brigades Abroad Spencer Napoleonica Collection at Newberry Library
Pierre Dupont de l'Étang
Pierre-Antoine, comte Dupont de l'Étang was a French general of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as well as a political figure of the Bourbon Restoration. Born in Chabanais, Charente, he first saw active service during the French Revolutionary Wars as a member of Maillebois legion in the Netherlands, in 1791 was on the staff of the Army of the North under General Théobald Dillon, he distinguished himself in the Battle of Valmy, in the fighting around Menen in the campaign of 1793 he forced an Austrian regiment to surrender. Promoted to Brigadier General for this accomplishment, he soon received further advancement from Lazare Carnot, who recognized his abilities. In 1797, he became Général de Division; the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, whom he supported in the Coup of 18 Brumaire, brought him further opportunities under the Consulate and Empire. In the campaign of 1800 he was chief of staff to Louis-Alexandre Berthier, the nominal commander of the Army of Peierve of the Ains which won the Battle of Marengo.
After the battle he sustained a successful combat, against superior forces, at Pozzolo. In the campaign on the Danube in 1805, as the leader of one of Michel Ney's divisions, he earned further distinction in the Battle of Haslach-Jungingen, in which he prevented the escape of the Austrians from Ulm, so contributed most to the isolation and subsequent capture of Karl Mack von Leiberich and his whole army, he distinguished himself in the Battle of Friedland. With a record such as but few of Napoleon's divisional commanders possessed, he entered Spain in 1808 at the head of a motley corps made up of provisional battalions and Swiss troops impressed into French service from the Spanish Royal Army. After the occupation of Madrid, newly created count by Napoleon, was sent with his force to subdue Andalusia. After a few initial successes he had to retire toward the passes of the Sierra Morena. Pursued and cut off by a Spanish army under the Duke of Castaños, his corps was defeated in the Battle of Bailén after his Swiss troops deserted and returned to their former allegiance.
Painfully wounded in the hip, Dupont felt constrained to capitulate. So, Dupont sent secret orders to General Dominique Vedel to escape with his division, outside the Spanish trap; when the Spanish found out, they threatened to massacre Dupont's men if Vedel did not surrender, which Vedel did. Altogether 17,600 French soldiers laid down their arms in the disaster. Madrid fell to the resurgent Spanish forces and this soon compelled Napoleon to intervene with his Grand Army in order to salvage the situation. Dupont fell into the emperor's disgrace, as it was not taken into account that his troops were for the most part raw levies and that ill-luck contributed materially to the catastrophe. After his return to France, Dupont was sent before a court-martial, deprived of his rank and title, imprisoned at Fort de Joux from 1812 to 1814. Released only by the initial Restoration, he was employed by Louis XVIII in a military command, which he lost on the return of Napoleon during the Hundred Days, but the Second Restoration saw him reinstated to the army and appointed a member of the conseil privé of Louis XVIII.
Between April and December 1814, he was Minister of War, but his reactionary politics made the monarch recall him. From 1815 to 1830, Dupont was deputy for the Charente, he lived in retirement from 1832, working on his memoirs until his death in 1840. He lies buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery. An episode in the life of Pierre Dupont de l'Étang inspired the novel The Duel by Joseph Conrad, turned into the film The Duellists, by Ridley Scott. In The Encyclopedia of the Sword, Nick Evangelista wrote: As a young officer in Napoleon's Army, Dupont was ordered to deliver a disagreeable message to a fellow officer, Fournier, a rabid duellist. Fournier, taking out his subsequent rage on the messenger, challenged Dupont to a duel; this sparked a succession of encounters, waged with pistol, that spanned decades. The contest was resolved when Dupont was able to overcome Fournier in a pistol duel, forcing him to promise never to bother him again. Dupont was the model for Armand d'Hubert, played by Keith Carradine in the film.
Over a period of 20 years, Dupont de l'Étang fought a series of more than 20 duels with his fellow officer, the quarrelsome Fournier, nicknamed by the Spaniards el demonio. Pierre Dupont was married on December 26 1804 to Jeanne Grâce Bergon, daughter of a state counsellor, who died in the château des Ternes on June 13 1858, they had two children: comte Dupont. Claire Joséphine Grace Dupont, he had an illegitimate son, Aimé Dupont, who became a colonel of engineers. His niece Claire Grâce Dupont de Savignat was the mother of Marie François Sadi Carnot, President of the Republic. Opinion sur le nouveau mode de recrutement Lettres sur l'Espagne en 1808 Lettre sur la campagne d'Autriche Poems, including La Liberté, Cathelinna ou les amis rivaux, L'Art de la guerre, poème en dix chants, verse translations from Horace and Homer. At the time of his death he was on the point of publishing his memoirs. Glover, Michael; the Peninsular War 1807-1814. Penguin, 1974. Smith, Digby; the Napoleonic Wars Data Book.
Greenhill, 1998. Bicentenario de la Batalla de Bailen This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed
Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I was King of the French from 1830 to 1848. His father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans had taken the name "Philippe Égalité" because he supported the French Revolution. However, following the deposition and execution of his cousin King Louis XVI, Louis Philippe fled the country, his father denounced his actions and voted for his death, but was imprisoned and executed that same year. Louis Philippe spent the next 21 years in exile before returning during the Bourbon Restoration, he was proclaimed king in 1830 after his cousin Charles X was forced to abdicate by the July Revolution. The reign of Louis Philippe is known as the July Monarchy and was dominated by wealthy industrialists and bankers, he followed conservative policies under the influence of French statesman François Guizot during the period 1840–48. He promoted friendship with Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the French conquest of Algeria, his popularity faded as economic conditions in France deteriorated in 1847, he was forced to abdicate after the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1848.
He lived out his life in exile in the United Kingdom. His supporters were known as Orléanists, as opposed to Legitimists who supported the main line of the House of Bourbon. Louis Philippe was born in the Palais Royal, the residence of the Orléans family in Paris, to Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres, Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon; as a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince of the Blood, which entitled him the use of the style "Serene Highness". His mother was an wealthy heiress, descended from Louis XIV of France through a legitimized line. Louis Philippe was the eldest of three sons and a daughter, a family, to have erratic fortunes from the beginning of the French Revolution to the Bourbon Restoration; the elder branch of the House of Bourbon, to which the kings of France belonged distrusted the intentions of the cadet branch, which would succeed to the throne of France should the senior branch die out. Louis Philippe's father was exiled from the royal court, the Orléans confined themselves to studies of the literature and sciences emerging from the Enlightenment.
Louis Philippe was tutored by the Countess of Genlis, beginning in 1782. She instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought; when Louis Philippe's grandfather died in 1785, his father succeeded him as Duke of Orléans and Louis Philippe succeeded his father as Duke of Chartres. In 1788, with the Revolution looming, the young Louis Philippe showed his liberal sympathies when he helped break down the door of a prison cell in Mont Saint-Michel, during a visit there with the Countess of Genlis. From October 1788 to October 1789, the Palais Royal was a meeting-place for the revolutionaries. Louis Philippe grew up in a period that changed Europe as a whole and, following his father's strong support for the Revolution, he involved himself in those changes. In his diary, he reports that he himself took the initiative to join the Jacobin Club, a move that his father supported. In June 1791, Louis Philippe got his first opportunity to become involved in the affairs of France. In 1785, he had been given the hereditary appointment of Colonel of the Chartres Dragoons.
With war imminent in 1791, all proprietary colonels were ordered to join their regiments. Louis Philippe showed himself to be a model officer, he demonstrated his personal bravery in two famous instances. First, three days after Louis XVI's flight to Varennes, a quarrel between two local priests and one of the new constitutional vicars became heated, a crowd surrounded the inn where the priests were staying, demanding blood; the young colonel broke through the crowd and extricated the two priests, who fled. At a river crossing on the same day, another crowd threatened to harm the priests. Louis Philippe put himself between a peasant armed with a carbine and the priests, saving their lives; the next day, Louis Philippe dove into a river to save a drowning local engineer. For this action, he received a civic crown from the local municipality, his regiment was moved north to Flanders at the end of 1791 after the August 27, 1791 Declaration of Pillnitz. Louis Philippe served under his father's crony, Armand Louis de Gontaut the Duke of Biron, along with several officers who gained distinction in Napoleon's empire and afterwards.
These included Lieutenant Colonel Alexandre de Beauharnais. After war was declared by the Kingdom of France on the Habsburg Monarchy on April 20, 1792, Louis Philippe saw his first exchanges of fire of the French Revolutionary Wars within the invaded by France Austrian Netherlands at Boussu, Walloon, on about April 28, 1792, at Quaregnon, Walloon, on about April 29, 1792, at Quiévrain, near Jemappes, Walloon, on about April 30, 1792, where he was instrumental in rallying a unit of retreating soldiers after the victorious Battle of Quiévrain only two days earlier on April 28th of 1792. Biron wrote to War Minister de Grave, praising the young colonel, promoted to brigadier, commanding a brigade of cavalry in Lückner's Army of the North. In the Army of the North, Louis Philippe served with four future Marshals of France: Macdonald, Mortier and Oudinot. Dumouriez was appointed to command the Army of the North in August 1792. Louis Philippe commanded a division under him in the Valmy campaign. At the September 20, 1792 Battle of Va
First Cabinet of Napoleon I
The First Cabinet of Napoleon I was appointed by the Emperor Napoleon I upon the establishment of the First French Empire on 18 May 1804, replacing the Cabinet of the Consulate. It was succeeded by the French Provisional Government of 1814 following the downfall of Napoleon and the abolition of the Empire. At the session of the Tribunat on 3 Floréal year XII Jean-François Curée proposed that Napoleon First Consul, be declared hereditary Emperor of France; the motion was supported by several members of the Tribunat, with only Lazare Carnot speaking against it. At a session of the Senate on 28 Floréal year XII attended by Consul Charles-François Lebrun and all the ministers a motion was adopted in which Napoleon was declared hereditary Emperor of the French; the formal coronation ceremony was delayed until 11 Frimaire year XIII, when Pope Pius VII attended and Napoleon crowned himself in the Notre Dame de Paris. Napoleon made various changes during his reign, he headed the government himself. The ministers were: In March 1814 the allied armies invaded France, arrived at the walls of Paris on 29 March 1814.
After a short struggle on 30 March 1814 against overwhelmingly superior forces, on 31 March 1814 Marshal Marmont signed the capitulation of Paris. A provisional government was formed on 1 April 1814 under the presidency of Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord. Citations Sources
The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the first fall of Napoleon in 1814, his final defeat in the Hundred Days in 1815, until the July Revolution of 1830. The brothers of the executed Louis XVI came to power, reigned in conservative fashion, they were nonetheless unable to reverse most of the changes made by the French Revolution and Napoleon. At the Congress of Vienna they were treated respectfully, but had to give up nearly all the territorial gains made since 1789. Following the French Revolution, Napoleon became ruler of France. After years of expansion of his French Empire by successive military victories, a coalition of European powers defeated him in the War of the Sixth Coalition, ended the First Empire in 1814, restored the monarchy to the brothers of Louis XVI; the Bourbon Restoration lasted from 6 April 1814 until the popular uprisings of the July Revolution of 1830. There was an interlude in spring 1815—the "Hundred Days"—when the return of Napoleon forced the Bourbons to flee France.
When Napoleon was again defeated by the Seventh Coalition, they returned to power in July. During the Restoration, the new Bourbon regime was a constitutional monarchy, unlike the absolutist Ancien Régime, so it had some limits on its power; the new king, Louis XVIII, accepted the vast majority of reforms instituted from 1792 to 1814. Continuity was his basic policy, he did not try to recover property taken from the royalist exiles. He continued in peaceful fashion the main objectives of Napoleon's foreign policy, such as the limitation of Austrian influence, he reversed Napoleon regarding Spain and the Ottoman Empire, in order to restore the friendship that had prevailed until 1792. The period was characterized by a sharp conservative reaction, consequent minor but consistent occurrences of civil unrest and disturbances. Otherwise, the political establishment was stable until the late reign of Charles X, it saw the reestablishment of the Catholic Church as a major power in French politics. Throughout the Bourbon Restoration, France experienced a period of stable economic prosperity and the preliminaries of industrialization.
The eras of the French Revolution and Napoleon brought a series of major changes to France which the Bourbon Restoration did not reverse. First of all, France became centralized, with all important decisions made in Paris; the political geography was reorganized and made uniform. France was divided into more than 80 departments; each department had an identical administrative structure, was controlled by a prefect appointed by Paris. The complex multiple overlapping legal jurisdictions of the old regime had all been abolished, there was now one standardized legal code, administered by judges appointed by Paris, supported by police under national control; the Catholic Church lost all its lands and buildings during the Revolution, these were sold off or came under the control of local governments. The bishop still ruled his diocese, communicated with the pope through the government in Paris. Bishops, priests and other religious people were paid salaries by the state. All the old religious rites and ceremonies were retained, the government maintained the religious buildings.
The Church was allowed to operate its own seminaries and to some extent local schools as well, although this became a central political issue into the 20th century. Bishops were much less powerful than before, had no political voice. However, the Catholic Church reinvented itself and put a new emphasis on personal religiosity that gave it a hold on the psychology of the faithful. Public education was centralized, with the Grand Master of the University of France controlling every element of the national educational system from Paris. New technical universities were opened in Paris which to this day have a critical role in training the elite. Conservatism was bitterly split into the returning old aristocracy and the new elites arising after 1796; the old aristocracy felt no loyalty to the new regime. The new elite, the "noblesse d'empire," ridiculed the older group as an outdated remnant of a discredited regime that had led the nation to disaster. Both groups shared a fear of social disorder, but the level of distrust as well as the cultural differences were too great, the monarchy too inconsistent in its policies, for political cooperation to be possible.
The old aristocracy recovered much of the land they had owned directly. However, they lost all their old seigneurial rights to the rest of the farmland, the peasants were no longer under their control; the old aristocracy had dallied with the ideas of the rationalism. Now the aristocracy was supportive of the Catholic Church. For the best jobs, meritocracy was the new policy, aristocrats had to compete directly with the growing business and professional class. Public anti-clerical sentiment became stronger than before, but was now based in certain elements of the middle class and the peasantry; the great masses of French people were peasants in the countryside or impoverished workers in the cities. They gained a new sense of possibilities. Although relieved of many of the old burdens and taxes, the peasantry was still traditional in its social and economic behavior. Many eagerly took on mortgages to buy as much land as possible for their children, so debt was an important factor in their calculations.
The working class in the cities was a small element, had been freed of many restrictions imposed
Government of the first Bourbon restoration
The Government of the first Bourbon restoration replaced the French provisional government of 1814, formed after the fall of Napoleon. It was announced on 13 May 1814 by King Louis XVIII of France. After the return of Napoleon from exile, the court fled to Ghent and the government was replaced by the French Government of the Hundred Days on 20 March 1815. King Louis XVIII made a triumphal return to Paris on 3 May 1814, accompanied by members of the provisional council of state, commissaires of the ministerial departments, marshals of France and Generals, he was greeted by a huge crowd. He named the new ministry on 13 May 1814; the ministers were: On 4 June 1814 the Charter of 1814 was proclaimed, defining the basic constitutional laws of the state. The government soon became unpopular; some were opposed to the reactionary policies of the government, some were opposed to the Bourbon dynasty. The clergy preached intolerance and persecution of supporters of the former regime, while the army resented the rejection of their achievements under the Empire.
Napoleon sensed the change of mood, left Elba and on 1 March 1815 landed on the mainland near Cannes. He traveled north, with supporters flocking to his cause. On 16 March 1815 Louis XVIII addressed a meeting of both chambers, appealing to them to defend the constitutional charter. On the night of 19-20 March the king left his palace for Ghent in Belgium. Napoleon entered Paris on 20 March 1815. Citations Sources