Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. Dublin is in the province of Leinster on Irelands east coast, the city has an urban area population of 1,345,402. The population of the Greater Dublin Area, as of 2016, was 1,904,806 people, founded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin became Irelands principal city following the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800, following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State, later renamed Ireland. Dublin is administered by a City Council, the city is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of Alpha-, which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world. It is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts, administration, economy, the name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, dubh /d̪uβ/, alt. /d̪uw/, alt /d̪u, / meaning black, dark, and lind /lʲiɲ pool and this tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, and Irish rhymes from Dublin County show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn /d̪ˠi, other localities in Ireland also bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin, Divlin and Difflin. Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b and those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Irish-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning town of the ford, is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, there are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Scotland, which is Anglicised as Hurlford. Although the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times and he called the settlement Eblana polis. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay, the Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor ships, the Poddle connected the lake with the Liffey. This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew, the Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin Castle
Shamrock Rovers F.C.
Shamrock Rovers Football Club is an Irish association football club based in Tallaght, South Dublin. The clubs senior team competes in the League of Ireland Premier Division, the club has won the League of Ireland title a record 17 times and the FAI Cup a record 24 times. Shamrock Rovers have supplied more players to the Republic of Ireland national football team than any other club, in All-Ireland competitions, such as the Intercity Cup, they hold the record for winning the most titles, having won seven cups overall. Shamrock Rovers were founded in Ringsend, Dublin, the official date of the clubs foundation is 1899. They won the League title at the first attempt in the 1922–23 season and established themselves as Republic of Ireland most successful club by 1949, winning 44 major trophies. During the 1950s, the club won three League titles and two FAI Cups and became the first Irish team to compete in European competition, playing in the European Cup in 1957. They won the first of four League titles in a row in 1983–84, the club played at Glenmalure Park from 1926 to 1987, when the owners controversially sold the stadium to property developers. Shamrock Rovers spent the next 22 years playing home games at various venues around Dublin and on occasions and they moved into Tallaght Stadium prior to the start of the 2009 season after years of delays and legal disputes, during which time the clubs supporters saved them from extinction. Shamrock Rovers wore green and white striped jerseys until 1926, when adopted the green. Their club badge has featured a football and a shamrock throughout their history, the club has a relatively large support base and shares an intense rivalry with Bohemian Football Club. On 26 August 2011 Rovers became the first Irish side to reach the stages of either of the top two European competitions by beating Partizan Belgrade in the play-off round of the Europa League. The foundation of Shamrock Rovers is disputed amongst supporters of the club, no official documentation of the era exists. Essentially, the dispute is whether the two years of exhibition games were played before or after the registration. In light of the discovery of evidence supporting a date before April 1899 the club opened a 1899 Suite in Tallaght Stadium in February 2017. Shamrock Rovers originate from Ringsend, a Southside inner suburb of Dublin, the name of the club derives from Shamrock Avenue in Ringsend, where the first club rooms were secured. In September 1906, after a few seasons in operation, Rovers withdrew from the First Division of the Leinster Senior League, in 1914, they were resurrected and started playing their matches at Ringsend Park. However, the park became unavailable within two years, the club disbanded and played only exhibition games for the next five years. The following season, the won the League of Ireland title at the first attempt, going 21 games unbeaten
Glenmalure Park, often simply known as Milltown, was a football stadium on the Southside of Dublin city in Ireland. Located in the suburb of Milltown, it was home to Shamrock Rovers from 1926 to 1987 and it is now a housing estate called Glenmalure Square. Shamrock Rovers moved from the city area of Ringsend in the early 20th century to the then semi-rural suburb of Milltown. In Milltown, Rovers secured a long lease of land from the Jesuit Order. The clubs ground there was built by their supporters, who constructed the main stand. It was officially opened on Sunday the 19th of September 1926, bob Fullam had the honour of scoring Rovers first ever goal at the ground. When the Cunningham family took over the club in the 1930s, the Cunninghams completed the ground by terracing the remainder of the ground and erecting a roof over the terrace opposite the main stand. The capacity of the stadium was about 20,000 for most of its existence, however, bigger crowds than this were sometimes seen at the venue before this, but went unreported by the clubs owners. However, with safety precautions its capacity would probably have been considerably less. The grounds last full house came in 1986, when 18,000 attended a European Cup match against Glasgow Celtic, temporary stands had to be erected for this game. In 1978 Glenmalure Park hosted its first European game when Apoel Nicosia were defeated 2-0, in all seven European games were played there as well as 1988 Summer Olympics qualifiers. In 1987, the Kilcoyne family, who owned Shamrock Rovers since 1972 and had recently bought Glenmalure Park from the Jesuits and they stated that their aim was to move Rovers to Tolka Park to share with Home Farm F. C. The last match at Milltown was an FAI Cup semi-final between Shamrock Rovers and Sligo Rovers on Sunday the 12th of April 1987, attended by some 6,000 people and this game saw a pitch invasion and protest by fans objecting to the sale of the ground. Some Shamrock Rovers supporters occupied the pitch at half-time were joined by Sligo fans in solidarity and they had to be persuaded to leave the pitch before the game could restart. The following season Shamrock Rovers fans formed an organisation called Keep Rovers at Milltown and placed a picket on home games at Tolka Park, KRAM collected money to purchase Glenmalure Park but could not match the offer of a property developer to whom the Kilcoynes eventually sold the site. After a lengthy process, Glenmalure Park was demolished in the summer of 1990. It is now marked by a permanent memorial erected by Shamrock Rovers supporters on Thursday the 21st of May 1998, on Thursday the 12th of April 2007 a ceremony was held at the monument to commemorate 20 years since the last competitive game was played at the famous old ground. The sale of Glenmalure Park featured in the RTE programme Twenty Moments That Shook Irish Sport which was broadcast in August 2007, the feature came in for some criticism on the basis of its factual correctness and bias in favour of the Kilcoynes
Belfast Celtic F.C.
Belfast Celtic Football Club was a football club in Northern Ireland that was founded in 1891, and was one of the most successful teams in Ireland until it withdrew from the Irish League in 1949. The club, formed in 1891 simply as Celtic, was named after Celtic Football Club of Glasgow, upon incorporation as a limited company in 1901, however, the club adopted the name Belfast Celtic, the title Celtic Football Club Ltd already being registered by the Glasgow club. Their home from the year was Celtic Park on Donegall Road in west Belfast. Celtic won their first league title in 1900 after beating fierce rivals Linfield by a single goal, Celtics support base was strongly Irish nationalist. Despite this, the club went from strength to strength and the years proved to be Celtics strongest. The club also produced some of the greatest players of their generation, charlie Tully of Celtic, learned how to kick a ball with Belfast Celtic. The end came on Boxing Day 1948 at the annual Linfield-Celtic game at Windsor Park, Celtic were winning for most of the match but Linfield equalised in the last minute. Linfield fans invaded the pitch and attacked several Celtic players including centre-forward Jimmy Jones who suffered a broken leg, soon after the club decided to withdraw from the league. After the 1948-49 season Belfast Celtic went on a tour of America from which they returned amidst internal wrangling over flags, at a meeting of the board it was decided that Celtic would temporarily leave the league until such matters had been resolved. They were not resolved and the internal wrangling at boardroom level continued until Celtic Park was sold to developers, a final match was played away to Coleraine on June 24,1960. The ground continued to function as a greyhound stadium until the 1980s when it was bulldozed and replaced by the Park Centre, today, a small plaque reminds shoppers a football team played here. A small museum has since opened in the Park Centre. Belfast Celtic were one of four clubs that made the biggest crowds in the Irish League, the other three being Linfield, Distillery, and Glentoran. C
Republic of Ireland national football team
The Republic of Ireland national football team represents Ireland in association football. It is governed by the Football Association of Ireland and plays its home fixtures at the Aviva Stadium in Dublin, the team made their debut at the 1924 Summer Olympics, reaching the quarter-finals. Between 1924 and 1936, the team competed as the Irish Free State and from then until 1950, Northern Ireland was allowed to use the title Ireland by FIFA in the Home International Competition until it was discontinued in 1984. The Republic of Ireland was the first nation from outside the United Kingdom to defeat England at home at a fixture played at Goodison Park, Liverpool, the team also reached the quarter-final stage of the 1964 European Nations Cup, where they lost to the eventual winners Spain. Charltons successor Mick McCarthy lost out on the two major tournaments but ultimately qualified for the 2002 World Cup, making it to the last 16. Under Giovanni Trapattoni, the narrowly lost out on qualification for the 2010 World Cup during a controversial play-off. The team failed to qualify for the 2014 World Cup in Brazil, the Republic of Ireland also fell to a record low FIFA ranking of 59th, then a record low of 70th in June 2014. The Boys in Green reached the Round of 16 stage at that tournament and were knocked out by the hosts, between 1882 and 1924, Ireland was represented by a single national football team organised by the Belfast-based Irish Football Association. In 1923, the FAIFS was recognised by FIFA as the body of the Irish Free State and at the 1924 Summer Olympics. On 28 May, at the Stade Olympique, they beat Bulgaria 1–0, as a result, they qualified for the quarter-finals. On 14 June 1924, the Irish Free State made their debut against the United States. Ed Brookes scored a hat-trick in a 3–1 home win at Dalymount Park, the Irish Free State did not play their next game until 21 March 1926, an away game against Italy lost 3–0. In subsequent years, the status of the Olympic Games football competition was downgraded and as a result, on 25 February 1934, the Irish Free State made their FIFA World Cup debut, drawing 4–4 with Belgium at Dalymount Park in a 1934 FIFA World Cup qualifier. Paddy Moore scored all four of the Free States goals and became the first player ever to four goals in a World Cup game. After 1936, they reverted to the designation Football Association of Ireland, during this entire period, there were two Irish international football teams, chosen by two rival Associations. FIFA eventually intervened when both teams entered 1950 World Cup qualification, the first time they had entered the same competition, four players – Tom Aherne, Reg Ryan, Davy Walsh, Con Martin – actually played for the two different teams in the same FIFA World Cup tournament. All four players concerned had been born in the Irish Free State and this may have alarmed the FAI, since they subsequently lobbied FIFA to prevent the IFA from picking Southern-born players. e. Initially the FIFA World Cup and subsequently the European Nations Cup, FIFA decreed that the FAI team officially be called the Republic of Ireland while the IFA team was to be named Northern Ireland
Parc Astrid or Astridpark is an urban public park in Anderlecht, Brussels, Belgium, inaugurated on August 13,1911. It was named Parc du Meir/Meirpark until 1935, when the mayor of Anderlecht decided to change the name in memory of Astrid of Sweden, Anderlecht plays its home matches in the Constant Vanden Stock Stadium, located within the park. Besides, that stadium is referred to as Parc Astrid. Anderlecht page on Parc Astrid Same, in Dutch
League of Ireland XI
In fact it has played considerably more games than the actual Republic of Ireland B national football team. The League of Ireland XI also represented Ireland in the stages of the 1988 Olympic Football Tournament. More recently a League of Ireland U-23 XI has represented the Republic of Ireland in the International Challenge Trophy, meanwhile, a senior team with no age or nationality restriction regularly plays visiting club sides. Consequently, the FAI could not arrange full internationals against its nearest neighbours, the IFAB, however, did permit inter-league games to be played. Attendances of up to 30,000 at these matches at Dalymount Park led them to have been treated almost as full internationals, the League of Ireland XI made their official debut with a 3–3 draw against a Welsh Football League XI on 19 February 1924. Ernie MacKay scored the teams first ever goal while Dave Roberts added the other two. The League of Ireland XI played the Irish League XI for the first time on 13 March 1926, charlie Dowdall scored twice in a 3–1 win for the home team. On St. Patricks Day,1937, a League of Ireland XI also played and defeated a visiting Yugoslav League XI 3–2, the League of Ireland XI played the Scottish League XI for the first time on St. Patricks Day,1939. The Scottish team was billed as a team of all-stars and had a combined valuation estimated to be £60,000, when Ireland competed at both the 1924 and 1948 Olympic Football Tournaments, they were represented by League of Ireland XIs made up of amateur players. On at least three occasions before the Second World War, the FAI selected a full international team entirely made up of players playing in Ireland. On 21 March 1926, for the game against Italy, the Ireland team even featured Drumcondra’s Joe Grace from the Leinster Senior League and it was a League of Ireland XI that played Belgium on 12 February 1928 and then the Netherlands on 8 December 1935. Before the Second World War, League of Ireland players made up the nucleus of just about every FAI Ireland full international team, for most of the Second World War era, the League of Ireland XIs only opponents were the Irish League XI. However once the conflict ended, the fixture against the Scottish League XI was revived and they also began to play the Football League XI on a regular basis. With the majority of the leading Irish players now playing in the Football League, however, as a result, the majority of the games they played against the Scottish League XI and the Football League XI usually ended in heavy defeat. However, there was the success story. On 2 October 1963 at Dalymount Park, the League of Ireland XI defeated the Football League XI 2–1, thanks to goals from Eddie Bailham and Ronnie Whelan. This Football League XI included four players – Ray Wilson, Bobby Moore, Roger Hunt, at the time Whelan was working for Unidaire, a Finglas-based electrical firm. Whelan subsequently received a warning from his boss at Unidaire for taking time off to play in this game, from the late 1970s onwards, the League of Ireland XI also began to play friendlies against national teams
League of Ireland
The League of Ireland, together with the Football Association of Ireland, is one of the two main governing bodies responsible for organising association football in the Republic of Ireland. The term was used to refer to a single division league. However today the League of Ireland features four divisions – the Premier Division, the First Division, an U19 Division, the League of Ireland has always worked closely with the FAI and in 2006 the two bodies formally merged. All the divisions are currently sponsored by Airtricity and as a result the league is known as the SSE Airtricity League. In 2007, it one of the first leagues in Europe to introduce a salary cap. The leagues most successful club is Shamrock Rovers who have won 17 titles, together with Dundalk, Bohemians and Shelbourne they are one of four clubs in the league to feature a golden star above their badge in recognition of winning ten titles. Bohemians are the club in the league to have played every season in the top division. The League of Ireland was founded in 1921 as a division known as the A Division. The first season featured eight teams, all from County Dublin, the teams that competed in the first season were Bohemians, Dublin United, Frankfort, Jacobs, Olympia, St. Jamess Gate, Shelbourne and YMCA. The eight founding members had spent the 1920–21 season playing in the Leinster Senior League, Bohemians and Shelbourne had played in the 1919–20 Irish League. St Jamess Gate were the inaugural champions, Gate also went on to complete a treble having already won both the 1921–22 FAI Cup and 1921–22 Leinster Senior Cup. In 1922–23 the league was expanded to twelve clubs, among the new members were Shamrock Rovers, who finished as champions, and Athlone Town who became the first team from outside of County Dublin to compete in the league. Together with fellow Dublin clubs teams, Bohemians and Shelbourne, Shamrock Rovers would go onto dominate the league during the 1920s, in 1924–25 Bray Unknowns and Fordsons became the second and third teams from outside of County Dublin to join the league. Fordsons also became the first team from Munster to play in the league, the league continued to expand numerically and geographically during its first two decades of existence. In 1926–27 Dundalk were elected to the league and in 1932–33 became the first club from outside of County Dublin to win the title, Dundalk were subsequently joined by Waterford in 1930–31, Cork Bohemians in 1932–33, Sligo Rovers in 1934–35 and Limerick F. C. in 1937–38. In 1936–37, Sligo Rovers became the club from outside of County Dublin to win the title. During The Emergency/Second World War era Cork United emerged as the leagues strongest team, the club won five league titles between 1940–41 and 1945–46, including three in succession. However they subsequently resigned from the league in 1948, the 1950s was marked by the emergence of St Patricks Athletic and the re-emergence of Shamrock Rovers
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker