Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,196,457 as of July 1,2015, it is Canadas fourth-most populous province and its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1,1905, the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, and the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. About 290 km south of the capital is Calgary, the largest city in Alberta and Edmonton centre Albertas two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Alberta is named after Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Victoria, Queen of Canada, and Albert, Prince Consort.
Princess Louise was the wife of John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the US state of Montana. The province extends 1,223 km north to south and 660 km east to west at its maximum width, with the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous rivers and lakes used for swimming, there are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, and Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan. The longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca, the largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s. The Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, Albertas capital city, Edmonton, is located approximately in the geographic centre of the province.
It is the most northerly city in Canada, and serves as a gateway. The region, with its proximity to Canadas largest oil fields, has most of western Canadas oil refinery capacity, Calgary is located approximately 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. Almost 75% of the population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the served as a means to populate the province in its early years
Montreal, officially Montréal, is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the 2nd-most populous in Canada as a whole. Originally called Ville-Marie, or City of Mary, it is believed to be named after Mount Royal, the city has a distinct four-season continental climate, with warm-to-hot summers and cold, snowy winters. In 2016, Montreal had a population of 1,704,694, Montreals metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927 and a population of 1,958,257 in the urban agglomeration, with all of the municipalities on the Island of Montreal included. Legally a French-speaking city,60. 5% of Montrealers speak French at home,21. 2% speak English and 19. 8% speak neither, Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with 56% of the population able to speak both official languages. Montreal is the second-largest primarily French-speaking city in the world after Paris, historically the commercial capital of Canada, it was surpassed in population and economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s.
It remains an important centre of commerce, finance, technology, education, tourism, film, Montreal was named a UNESCO City of Design. In 2009, Montreal was named North Americas leading host city for international events, according to the 2009 preliminary rankings of the International Congress. According to the 2015 Global Liveability Ranking by the Economist Intelligence Unit, in the 2017 edition of their Best Student Cities ranking, Quacquarelli Symonds ranked Montreal as the worlds best city to study abroad. Also, Montreal has 11 universities with 170,000 students enrolled, the Greater Montréal region has the highest number of university students per capita among all metropolitan areas in North America. It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics, the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In 2012, Montreal was ranked as a Beta+ world city, in Kanien’kéha, or Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià, ke Tsi or Ka-wé-no-te.
In Anishinaabemowin, or Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang, though the city was first named by French colonizers Ville Marie, or City of Mary, its current name comes from Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The most popular theory is that the name derives from Mont Réal, Cartiers 1535 diary entry, naming the mountain, according to the Commission de toponymie du Québec and the Geographical Names Board of Canada, Canadian place names have only one official form. Thus, Montreal is officially spelled with an accent over the e in both English and French. In practice, this is limited to governmental uses. English-speaking Montrealers, including English-language media, regularly omit the accent when writing in English, archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD1000, they had started to cultivate maize, within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages.
Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at locations in the valley since at least the 14th century
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada, colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federal political party in Canada. The party espouses the principles of liberalism, and generally sits at the centre of the Canadian political spectrum, the Liberal Party is traditionally positioned to the left of the Conservative Party of Canada and to the right of the New Democratic Party. During the beginning of the 21st century, the party lost a significant amount of support, in the present times, the Liberal party has favoured a variety of big tent policies from both right and left of the political spectrum. It legalized same-sex marriage and allowed the use of cannabis for medical purposes, during the 2015 election, the Liberal partys proposed policies included, Cut the middle class tax bracket from 22% to 20.88 per $100 to $1. In the 29 years after Canadian confederation, the Liberals were consigned to opposition, with the exception of one stint in government. Alexander Mackenzie was able to lead the party to power for the first time in 1873, Mackenzie subsequently won the 1874 election, and served as Prime Minister for an additional four years.
However the party was able to build a solid support base in Ontario. The Liberals would spend the next 18 years in opposition, in their early history, the Liberals were the party of continentalism and opposition to imperialism. The Liberals became identified with the aspirations of Quebecers as a result of the hostility of French Canadians to the Conservatives. It was not until Wilfrid Laurier became leader that the Liberal Party emerged as a modern party, Laurier was able to capitalize on the Tories alienation of French Canada by offering the Liberals as a credible alternative. Laurier was able to overcome the reputation for anti-clericalism that offended the still-powerful Quebec Roman Catholic Church. In English-speaking Canada, the Liberal Partys support for reciprocity made it popular among farmers, Laurier led the Liberals to power in the 1896 election, and oversaw a government that increased immigration in order to settle Western Canada. Lauriers government created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta out of the North-West Territories, there was no national membership of the party, an individual became a member by joining a provincial Liberal party.
The new organization allowed individuals to join the national Liberal Party for the first time. No national convention was held, until 1948, the Liberal Party held only three national conventions prior to the 1950s – in 1893,1919 and 1948). Over time, provincial Liberal parties in most provinces were separated from provincial wings of the federal party, by the 1980s, the National Liberal Federation was officially known as the Liberal Party of Canada. Under Laurier, and his successor William Lyon Mackenzie King, the Liberals promoted Canadian sovereignty, after the King–Byng Affair of 1926, the Liberals argued that the Governor General of Canada should no longer be appointed on the recommendation of the British government. The decisions of the Imperial Conferences were formalized in the Statute of Westminster, which was passed in 1931
Prosper-Edmond Lessard was a member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta from 1909 to 1921 sitting with the Liberal caucus in government. He served in the Canadian Senate from 1925 to his death in 1931 sitting with the federal Liberal caucus, Lessard was born on February 3,1873 in Cranbourne, Quebec. He left home seeking his fortune in the 1898 Klondike Gold Rush and he stopped in Edmonton on his way there, and became a leading citizen in the Franco-Albertan community. Lessard ran for a seat to the Alberta Legislature in the 1909 Alberta general election as a Liberal candidate and he won the new Pakan electoral district by acclamation. The 1913 boundary redistribution would see Pakan abolished, Lessard ran for re-election in the new St. Paul electoral district in the election held that year. He won a closely contested two way race over Conservative candidate L. Garneau, Lessard ran for a third term in the 1917 general election. He doubled his vote from the election, rolling up a big majority to keep his seat.
Lessard ran for a term in the 1921 Alberta general election. He was defeated by United Farmers candidate Laudas Joly in a closely contested two way race, in 1925 Lessard was appointed to the Canadian Senate on the advice of Prime Minister Mackenzie King. He served until his death on April 11,1931 and his unique downtown Edmonton area home has been declared a heritage site. Legislative Assembly of Alberta Members Listing
Morinville is a town in central Alberta, Canada. It is located 34 km north of Edmonton on Highway 2, Maisonneuve, Krauskopf and Meyers. The monument located in the St. Jean Baptiste Park lists the names of pioneers and settlers to Morinville. The first post-office opened in 1894, the Roman Catholic Church of the St. Jean Baptiste Parish was built in 1907. The church, along with its adjacent but now inoperative convent Morinville Convent, was declared a site in 1975. In 2005, the grounds of the church were landscaped with a tower, new grass and shrubs. Morinville has a history of successful business ventures as one of the first locations in Western Canada to open a Royal Bank of Canada in 1910. A series of international business ventures include Champion Pet Foods that exports around the world. With a land area of 11.15 km2, it had a density of 883. 2/km2 in 2016. The population of the Town of Morinville according to its 2016 municipal census is 9,893, a 5. 2% change from its 2014 municipal census population of 9,402.
In the 2011 Census, the Town of Morinville had a population of 8,569 living in 3,078 of its 3,261 total dwellings, with a land area of 11.34 km2, it had a population density of 755. 6/km2 in 2011. As of 2010, 93% of Morinvilles tax base is residential in nature, one of the towns larger businesses, Champion Pet Foods, employs approximately 50 people. Other recreation amenities are available in St. Albert and Edmonton to the south, additional recreation amenities are being considered by the town as it grows. One of the amenities currently being considered is the development of a swimming pool, the Greater St. Albert Catholic Regional Division operates three schools in Morinville – Ecole Notre Dame Elementary, Georges H. Primeau Middle School and Morinville Community High School. Prior to 2011, Morinville held the distinction of having only public Catholic schools, the public Sturgeon School Division, which provided school programming to surrounding Sturgeon County, did not provide school programming in Morinville.
This led to non-Catholic parents starting a campaign to introduce a secular option for education in Morinville. In response, Sturgeon School Division and the Town of Morinville came to an agreement to provide space for an education program for grades 1–4 for the 2011–2012 school year. Morinville is served by four weekly newspapers — The Free Press, Farm n Friends, the St. Albert Gazette
Knights of Columbus
The Knights of Columbus is the worlds largest Catholic fraternal service organization. Founded by Father Michael J. McGivney in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1882, there are 1,918,122 members in nearly 15,000 councils, with 302 councils on college campuses. Membership is limited to practical Catholic men aged 18 or older, membership consists of four different degrees, each exemplifying a different principle of the Order. The Order is a member of the International Alliance of Catholic Knights, the Knights official junior organization, the Columbian Squires, has over 5,000 circles and the Orders patriotic arm, the Fourth Degree, has more than 2,500 assemblies. For their support for the Church and local communities, as well as for their philanthropic efforts, in 2015, the Order gave over US$175 million directly to charity and performed over 73.5 million man-hours of voluntary service. Over 413,000 US pints of blood were donated in 2010, the Orders insurance program has more than 2 million insurance contracts, totaling more than US$100 billion of life insurance in force.
This is backed up by $21 billion in assets as of 2014, the Knights were founded during the Golden age of fraternalism in the United States. Michael J. McGivney, an Irish-American Catholic priest, founded the Knights of Columbus in New Haven, Connecticut. He gathered a group of men from St. Marys Parish for a meeting on October 2,1881. Although the first councils were all in state, the Order spread throughout New England. By 1889, there were 300 councils comprising 40,000 knights, twenty years later, in 1909, there were 230,000 knights in 1,300 councils. The Order was intended as a benefit society. These organizations, which combined social aspects and ritual were especially flourishing during the third of the nineteenth century. He had to leave his seminary studies to care for his family when his father died. McGivney wished to provide them with an alternative and he believed that Catholicism and fraternalism were not incompatible and wanted to found a society to encourage men to be proud of their American-Catholic heritage.
He found the latter to be lacking the excitement he thought was needed if his organization were to compete with the societies of the day. He expressed an interest in establishing a New Haven Court of the Foresters, McGivneys committee of St. Marys parishioners decided to form a club that was entirely original. In taking Columbus as their patron, they were expressing their belief that not only could Catholics be full members of American society, by the time of the first annual convention in 1884, the Order was prospering
Edmonton City Council
The Edmonton City Council is the governing body of the City of Edmonton, Canada. Members represent wards throughout the city, and are known as councillors, until 2010, Edmonton was divided in six wards with two councillors representing citizens in each ward. On July 22,2009, City Council voted to change the system of six wards to a system of 12 wards, each represented by a single councillor. City Councils current membership was elected in 2013 and will serve until the 2017 election, amarjeet Sohi was ward 12 councillor until November 2015, when he was elected Member of Parliament for Edmonton Mill Woods in the 2015 Canadian federal election. Mohinder Banga succeeded him for ward 12, in 1980, Edmonton adopted a ward system in which two councillors would be elected from each of six wards. In 1971, Edmonton adopted a system in which three aldermen would be elected from each of four wards. In 1968 Albertas legislation changed to require elections every three years in all of the provinces municipalities, in 1964 Edmonton unstaggered its terms for city officials, meaning that elections were held only every two years.
Additionally, all became elected at-large and two new aldermanic positions were added, bringing the total to twelve. In preparation for this, in 1963 the mayor and all positions up for re-election were elected to one-year terms. In 1947, the mayor began to be elected for a two-year term, the aldermanic positions remained split by the North Saskatchewan River, and in 1961 the number of aldermen on the south side increased from three to four. The council continued to be elected on staggered two-year terms, in 1933, a number of aldermanic positions were reserved for the south side of the North Saskatchewan River. It was one until 1935, two until 1936, and three thereafter, aldermen continued to be elected on staggered two-year terms, but the mayor was elected for a one-year term. In 1924, city council returned to a system whereby all aldermen were elected at-large and they continued to be elected on staggered two-year terms, and there continued to be ten of them. The mayor continued to be elected annually, and aldermen continued to be elected to staggered two-year terms, Edmonton was incorporated as a city in 1904.
The size of council was set at eight alderman plus the mayor, with the mayor being elected annually and the aldermen being elected on staggered two-year terms. The Edmonton Town Council was the body of Edmonton, Northwest Territories, from 1892 until 1904, when Edmonton was incorporated as a city. Throughout its history it included a mayor and six aldermen, the mayor was elected annually throughout the towns history, but beginning in 1898 they were elected to staggered two-year terms, with half of them elected each year. The mayor and aldermen were elected annually from 1892 to 1898, City of Edmonton official site Listing of city ward election maps, and bylaw 15142
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
Edmonton /ˈɛdməntən/ is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Capital Region, the city anchors the north end of what Statistics Canada defines as the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The city had a population of 932,546 in 2016, making it Albertas second-largest city, in 2016, Edmonton had a metropolitan population of 1,321,426, making it the sixth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Edmonton is North Americas northernmost city with a population over one million. A resident of Edmonton is known as an Edmontonian, Edmontons historic growth has been facilitated through the absorption of five adjacent urban municipalities and a series of annexations ending in 1982. Known as the Gateway to the North, the city is a point for large-scale oil sands projects occurring in northern Alberta. Edmonton is a cultural and educational centre and it hosts a year-round slate of festivals, reflected in the nickname Canadas Festival City.
It is home to North Americas largest mall, West Edmonton Mall, in 1754, Anthony Henday, an explorer for the Hudsons Bay Company, may have been the first European to enter the Edmonton area. By 1795, Fort Edmonton was established on the north bank as a major trading post for the Hudsons Bay Company. The new forts name was suggested by John Peter Pruden after Edmonton, the home town of both the HBC deputy governor Sir James Winter Lake, and Pruden. In 1876, Treaty 6, which includes what is now Edmonton, was signed between the Aboriginal peoples in Canada and Queen Victoria as Queen of Canada, as part of the Numbered Treaties of Canada. The agreement includes the Plains and Woods Cree and other governments of First Nations at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt. The area covered by the treaty represents most of the area of the current provinces of Saskatchewan. The arrival of the CPR and the C&E Railway helped bring settlers and entrepreneurs from eastern Canada, Europe, U. S. the Edmonton areas fertile soil and cheap land attracted settlers, further establishing Edmonton as a major regional commercial and agricultural centre.
Some people participating in the Klondike Gold Rush passed through South Edmonton/Strathcona in 1897, in November 1905, the Canadian Northern Railway arrived in Edmonton, accelerating growth. During the early 1900s, Edmontons rapid growth led to speculation in real estate, in 1912, Edmonton amalgamated with the City of Strathcona, south of the North Saskatchewan River, as a result, the city extended south of the North Saskatchewan River for the first time. Just prior to World War I, the boom ended, many impoverished families moved to subsistence farms outside the city, while others fled to greener pastures in other provinces. Recruitment to the Canadian army during the war contributed to the drop in population