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Joseph Farington

Joseph Farington was an 18th-century English landscape painter and diarist. Born in Leigh, Farington was the second of seven sons of William Farington and Esther Gilbody, his father was vicar of Leigh. Three of his brothers—William and Richard—were "employed in the naval service of the East India Company". Edward died of yellow fever when he was 32. Robert became vicar of St George in the East, London. George Farington became a painter. After his early education in Maryland, Farington went to study with Richard Wilson in London in 1763. In 1764, 1765, 1766 he won "premiums" from the Society of Artists for his landscape drawing, he joined the Royal Academy when it was founded in 1769 and was elected an ARA in 1783 and an RA in 1785. Farington contributed works to the Academy's exhibitions every year until 1801, but only between 1801 and 1813, he was an active member of the Academy and sat on several important committees, including the one which determined where artworks would be hung during the exhibitions.

He acted as executor for the estate of fellow Academician, John Webber. In 1793 he became a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and helped establish the British Institution, he assisted in the Thomas Gainsborough, William Hogarth, Richard Wilson exhibitions in 1806. Farington resided for a time in the Lake District and between 1776 and 1780 he made numerous drawings of the landscapes of the region and maintained a list describing what he believed should be their intended order, he took two trips in Europe, one to the Netherlands in 1793 "to prepare illustrations for an official record of the siege of Valenciennes". During the Peace of Amiens in 1802, he travelled to Paris with the artists Benjamin West, John Hoppner, Johann Fuseli, among others. There he saw Italian art. After returning from this trip, he painted less. According to Evelyn Newby's biographical article in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, "t is difficult to make a real appraisal of his paintings as they are scattered in many private and public collections, appear in art sales."

However, she writes that "Farington's real forte lay in the careful, accurate topographical drawings which he prepared for the folios of engravings of British views which found a ready market among tourists confined to Britain by unrest abroad." In 1785, he published Views of the Lakes of Cumberland and Westmorland and in 1794 he published a two-volume History of the River Thames with 76 aquatints. In the early 19th century, he participated in Cadell and Davies modernisation of the illustrated atlas Britannia depicta, which ran to six volumes of the projected whole. A project that became so costly that it was never completed. Farington edited the Memoirs of Sir Joshua Reynolds, in six volumes, 1819. Farington and Susan Mary Hamond, a relative of the Walpole family, married on 19 March 1776; when his wife died in 1800, Farington could neither draw nor paint. His family and friends, such as the painter Robert Smirke and his family, helped. Farington kept a daily diary from 13 July 1793 until his death, missing only a few days.

This diary has proved invaluable to historians its references to the London art world. As Newby explains, "ith its emphasis on biography and anecdote it is an invaluable source of information on artists of the period and of the internal workings of the Royal Academy." Farington knew the new industrialists in the Midlands, he understood the internal workings of the East India Company, his wife's family gave him access to information on government policy, he attended the major political trials of the day, such as Warren Hastings's failed impeachment, he followed William Wilberforce's anti-slavery campaign. The diary constituted 16 volumes and were kept as a family heirloom until they were auctioned off in 1921 to the Morning Post, they were first published serially and edited by James Greig and published in book form between 1922 and 1928. Another 16-volume edition was issued between 1978 and 1984. Farington died on a visit to his brother Robert in Lancashire on 30 December 1821, after falling down a flight of stairs in a church.

Newby, Evelyn. ‘Farington, Joseph ’. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved on 31 January 2008. J. Farington, The Diary of Joseph Farington, ed. K. Garlick, A. Mackintyre, K. Cave, E. Newby J. Farington, The Farington Diary, ed. James Greig John R. Murray, A Tour of the English Lakes: with Thomas Gray and Joseph Farington, R. A. 12 paintings by or after Joseph Farington at the Art UK site The Farington Diary at the Internet Archive Joseph Farington online

Histiophryne

Histiophryne is a genus of frogfishes found in waters ranging from Taiwan to South Australia. There are three known species; these fishes are distinguished from other anglerfishes as having a reduced luring appendage, a evolved form of the first dorsal fin spine. The second and third spines reduced as well to mere bumps beneath the skin; the rear fins meet its tail fin. There are five recognized species in this genus: Histiophryne bougainvilli Valenciennes, 1837 Histiophryne cryptacanthus M. C. W. Weber, 1913 Histiophryne maggiewalker R. J. Arnold & Pietsch, 2011 Histiophryne pogonius R. J. Arnold, 2012 Histiophryne psychedelica Pietsch, R. J. Arnold & D. J. Hall, 2009

Ibitinga

Ibitinga is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. The population is 57,649 in an area of 689 km²; the elevation is 491 m. The name comes from the Tupi language, meaning "White Lands"; the main rivers near Ibitinga are the Tietê River and its tributaries Jacaré-Pepira River and Jacaré-Guaçu River. The town is referred to as the "Embroidery National Capital", for its large embroidery industry, which started in the 1960s with descendants from Madeira Island, developed after 1974, when the City Hall promoted the first "Embroidery Fair", at the City Stadium. Year after year, the town has passed from being dependent on agriculture and cattle to its current situation, where the economy depends on embroidery and tourism. At the Tietê river in Ibitinga, it is located a dam and one lock; this lock, together with many others at other Tietê dams, allows the navigation of Tietê river along most of its length

School Street

School Street is a short but significant street in the center of Boston, Massachusetts. It is so named for being the site of the first public school in the United States; the school operated at various addresses on the street from 1704 to 1844. A southeastern extension of Beacon Street, School Street runs one or two blocks from Tremont Street to Washington Street. Along the way, it passes King's Chapel, Boston's Old City Hall, the historic Old Corner Bookstore; the Parker House hotel, 19th-century meeting place of politicians and literary figures as well as the origin point of several famous local dishes, is located along the street. The entirety of the street is part of the Freedom Trail, a red line that leads tourists to historic sites in the center of the city. 1635 – Gaol begins operating in vicinity. 1688 – King's Chapel built. 1708 – Officially named "School Street." 1711 – October 2: Fire. 1716 – Governors' Province House in use near School Street. 1729 South Meeting House built near School Street.

Samuel Adams graduates from Latin School. 1748 – Latin Schoolhouse built. 1750 – John Hancock graduates from Latin School. 1754 – King's Chapel rebuilt in stone. 1772 – King's Chapel bell installed. 1798 – Massachusetts State House built at top of hill in vicinity of School Street. 1804 – Union Circulating Library in business. 1810 – County courthouse built. 1817 – Second Universalist Church consecrated. 1827 – Tremont Theatre opens in vicinity of School Street. 1833 – Harding's Gallery of art active. 1841 City hall moves to School Street. Boston Museum opens near School Street. 1844 – Latin School moves away from School Street. 1845 – Horticultural Hall built. 1854 – Ticknor and Fields publisher in business in the Corner Bookstore. 1855 Parker House hotel in business. Saturday Club founded. 1857 – Benjamin Franklin statue erected in front of city hall. 1858 – Boston Five Cents Savings Bank built. 1865 – City hall rebuilt. 1868 – Charles Dickens stays at Parker House. 1872 – November 9: Great Boston Fire occurs in vicinity, just missing School Street.

1885 – Hugh O'Brien becomes mayor. 1906 – John F. Fitzgerald becomes mayor. 1914 – James Michael Curley becomes mayor. 1930 – Boston Public Library's Kirstein Business Branch opens off School Street. 1958 – Freedom Trail stripe painted. 1969 – City hall moves away from School Street. 1972 – Maison Robert restaurant in business. 1973 – Boston Five Cents Savings Bank rebuilt. 1982 – Globe Corner Bookstore in business. King's Chapel Old City Hall Old Corner BookstorePast tenants/activitiesBoston True Flag Richard Clarke lived on School St. 18th century Mrs. Abner Haven's cafe, 19th century Merry's Museum published on School St. in the 1840s Moses B. Russell, miniature painter, 19th century Antoine Sonrel ran a photography studio, 1860s Watch and Ward Society, circa 1890s–1900s "Panoramic view of Boston City Hall, School Street, Mass". 1903. Henry F. Jenks. "Old School Street". New England Magazine. 13 – via Hathi Trust

George Donner

George Donner was the leader of the Donner Party, a group of California-bound American settlers who became snow covered in the Sierra Nevada of Alta California, Mexico in the winter of 1846–1847. Nearly half of the party starved to death, some of the emigrants resorted to cannibalism. George Donner was born circa 1784 near North Carolina, he was the third eldest son of George Donner and Mary Huff. George had three sisters and three brothers, one of whom, accompanied him to California as did George's third wife, Tamsen Donner. Before emigrating westward, George Donner lived just outside Illinois. On April 14, 1846, he, his brother Jacob, James F. Reed, along with their families and hired hands, set out for California in covered wagons as part of the Boggs Company. Three months at the Little Sandy River in Wyoming, George was chosen to lead the group, now known as the Donner-Reed Party or Donner Party; the Donner Party took the Hastings Cutoff through the Wasatch Mountains in Utah and crossed the Great Salt Lake Desert, rejoining the California Trail west of Elko, Nevada.

They arrived at the Sierra Nevada late in the season and were trapped by snow on the eastern side of Truckee Lake west of Truckee, California. A rescue party was organized. However, when they arrived Jacob Donner was dead, George Donner's arm had become gangrenous from an injury to his hand sustained en route to the campsite, while repairing a broken wagon axle; the rescuers took George's daughters Leanna, leaving George and his wife behind. The second and third rescue parties found George too weak to travel; when the fourth and last relief party arrived on April 17, 1847, they found George dead in his bed. Some other accounts of George's death indicate; the children of George Donner's first marriage stayed behind in Illinois, but those of his second marriage and third marriage accompanied him to California. All five of them survived. Elitha Cumi Donner married Perry McCoon a few months after being rescued, at age 15. After McCoon's death she married Benjamin Wilder, she lived most of her life on a ranch near Elk Grove, where she died in 1923.

Leanna Charity Donner lived with Elitha until her own marriage to John App in 1852. She and App had three children. Leanna lived out her life in Jamestown and died there in 1930, she lived to the age of 96 or 95. Frances Eustis Donner made her home with the James F. Reed family in San Jose, for several years went to live with her older half-sister, Elitha, she married William Wilder. She and William lived in Byron, California. Frances died at her home there in 1921. Georgia Anna Donner and Eliza Poor Donner were taken in by Christian and Maria Brunner at Sutter's Fort moved with them to Sonoma, California in late 1847. Eliza described their years with the Brunners in her book The Expedition of the Donner Party. In 1854, the sisters went to live with Benjamin Wilder. Georgia Anna Donner married Washington Babcock in 1863, they lived in Mountain View, California moved to St. John, Washington. Georgia died in 1911. Eliza Poor Donner married Sherman O. Houghton in 1861, they had seven children and lived in San Jose, except for four years where they lived in Washington, D.

C. while Sherman served in Congress. They moved to Long Beach, California around 1885. Eliza died in 1922

Bill Pearson (New Zealand writer)

William Harrison "Bill" Pearson was a New Zealand fiction writer and critic. Born in Greymouth he completed a B. A. in English at the Canterbury University trained as a teacher. He taught at Blackball Primary School in 1942 and drew on these experiences to write a novel entitled Coal Flat, published in 1963. After completing an M. A. Pearson travelled to London in 1949 to begin a PhD at the University of London. On completion of his PhD in 1952 he returned to New Zealand, teaching in the English Department at the Auckland University College from 1959 until his retirement in 1986, his collected essays and reviews on New Zealand literature and society were published in Fretful Sleepers and Other Essays in 1974. Pearson had a close relationship with the Māori university community during his tenure at the University of Auckland. Pearson was a closeted gay man for much of his life. Homosexuality was illegal in New Zealand until 1986. A well-reviewed biography, entitled No Fretful Sleeper: A Life of Bill Pearson by academic Paul Millar, was published in 2010.

Coal Flat, full text at the NZETC Fretful Sleepers and Other Essays, full text at the NZETC http://www.bookcouncil.org.nz/writers/pearsonbill.html https://web.archive.org/web/20100522113430/http://web.auckland.ac.nz/uoa/aup/book/2010/millar-no-fretful-sleeper.cfm