David F. Houston
David Franklin Houston was an American academic and conservative Democratic politician. He served under President Wilson as the 5th Secretary of Agriculture, Houston was born in Monroe, North Carolina, on February 17,1866. He was the son of William Henry Houston, a dealer and grocer, and his wife. He graduated from the University of South Carolina in 1887 and did work at Harvard University. Houston married Helen Beall on December 11,1895 and they had five children, David Franklin, Jr. Duval, Elizabeth and Lawrence Beid Houston. Houston taught political science at University of Texas and he became an adjunct member of the faculty in 1894 and was named dean of the faculty in 1899. He became president of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas from 1902 until 1905, in 1905 he returned to UT to become that institutions president, serving until 1908. During his tenure at UT Austin, the opened a doctoral program. Houston left Texas to serve as chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis, during his tenure he established the School of Architecture and strengthened the medical school through partnerships with Childrens and Barnes hospitals.
He left the university to become the U. S. Secretary of Agriculture, under President William McKinley he was on the board of visitors of the United States Military Academy at West Point. Later in life, he was an overseer of Harvard University, Houston served as President Woodrow Wilsons Secretary of Agriculture from 1913 to 1920, when he became the Secretary of the Treasury until 1921. Houston came to the Treasury Department as World War I was ending, as ex officio Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, he issued severe warnings and, increased rediscount rates in order to prevent the inflation that the European allies were experiencing. Houston predicted a fall in U. S. prices, particularly of farm products and he pushed for easier credit for farmers and urged them to produce less. But when prices fell more dramatically than expected in 1920, farm spokesmen unfairly accused Houston of deliberately wrecking agrarian prosperity, abroad and France were pushing to cancel their war debts. Houston, the U. S.
Congress and the President, against cancellation, Houston resigned at the end of President Wilsons term, after only a year in office. He was president of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York for ten years, Houston died of a heart attack on September 2,1940 at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City. He was buried next to his wife at Saint Johns Church Cemetery in Oyster Bay, Houston published A Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina to establish his place in academia. He published a memoir of his experiences as a cabinet member
Thomas H. Eliot
Thomas Hopkinson Eliot was a lawyer and academic, serving as chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis and in the US House of Representatives from Massachusetts. A great-grandson of Samuel Atkins Eliot and grandson of Charles William Eliot, Eliot was born in Cambridge and he attended Browne & Nichols School in Cambridge, graduated from Harvard University in 1928 and was a student at Emmanuel College in Cambridge University, from 1928-29. He graduated from Harvard Law School in 1932 and was admitted to the bar in 1933, commencing practice in Buffalo and he served as assistant solicitor in the United States Department of Labor from 1933–35 and as general counsel for the Social Security Board from 1935–38. He was a lecturer on government at Harvard University in 1937-38, in 1938 Eliot, a Democrat, ran for election to the Seventy-sixth Congress, losing to Republican Robert Luce. Eliot defeated Luce in a rematch in 1940, winning election to the Seventy-seventh Congress, Eliot saw war service in 1943 as director of the British Division, Office of War Information, London and special assistant to the United States Ambassador.
In 1943-44 he was chairman of the committee of the National War Labor Board. He served with the Office of Strategic Services in 1944, and from November 1944 to November 1945 was chief counsel of the Division of Power, in addition, Eliot served as New England chairman of the United Negro College Fund. After the war, Eliot engaged in the practice of law in Boston from 1945–50 and he was a professor of constitutional law from 1958-61. In 1961 he moved to the Washington University College of Liberal Arts, serving as dean in 1961–62, Eliot was a resident of Cambridge until his death there in 1991. He was interred at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Massachusetts, recollections of the New Deal, When the People Mattered. Edited with an introduction by John Kenneth Galbraith, Northeastern University Press,1992, Thomas H. St. Louis, Washington University Press,1971, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Biographical entry at Washington University in Saint Louis Biographical entry at the Social Security Administration Salzburg Global Seminar
George Warren Brown School of Social Work
The George Warren Brown School of Social Work, often referred to as GWB, the Brown School or simply Brown, is one of the worlds leading schools for the training of social science researchers. The Brown School offers a Master of Social Work, a Master of Public Health, a PhD in Social Work, the social work program is ranked 1st by US News. As one of the units of Washington University in St. Louis. The school was endowed in 1945 by Bettie Bofinger Brown and named for her husband, George Warren Brown, a St. Louis philanthropist and co-founder of the Brown Shoe Company. The school was the first in the country to have a building for the purpose of social work education, the school is housed within Brown and Hillman Halls. Many of the faculty have training in social work and public health. 1925 Washington University introduces a social work program under the leadership of Professor Frank Bruno and this program was initially named the Washington University Training Course for Social Workers and was part of the Department of Sociology in the College of Liberal Arts.
1926 The social work training program transfers to the School of Commerce and Finance,1928 The George Warren Brown Department of Social Work is established with monies from the estate of George Warren Brown, a prominent shoe manufacturer. 1937 The Washington University community and alumni of the George Warren Brown Department of Social Work dedicate Brown Hall, Brown Hall is the first building in the nation constructed to house a program of social work education. 1937-1945 Brown Hall is home to the Department of Social Work as well as the departments of history, political science, as the program, grew the school expanded to occupy the entire building. 1945 The University establishes the George Warren Brown School of Social Work as a school with Benjamin E. Youngdahl as its Dean. Years later, the estate of George Warren Brown donated $1 million to the University to create a permanent endowment for the school,1998 The Brown School and Washington University celebrate the dedication of Alvin Goldfarb Hall, a four-story building that doubled the capacity of the school.
2009 The Master of Public Health program enrolls its first class, students are able to obtain a dual degree with the MSW. The Brown School is home to research centers with distinct areas of emphasis. Center for Public Health Systems Science was launched in 2001 and helps create understanding of how policies. The Center translates research results to inform chronic disease prevention policy, Social System Design Laboratory advances the science and field of system dynamics for human services including social work, education and public health. Center for Diabetes Translation Research aims to eliminate disparities in Type 2 diabetes by translating evidence-based interventions to high-risk populations, the Centers ultimate goal is to help improve the lives of Latino families in all of the Americas. The center is one of only 11 centers of its kind in the country, the Centers work explores issues of civic engagement to ensure the people of all ages and economic levels actively participate in our society
Skull and Bones
Skull and Bones is an undergraduate senior secret society at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. It is the oldest senior class landed society at Yale, the societys alumni organization, the Russell Trust Association, owns the societys real estate and oversees the organization. The society is known informally as Bones, and members are known as Bonesmen and Bones was founded in 1832 after a dispute among Yale debating societies Linonia, Brothers in Unity, and the Calliopean Society over that seasons Phi Beta Kappa awards. William Huntington Russell and Alphonso Taft co-founded the Order of the Scull, the societys assets are managed by the societys alumni organization, the Russell Trust Association, incorporated in 1856 and named after the Bones co-founder. The association was founded by Russell and Daniel Coit Gilman, a Skull and Bones selects new members among students every spring as part of Yale Universitys Tap Day, and has done so since 1879. Since the societys inclusion of women in the early 1990s, Skull and Bones taps those that it views as campus leaders and other notable figures for its membership.
The Skull and Bones Hall is otherwise known as the Tomb, the building was built in three phases, the first wing was built in 1856, the second wing in 1903, and Davis-designed Neo-Gothic towers were added to the rear garden in 1912. The front and side facades are of Portland brownstone in an Egypto-Doric style, the 1912 tower additions created a small enclosed courtyard in the rear of the building, designed by Evarts Tracy and Edgerton Swartwout of Tracy and Swartwout, New York. Evarts Tracy was a 1890 Bonesman, and his grandmother, Martha Sherman Evarts, and maternal grandmother, Mary Evarts, were the sisters of William Maxwell Evarts. The architect was possibly Alexander Jackson Davis or Henry Austin, architectural historian Patrick Pinnell includes an in-depth discussion of the dispute over the identity of the original architect in his 1999 Yale campus history. Pinnell discusses the Tombs aesthetic place in relation to its neighbors, in the late 1990s, New Hampshire landscape architects Saucier and Flynn designed the wrought iron fence that surrounds a portion of the complex.
The society owns and manages Deer Island, a retreat on the St. Lawrence River. Alexandra Robbins, author of a book on Yale secret societies, The forty-acre retreat is intended to give Bonesmen an opportunity to get together, a century ago the island sported tennis courts and its softball fields were surrounded by rhubarb plants and gooseberry bushes. But although each new Skull and Bones member still visits Deer Island, now it is just a bunch of burned-out stone buildings, a patriarch sighs. Another Bonesman says that to call the island rustic would be to glorify it and its a dump, but its beautiful. Skull and Boness membership developed a reputation in association with the Power Elite, like other Yale senior societies and Bones membership was almost exclusively limited to white Protestant males for much of its history. While Yale itself had exclusionary policies directed at particular ethnic and religious groups, while some Catholics were able to join such groups, Jews were more often not. Some of these groups eventually entered Skull and Bones by means of sports
Herbert S. Hadley
Herbert Spencer Hadley was an American lawyer and a Republican Party politician from St. Louis, Missouri. Born in Olathe, Kansas, he was Missouri Attorney General from 1905 to 1909 and in 1908 was elected the 32nd Governor of Missouri, as Attorney General, he successfully prosecuted Standard Oil Company for violating Missouri antitrust law. Hadley was the son of Major John Milton Hadley and Harriet Beach Jones Hadley and he attended the University of Kansas, where he was a member of Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity and received an A. B. in 1892. He earned his law degree from Northwestern University with first honors in 1894, while at Northwestern, he helped establish the Northwestern University Law Review. In 1901, he married Agnes Lee and their children were John Milton and Herbert Spencer. Hadley practiced law in Kansas City and his first public office as Kansas City assistant city counselor began in 1898. He was the attorney for Jackson County, Missouri from 1901 to 1903. In this position, Hadley developed a reputation for vigorous prosecution, including an investigation of jury tampering in the civil courts, although he was not re-elected as prosecuting attorney, Hadley was elected as attorney general for Missouri and served in that capacity from 1905–1909.
As attorney general, he prosecuted successful cases against Standard Oil Company, several trusts, during his term as attorney general, Hadley was the highest-ranking elected Republican official in Missouri. This, combined with Hadleys success with the Standard Oil Company suit and his record for reform, many of Hadleys recommendations for change in other government sectors, such as revenue and public service, were not supported by the Missouri General Assembly. In 1912, Hadley served as leader for Theodore Roosevelts wing of the Republican Party at the 1912 Republican National Convention. Following his gubernatorial term, Hadley resumed his law practice and worked on a federal railroad valuation project, in 1917, he moved to Colorado for health reasons and was professor of law at the University of Colorado through 1923. Hadley became the seventh Chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis in 1923 and he was recruited for the position by Robert S. Brookings who helped establish the Graduate School of Economics and Government, which became part of the Brookings Institution in 1927.
As a law professor, he authored Rome and the World Today, throughout his years, Hadley was an advocate of legal reform and participated in reform initiatives of the American Bar Association, American Law Institute, and National Crime Commission. He was one of the authors of the Missouri Crime Survey, Hadley was the recipient of honorary degrees from Northwestern University, the University of Missouri, and Harvard University. He died in 1927 of heart disease in St Louis, Herbert Spencer Hadley. Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928–1936, http, //0-galenet. galegroup. com. iii. slcl. org, 80/servlet/HistRC/ Biographical entry at Washington University in Saint Louis Herbert S. Hadley at Find a Grave
Washington University School of Medicine
Washington University School of Medicine, located in St. Louis, Missouri, is the medical school of Washington University in St. Louis on the eastern border of Forest Park in St. Louis. Founded in 1891, the School of Medicine has 1,260 students,604 of which are pursuing a degree with or without a combined Doctor of Philosophy or other advanced degree. It offers degrees in biomedical research through the Division of Biology. There are 1,772 faculty,1,022 residents, the clinical service is provided by Washington University Physicians, a comprehensive medical and surgical practice providing treatment in more than 75 medical specialties. Washington University Physicians are the medical staffs of the two teaching hospitals - Barnes-Jewish Hospital and St. Louis Childrens Hospital. U. S. News and World Report ranks the college high and it has been listed among the top ten medical schools since rankings were first published in 1987. The school ranks first in the nation in student selectivity,17 Nobel laureates have been associated with the School of Medicine.
12 faculty members are fellows of the National Academy of Sciences,30 belong to the Institute of Medicine,92 faculty members hold individual career development awards from the National Institutes of Health. 59 faculty members hold career development awards from non-federal agencies,14 faculty members have MERIT status, a special recognition given by the National Institutes of Health that provides long-term, uninterrupted financial support to investigators. 6 faculty members are Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigators, Medical classes were first held at Washington University in 1891 after the St. Louis Medical College decided to affiliate with the University, establishing a Medical Department. This especially became a cause for concern after an early 1900s Carnegie Foundation report derided the organization, following a trend in medical education across the country and the creation of new knowledge became a stated objective in a 1906 course catalog for the medical department. For Brookings and the University, incorporating the Medical Department into a separate School of Medicine seemed to be the logical step.
The first female faculty member seems to have been biochemist and physiologist Ethel Ronzoni Bishop, the Medical School began its escalation from regional renown in the 1940s, a decade when two Nobel Prizes were awarded, in 1944 and 1947, to groups of faculty members. In 1950, a Cancer Research Building was completed, being the first major new building addition to the School of Medicine since its relocation in 1914. Washington University Medical Center comprises 164 acres spread over approximately 17 city blocks, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and St. Louis Childrens Hospital, part of BJC HealthCare, the teaching hospitals affiliated with the School of Medicine, are located within the medical complex. Many of the buildings are connected via a series of sky bridges, as of 2008, the School of Medicine occupies over 4,500,000 square feet in the entire medical complex. Washington University and BJC HealthCare have taken on many joint venture projects since their collaboration in the 1910s. The Center for Advanced Medicine, completed in December 2001, is one such collaboration, at 650,000 square feet, it is one of the largest single buildings in the Medical Complex
Washington University Libraries
Washington University Libraries is the library system of Washington University in St. Louis. The system includes 12 libraries and over 4.2 million volumes, the John M. Olin Library is the central library. It is a federal depository library and houses over 70,000 microfilms. Built in the early 1960s after a gift from John M. Olin and opened in 1962, in 2004, the Olin Library was rededicated after a comprehensive renovation and an expansion of the main floor. This process took more than three years, the library contains a cafe/coffee shop, study spaces for graduate and undergraduate students, and many general services and administrative offices of the Washington University Libraries. The Washington University Film & Media Archive is an archive is composed of completed films and videos, the archive holds numerous materials that went into the creation of other works. Opened in the Fall of 2002, the Film & Media Archives first acquisition was the Henry Hampton Collection, for the first time ever, the tens of thousands of materials created by his company Blackside, Inc. during the production process became available for study.
It continues to grow, focusing on collecting film archives that examine the social movements of American history and African-American life and culture. In addition to acquiring collections of historical importance, the Archive preserves and organizes these materials, publicizes them. The collection accepts submissions of written testimony and video related to the protests, located on the Washington University School of Medicine campus, Becker Library serves the Washington University School of Medicine, the Barnes-Jewish Hospital, and the St. Louis Children’s Hospital. The mission of the Becker Medical Library is to provide resources and technology in support of the educational, research. The library contains over 146,000 volumes, along with over 9,100 print, shirley K. Baker served as dean of Washington University Libraries from 1989 until her retirement on June 30,2012. Her replacement Jeffrey Trzeciak, who served from July 1,2012 until July 21,2016, the libraries are currently being lead on an interim basis by Marion G.
Crain, a Vice Provost and Professor of Law at Washington University. Kenneth and Nancy Kranzberg Art & Architecture Library - serves the Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts, kopolow Business Library - serves the Olin Business School. Chemistry Library - serves mainly the Chemistry Department and other university science departments, the library provides access to many print and online industry journals, including those published by the American Chemical Society and Wiley. Ronald Rettner Earth and Planetary Sciences Library East Asian Library - serves the information, the East Asian Library consists almost entirely of materials in the Chinese and Korean languages, with over 140,000 volumes. Special holdings include the Robert S. Law Library - the law library of Washington University School of Law, contains over 650,000 volumes and volume equivalents. Special collections include the Tyson Collection of 168 Mozart and 100 Beethoven first, gustavus A. Pfeiffer Physics Library - contains book and serial publications supporting the Physics Department
Exeter, New Hampshire
Exeter is a town in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The towns population was 14,306 at the 2010 census, Exeter was the county seat until 1997, when county offices were moved to neighboring Brentwood. Home to the Phillips Exeter Academy, a private university-preparatory school, the urban portion of the town, where 9,242 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the Exeter census-designated place. Exeter is named after the city in Devon, England. On April 3,1638, the Reverend John Wheelwright and others purchased the land from Wehanownowit, Wheelwright had been exiled by the Massachusetts Bay Colony, a puritan theocracy, for sharing the dissident religious views of his sister-in-law, Anne Hutchinson. The minister took him about 175 individuals to found the town he named after Exeter in Devon. Local government was linked with Massachusetts until New Hampshire became a colony in 1679. One of the four townships in the province, Exeter originally included Newmarket, Brentwood, Epping.
On July 4,1639,35 freemen of Exeter signed the Exeter Combination, the settlers hunted and fished. Others tended cattle and swine, or made shakes and barrel staves, Thomas Wilson established the first grist mill on the eastern side of the island in the lower falls. This mill was established within the first season of settling in Exeter, and his son Humphrey assumed control of the mill in 1643, some early Exeter settlers came from Hingham, including the Gilman and Leavitt families. In 1647, Edward Gilman, Jr. established the first sawmill, although he was lost at sea in 1653 while traveling to England to purchase equipment for his mills, his family became prominent as lumbermen, shipbuilders and statesmen. The Gilman Garrison House, a National Historic Landmark, and the American Independence Museum were both former homes of the Gilman family, the Gilman family donated the land on which Phillips Exeter Academy stands, including the Academys original Yard, the oldest part of campus. The Gilman family began trading as far as the West Indies with ships they owned out of Portsmouth, enforcing a blockade against the French, Nelson offered ship Captain Stephen Gilman of Exeter a glass of wine and paid him for his cargo in Spanish dollars.
The trip demonstrates how far afield the ambitious merchants of Exeter reached in their trading forays, Exeter suffered its last Indian raid in August 1723 and by 1725 the tribes had left the area. In 1774 the rebellious Provincial Congress began to meet in the Exeter Town House after Colonial Governor John Wentworth banned it from the capitol at Portsmouth. In July 1775, the Provincial Congress had the records seized from royal officials in Portsmouth. And so Exeter became New Hampshires capital, an honor it held for 14 years, in 1827, the Exeter Manufacturing Company was established beside the river, using water power to produce cotton textiles
Crow Observatory is a historic observatory housed in Crow Hall on the Danforth Campus of Washington University in St. Louis. The historic telescope is still in use, and the observatory is open to the public, the University purchased the observatorys refractor telescope in 1863. The telescope is named the Yeatman refractor, after philanthropist James Yeatman who donated US$1,500 for its construction, the Yeatman Refractor has an aperture of 6 inches, with lenses made by Henry Fitz & Co. The transit was made in 1882, and the clock was made in 1885, the observatory was originally located on 18th Street in St. Louis City, it was moved with the rest of the University to the Danforth Campus upon the conclusion of the 1904 Worlds Fair. The current observatory dome was built in 1954, when the Yeatman refractor telescope was relocated from where Louderman Hall currently stands, Crow Observatory - Washington University Physics Department
Francis Field (Missouri)
Francis Field is a stadium at Washington University in St. Louis that was used as the main stadium for the 1904 Summer Olympics. It is currently used by the track and field, cross country, football. It is located in St. Louis County, Missouri on the far edge of the universitys Danforth Campus. Built in time for the 1904 Worlds Fair, the stadium once had a 19,000 person seating capacity and it is one of the oldest sports venues west of the Mississippi River that is still in use. Francis Field now utilizes artificial Field Turf, which can be configured for soccer and football. The 1904 Summer Olympics were given to St. Louis, Missouri as a result of the efforts of David Rowland Francis, for whom the stadium, built in 1902, Francis Fields permanent stands represent one of the first applications of reinforced concrete technology. Both Francis Field and its gymnasium are U. S. National Historic Landmarks, during those games, the stadium hosted the archery, cycling, gymnastics, roque, tug of war and wrestling events.
At some dirt courts located outside the stadium, the events took place. Following the 1904 Olympics, Francis Field became the permanent home of the Bears, the Bears now play in the NCAA as a Division III team. In July 1994, Francis Field served as a centerpiece for the U. S. Olympic Festival as 3,000 athletes were housed on the campus for the top amateur sporting events. In the summer of 2004 Francis Field had its natural grass replaced with artificial FieldTurf, Francis Field is an annual host for the American Cancer Societys Relay for Life event. The Francis Gymnasium was the site of three U. S. presidential debates in 1992,2000, and 2004, plus the vice-presidential debate in 2008. In 1994, the Francis Field was again an Olympic focal point, during both the 1984 and 1996 Olympic Torch relays, the Olympic Flame passed by Francis Field on its way to the site of the Olympic Games. Francis Field hosted the 1986 AAU/USA National Junior Olympic Games, the first and second National Senior Olympic Games, and the 1985 NCAA Division III National Mens Soccer Championship.
The stadium was used by the St. Louis Stars soccer team during 1969-1970, and again in 1975-1977, before their 1978 move to Anaheim, California, as they became the California Surf
Tyson Research Center
Tyson Research Center is a 2, 000-acre field station owned and operated by Washington University in St. Louis in the St. Louis, Missouri metropolitan area east of Eureka. The area was used as a storage area during World War II and was purchased in 1968. It is part of the Henry Shaw Ozark Corridor which consists of over 8,000 acres of protected lands and it is a member of the Organization of Biological Field Stations. Tyson Research Center was originally part of the Tyson Valley Powder Plant in World War II and it is currently bordered to the east by Lone Elk County Park, to the west by West Tyson County Park, and to the south by Interstate 44. Primary activities at the Tyson involve ecological research conducted by undergraduate and graduate students, scientific outreach and continuing education programs and university-level courses of instruction are occasionally held at Tyson. Tyson has a station and monitors acid rain as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program
Yale College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Yale University. Founded in 1701, it is the school of the university. Originally established to train Congregationalist ministers, the college began teaching humanities, at the same time, students began organizing extracurricular organizations, first literary societies, and publications, sports teams, and singing groups. By the mid-19th century, it was the largest college in the United States, in 1847, it was joined by another undergraduate degree-granting school at Yale, the Sheffield Scientific School, which was absorbed into the college in the mid-20th century. The most distinctive feature of life is the schools system of residential colleges, established in 1932. All undergraduates live in these colleges after their year, when most live on the schools Old Campus. The Collegiate School was founded in 1701 by a charter drawn by ten congregationalist ministers led by James Pierpont, originally situated in Abraham Piersons home in Killingworth, the college moved to New Haven in 1718 and was renamed for Elihu Yale, an early benefactor.
Founded as a school to train ministers, original curriculum included only coursework in theology, in the century, William Graham Sumner, the first professor of sociology in the United States, introduced studies in the social sciences. The relaxation of curriculum came in tandem with expansion in the extracurriculum and leadership in these groups was an important social signifier and a route to induction into prestigious senior societies. Thus extracurricular participation became central to student life and social advancement, by 1870, Yale was the largest undergraduate institution in the country. Two additional colleges were built by 1940, and two more in the 1960s, for most of its history, study at Yale was almost exclusively restricted to white Protestant men, often the children of alumni. Documented exceptions to this paradigm include Hawaiian native Henry ʻŌpūkahaʻia, who became a student of Yale President Timothy Dwight in 1809, who was allowed to audit theology courses in 1837. Moses Simons, a descendent of a slave-holding South Carolinian family, has suggested to be the first Jew to graduate from Yale.
Though his maternal ancestry is disputed, he may have been the first person of African American descent to graduate from any American college. In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, by the 1970s it was much more diversified. Enrollment at Yale only became competitive in the early 20th century, as late as the 1950s, tests and demographic questionnaires for admission to the college worked to exclude non-Christian men, especially Jews, as well as non-white men. By the mid-1960s these processes were becoming more meritocratic, focusing on recruitment of a racially and geographically diverse student body and this meritocratic transition encouraged the university to establish the first need-blind admissions policy in the United States. After several decades of debate about coeducation, Yale College admitted its first class of women in 1969, in recent years, the college has focused on international recruitment, quadrupling the fraction of international students admitted between 1993 and 2013