Sussex County, Delaware
Sussex County is a county located in the southern part of the U. S. state of Delaware, on the Delmarva Peninsula. As of the 2010 census, the population was 197,145; the county seat is Georgetown. The first European settlement in the state of Delaware was founded by the Dutch in 1631 near the present-day town of Lewes on the Atlantic Coast. However, Sussex County was not organized until 1683 under English colonial rule. Sussex County is included in the Salisbury, MD-DE Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses much of central Delmarva. Archaeologists estimate that the first inhabitants of Sussex County, the southernmost county in Delaware, arrived between 10,000 and 14,000 years ago. Various indigenous cultures occupied the area along the river and the coast having seasonal fishing villages. Historic Native Americans in Sussex County were members of Algonquian-speaking tribes, as were most coastal peoples along the Atlantic Coast. By the historic period of European encounter, the most prominent tribes in the area were the Lenape, whose territory extended through the mid-Atlantic states to Connecticut and the future New York metropolitan area, Nanticoke tribes.
The people settled along the numerous bodies of water in the area where they were able to harvest fish and other shellfish in the fall and winter. In the warmer months the women planted and cultivated crops, processed the food; the men hunted other small mammals, as larger game was not present in the area. There is no agreement. Historians believe that, in the early years of exploration from 1593 to 1630, Spanish or Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to see the Delaware River and the lands of present-day Sussex County. On an expedition for the Dutch West India Company, Henry Hudson recorded discovery in 1609 of what was named the Delaware River. Attempting to following him, Samuel Argall, an English explorer, was blown off course in 1610 and landed in a strange bay which he named after the Governor of Virginia, Thomas West, Lord De La Warr. In the first half of 1613, Cornelius Jacobsen Mey, a Dutch navigator and named both Cape May and Cape Henlopen in the Delaware Bay, it was found that what May had named Henlopen was Fenwick Island, protruding into the Atlantic Ocean.
The name of the cape was moved to its present location just east of Lewes. Sussex County was the site of the first European settlement in Delaware, a Dutch trading post named Zwaanendael at the present site of Lewes. On June 3, 1631, Dutch captain David Pietersen de Vries landed along the shores of the Delaware to establish a whaling colony in the mid-Atlantic of the New World; the colony lasted only until 1632. Upon returning to Zwaanendael that December, he found the Indian tribes had killed his men and burned the colony; the Dutch set about settling the area once again. Although the Dutch and Swedes returned to resettle the Delaware River region as early as 1638, much of the Delaware Bay area south of what is today the city of Newcastle was not settled until 1662. At that time, the city of Amsterdam made a grant of land at the Hoernkills to a party of Mennonites. A total of 35 men were to be included in the settlement, led by a Pieter Cornelisz Plockhoy of Zierikzee, funded by a sizable loan from the city to get them established.
This settlement, established in 1663, was organized in part by the Dutch to respond to threats from the English colony of Maryland to the west beginning to assert rights over the area. The English wrested control of New Netherland from the Dutch in 1664 and they destroyed the Mennonite settlement that same year. Settlement in the area after the English ejected the Dutch was slow; the Swedes and Finns who had settled in the area from the days of New Sweden had welcomed the English and were allowed to stay. Lord Baltimore encouraged Marylanders to move east to settle the area, but the land was far removed from other, more established settlements and did not appeal to many new settlers. It was a tempting wilderness base for pirates to hide out from authorities and pillage settlers for supplies; the Dutch recaptured the territory in 1673 as part of the Third Anglo-Dutch War. At that point, they established courts in the town of New Castle and at the Hoerkill at the southern end of the territory creating two counties out of the territory.
After the war concluded in 1674, the Delaware territory was returned to the English. It was placed under the control of James Stuart, Duke of York. In 1680, the Duke reorganized the territory south of the Mispillion River as Deale County with the county seat at New Deale. In 1682, English King Charles II awarded the Delaware territories to William Penn in settlement of family debts, Penn reorganized all three Delaware counties: Deale County become Sussex County, St. Jones County became Kent County, in recognition of Penn's homelands in Sussex County, England, he brought 200 people from England as colonists. The town of New Deale was renamed Lewistown. At this time, Penn claimed. The'Three Lower Counties' along Delaware Bay were considered under Penn's sphere of settlement and became the Delaware Colony, a satellite of Pennsylvania, but the boundary disputes continued between Pennsylvania and Marylan
Milford is a city in Kent and Sussex counties in the U. S. state of Delaware. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 9,559; the Kent County portion of Milford is part of the Dover, DE Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area, while the Sussex County portion is part of the Salisbury, MD-DE Metropolitan Statistical Area. Milford is located at 38°54′45″N 75°25′41″W, along the Mispillion River, which runs through the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.87 square miles. The Kent County side of Milford was first settled in 1680 by Henry Bowan on what was known as the Saw Mill Range. A century the Reverend Sydenham Thorne built a dam across the Mispillion River to generate power for his gristmill and sawmill. Around the same time, Joseph Oliver laid out the first city streets and plots nearby on a part of his plantation. Soon a number of homes and businesses appeared along Front Street.
The city was incorporated February 5, 1807. In the 1770s, a ship building industry was flourishing on the Mispillion River. Shipbuilding continued to be the major industry of Milford through World War I, bringing considerable prosperity to the town; the high point came in 1917 when the four-masted, 174-foot long Albert F. Paul was launched from the William G. Abbott shipyard. At one point six shipyards were operating in the downtown area; when the last of the area’s giant white oaks was cut in the 1920s, the shipyards went out of business, although the Mispillion ships sailed on for many years. The Vineyard shipyard was called into service in II to build submarine chasers. During much of the twentieth century Milford served as the commercial center for much of southern Delaware's large agricultural community. Seven of Delaware's governors have come from Milford: Daniel Rogers, Joseph Haslet, William Tharp, Peter F. Causey, William Burton, William T. Watson, Ruth Ann Minner. Abbott's Mill, Bank House, Carlisle House, Christ Church, Dr. Dawson House, Draper House, Egglinton Hall, Golden Mine, Grier House, Peter Lofland House, James McColley House, Milford New Century Club, Milford Railroad Station, Milford Shipyard Area Historic District, Mill House, Mispillion Lighthouse and Beacon Tower, North Milford Historic District, Old Fire House, Parson Thorne Mansion, South Milford Historic District Walnut Farm, Gov. William T. Watson Mansion, J. H. Wilkerson & Son Brickworks are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
On Friday, May 30, 2003 at 3:00 p.m. a fire started in a second floor apartment next to Wiley Hardware & Appliance on Walnut Street in the historic downtown section of Milford. More than 200 firefighters from Milford, Harrington, Dover, Houston, Slaughter Beach, Bowers Beach, South Bowers, Magnolia, Lewes and Bridgeville in Delaware and Greensboro and Goldsboro in Maryland fought the blaze which destroyed seven businesses, a church, three apartments, destroying an entire city block in the historic section of town. No one was killed in the blaze; as of the census of 2010, there were 9,559 people, 4,126 housing units and 2,356 family households in the City. The population density was 968 people per square mile. There were 4,126 housing units at an average density of 418 per square mile; the racial makeup of the city was 65% White, 22.3% African American, 12% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.8% of the population. The median age within Milford is 37.9 years old. 7.8% of the population is under the age of 5, 18.9% between 5 and 19 years of age, 49.7% between 20 and 59 years of age, 23.6% 60 years of age and older.
The median household income according to the 2010 census is $52,274, the median family income is $59,365. 13.1% of families are below poverty level, higher than the national average of 11.5%, higher than the Kent County and Sussex County average of 9.7% and 9.1% respectively. Milford School District operates public schools. Milford is served by several state roads connecting it to other points in Delaware. Delaware Route 1 bypasses Milford to the east along the Milford Bypass and heads north to Dover and southeast to the Delaware Beaches. A business route of DE 1, Delaware Route 1 Business, passes through the city along Rehoboth Boulevard and North Walnut Street. U. S. Route 113 begins at DE 1 at the north end of the Milford and heads south through the city on Dupont Boulevard, continuing south to Georgetown. Delaware Route 14 runs east-west through the city on Northwest Front Street and Northeast Front Street, heading west to Harrington and east to its terminus at the DE 1 bypass. Delaware Route 36 runs east-west through the city on Lakeview Avenue, Causey Avenue, Southeast Front Street, heading southwest to Greenwood and east to Slaughter Beach.
Delaware Route 15 heads northwest to Canterbury. Delaware Route 30 begins at DE 1 and DE 1 Business southeast of Milford and heads south toward Milton and Millsboro. DART First State provides bus service to Milford along Route 210, which runs through the city between the Bayhealth Hospital, Sussex Campus and the Walmart in the northern part of Milford; the Indian River Subdivision line of the Delmarva Central Railroad passes through Milford. The City of Milford Elect
Smyrna is a town in Kent and New Castle counties in the U. S. state of Delaware. It is part of Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the Census Bureau, as of 2010, the population of the town is 10,023; the international jurist John Bassett Moore was born in Smyrna, as were politicians Louis McLane and James Williams. Smyrna was called Duck Creek Cross Roads and received its current name in 1806 after the Ancient Greek seaport of Smyrna in present-day Turkey; the town was located along the north-south King's Highway. Smyrna was a shipping center along the Duck Creek and was the most important port between Wilmington and Lewes, shipping grain, lumber and produce to points north. After the shipping industry collapsed in the 1850s, the town would continue to be an agricultural center; the Bannister Hall and Baynard House, Belmont Hall, David J. Cummins House, Timothy Cummins House, Duck Creek Village, George Farmhouse, Ivy Dale Farm, Mount Pleasant, Moore House and Mustard's Hermitage Farm, Savin-Wilson House, Short's Landing Hotel Complex, Smyrna Historic District, John M. Voshell House, Woodlawn are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Smyrna is located at 39°17′59″N 75°36′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.8 square miles, of which, 3.7 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,679 people, 2,114 households, 1,462 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,541.9 people per square mile. There were 2,242 housing units at an average density of 608.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 72.88% White, 22.42% African American, 0.51% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.44% from other races, 2.11% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.42% of the population. There were 2,114 households out of which 36.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 18.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.8% were non-families. 24.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.02. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $36,212, the median income for a family was $42,355. Males had a median income of $32,500 versus $22,135 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,443. About 7.9% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.0% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over. U. S. Route 13 is the main north-south road through Smyrna, passing through the town on Dupont Boulevard; the Delaware Route 1 toll road passes to the east of Smyrna, with access to the town at Exit 114 and Exit 119, both connecting to US 13. The Smyrna Rest Area is located north of Smyrna at the junction of US 13 and DE 1 at Exit 119.
US 13 and DE 1 both run north to Wilmington. Delaware Route 6 runs east-west through Smyrna, heading west to Clayton and Blackiston and east to Woodland Beach. Delaware Route 300 begins at US 13 and heads west along with DE 6 through Smyrna before splitting to the southwest and heading toward Kenton. DART First State provides bus service to Smyrna along Route 120, which provides local service south to Dover and connects to the local bus routes serving the Dover area. Smyrna Airport, a general aviation airport, is located to the east of Smyrna; the Town of Smyrna Electric Department provides electricity to Smyrna, serving about 6,200 customers. The town's electric department is a member of the Delaware Municipal Electric Corporation, a wholesale electric utility that purchases energy for its members. Trash collection in the town is provided under contract by Waste Industries; the Public Works department provides sewer service to about 4,000 customers in Smyrna. Natural gas service in Smyrna is provided by Chesapeake Utilities.
Bayhealth Medical Center operates the Bayhealth Emergency Smyrna in Smyrna. The emergency center offers a 24-hour emergency department. Jacob M. Appel, wrote The Topless Widow of Herkimer Street while living in Smyrna Billy Bailey, convicted murderer, last to be hanged in US Edward G. Budd, founder of Budd Company John Bassett Moore, international lawyer Robert J. Reynolds, 47th Governor of Delaware Michael Scuse, acting U. S. Secretary of Agriculture Presley Spruance, U. S. Senator of Delaware 1847-53 Chuck Wicks, country music singer and Dancing with the Stars contestant Town of Smyrna
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party, was the first American political party. It existed from the early 1790s to the 1820s, with their last presidential candidate being fielded in 1816, they appealed to business and to conservatives who favored banks, national over state government and preferred Britain and opposed the French Revolution. The Federalists called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain as well as opposition to Revolutionary France; the party controlled the federal government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican opposition led by Thomas Jefferson. The Federalist Party came into being between 1792 and 1794 as a national coalition of bankers and businessmen in support of Alexander Hamilton's fiscal policies; these supporters developed into the organized Federalist Party, committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government.
The only Federalist President was John Adams. George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program, but he remained non-partisan during his entire presidency. Federalist policies called for a national bank and good relations with Great Britain as expressed in the Jay Treaty negotiated in 1794. Hamilton developed the concept of implied powers and argued the adoption of that interpretation of the United States Constitution, their political opponents, the Democratic-Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson, denounced most of the Federalist policies the bank and implied powers. The Jay Treaty passed and the Federalists won most of the major legislative battles in the 1790s, they held a strong base in New England. After the Democratic-Republicans, whose base was in the rural South, won the hard-fought presidential election of 1800, the Federalists never returned to power, they recovered some strength through their intense opposition to the War of 1812, but they vanished during the Era of Good Feelings that followed the end of the war in 1815.
The Federalists left a lasting legacy in the form of a strong Federal government with a sound financial base. After losing executive power, they decisively shaped Supreme Court policy for another three decades through the person of Chief Justice John Marshall. On taking office in 1789, President Washington nominated New York lawyer Alexander Hamilton to the office of Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton wanted a strong national government with financial credibility. Hamilton proposed the ambitious Hamiltonian economic program that involved assumption of the state debts incurred during the American Revolution, creating a national debt and the means to pay it off and setting up a national bank, along with creating tariffs. James Madison was Hamilton's ally in the fight to ratify the new Constitution, but Madison and Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton's programs by 1791. Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788 though both Hamilton and Madison played major roles.
Parties were considered to be harmful to republicanism. No similar parties existed anywhere in the world. By 1790, Hamilton started building a nationwide coalition. Realizing the need for vocal political support in the states, he formed connections with like-minded nationalists and used his network of treasury agents to link together friends of the government merchants and bankers, in the new nation's dozen major cities, his attempts to manage politics in the national capital to get his plans through Congress "brought strong" responses across the country. In the process, what began as a capital faction soon assumed status as a national faction and as the new Federalist Party; the Federalist Party supported Hamilton's vision of a strong centralized government and agreed with his proposals for a national bank and heavy government subsidies. In foreign affairs, they supported neutrality in the war between Great Britain; the majority of the Founding Fathers were Federalists. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and many others can all be considered Federalists.
These Federalists felt that the Articles of Confederation had been too weak to sustain a working government and had decided that a new form of government was needed. Hamilton was made Secretary of the Treasury and when he came up with the idea of funding the debt he created a split in the original Federalist group. Madison disagreed with Hamilton not just on this issue, but on many others as well and he and John J. Beckley created the Anti-Federalist faction; these men would form the Republican party under Thomas Jefferson. By the early 1790s, newspapers started calling Hamilton supporters "Federalists" and their opponents "Democrats", "Republicans", "Jeffersonians", or—much later—"Democratic-Republicans". Jefferson's supporters called themselves "Republicans" and their party the "Republican Party"; the Federalist Party became popular with businessmen and New Englanders as Republicans were farmers who opposed a strong central government. Cities were Federalist strongholds whereas frontier regions were Republican.
However, these are generalizations as there are special cases such as the Presbyterians of upland North Carolina, who had immigrated just before the Revolution and been Tories, became Federalists. The Congregationalists of New England and the Episcopalians in the larger cities supported the Federalists while other minority denominations tended toward the Republican camp. Catholics
Dover is the capital and second-largest city in the U. S. state of Delaware. It is the county seat of Kent County, the principal city of the Dover, DE Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Kent County and is part of the Philadelphia-Wilmington-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area, it is located on the St. Jones River in the Delaware River coastal plain, it was named by William Penn of Dover in England. As of 2010, the city had a population of 36,047. First recorded in its Latinised form of Portus Dubris, the name derives from the Brythonic word for waters; the same element is present in the towns Modern Welsh forms. The city is named after Kent in England. Dover was founded as the court town for newly established Kent County in 1683 by William Penn, the proprietor of the territory known as the "Lower Counties on the Delaware." In 1717, the city was laid out by a special commission of the Delaware General Assembly. The capital of the state of Delaware was moved here from New Castle in 1777 because of its central location and relative safety from British raiders on the Delaware River.
Because of an act passed in October 1779, the assembly elected to meet at any place in the state they saw fit, meeting successively in Wilmington, Dover, New Castle, Lewes again, until it settled down permanently in Dover in October 1781. The city's central square, known as The Green, was the location of many rallies, troop reviews, other patriotic events. To this day, The Green remains the heart of Dover's historic district and is the location of the Delaware Supreme Court and the Kent County Courthouse. Dover was most famously the home of Caesar Rodney, the popular wartime leader of Delaware during the American Revolution, he is known to have been buried outside Dover. A cenotaph in his honor is erected in the cemetery of the Christ Episcopal Church near The Green in Dover. Dover and Kent County were divided over the issue of slavery, the city was a "stop" on the Underground Railroad because of its proximity to slave-holding Maryland and free Pennsylvania and New Jersey, it was home to a large Quaker community that encouraged a sustained emancipation effort in the early 19th century.
There were few slaves in the area, but the institution was supported, if not practiced, by a small majority, who saw to its continuation. The Bradford-Loockerman House, Building 1301, Dover Air Force Base, John Bullen House, Carey Farm Site, Christ Church, Delaware State Museum Buildings, John Dickinson House, Dover Green Historic District, Eden Hill, Delaware Governor's Mansion, Hughes-Willis Site, Loockerman Hall, Macomb Farm, Mifflin-Marim Agricultural Complex, Old Statehouse, Palmer Home, Town Point, Tyn Head Court, Victorian Dover Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Dover is located at 39°09′29″N 75°31′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.7 square miles, of which 22.4 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles, or 1.32%, is water. Dover has humid subtropical climate. Summers are hot and humid, with 23 days per year reaching or surpassing 90 °F. Brief, but heavy summer thunderstorms are common. Winters are moderated by the Delaware Bay and the partial shielding of the Appalachians, though there are 8−9 days when the daily high remains below freezing and 15 nights with lows below 20 °F. Snow is light and sporadic, averaging only 15.7 inches per season, does not remain on the ground for long.
Spring and autumn provide transitions of reasonable length and are similar, though spring is more wet. The monthly mean temperature ranges from 35.2 °F in January to 77.7 °F in July. The annual total precipitation of around 46 inches is spread rather evenly year-round. Dover averages 2300 hours of sunshine annually. In 2010, Dover had a population of 36,047 people; the racial makeup of the city was 48.3% White, 42.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.1% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races. 6.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 32,135 people, 12,340 households, 7,502 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,435.0 people per square mile. There were 13,195 housing units at an average density of 589.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 54.94% White, 37.22% African American, 0.45% Native American, 3.16% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.57% from other races, 2.62% from two or more races.
4.13% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,340 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.4% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.2% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city of Dover the age distribution of the population shows 23.5% under the age of 18, 15.7% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,669, the median income for a family was $48,338. Males had a median income of $34,824 versus $26,061 for females; the per
Caleb P. Bennett
Caleb Prew Bennett was an American soldier and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware. He was a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, a member of the Democratic Party who served as Governor of Delaware. Bennett was born in Chester County, son of Joseph & Elizabeth Prew Willey Bennett, they moved to Wilmington. His father was a ship captain. Caleb Bennett married Catherine Britton in 1792 and they had thirteen children, Samuel Britton, Caroline, Mary Ann, Henry Lisle, Joseph Eves, Charles Webb, Catherine, Edin R. and Boadicea. They were members of the Wilmington Friends Meeting. Bennett served as a lieutenant in the 1st Delaware Regiment, a unit of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, he enlisted as a 17-year-old in 1775, served throughout the war. Present at Valley Forge and the battles of Staten Island, Germantown, Monmouth and Yorktown, he was wounded three times. After the disastrous Battle of Camden in August 1780, when the 1st Delaware Regiment was decimated, Lt. Bennett was sent back to Delaware to recruit.
A year as General George Washington and the French were gathering everyone possible for the Siege of Yorktown, Bennett rejoined the army, recalled it as follows: “We remained at our post at Christeen, performing the duties required, until the French Army from Rhode Island, other detachments of the army, with the commander-in-chief at their head, arrived at our rendezvous in the month of August, when we received orders from General Washington to prepare to follow on to Virginia. In a few days we took up our line of march for Baltimore. On our arrival at Annapolis we embarked on board the Marquis Lafayette; when the troops were all on board, the fleet of transports, with two frigates, weighed anchor and preceded, with a fair wind, down the Chesapeake Bay till we arrived at Linhaven Bay, where the French fleet were moored. We passed the mouth of the York River, where lay two or three French frigates blockading the entrance. We lay that night at anchor with the fleet. Early next morning the transports proceeded up the James River until we arrived in the neighborhood of Williamsburg, where we landed and joined the troops assembled there.
As soon as the troops had all concentrated, with General Washington at their head, we left Williamsburg and proceeded on our route for Yorktown, where the British troops had fortified themselves, under the command of Lord Cornwallis. The whole army arrived in the evening and took possession of the ground around the town, driving in their outpost, which we affected without much loss or inconvenience on our part. After the surrender Bennett's orderly book noted that on “November 4, 1781 we joined General Gist’s Brigade, began our march to join General Greene’s army in South Carolina.” Bennett served for two more years in South Carolina returning home January 17, 1783. During the War of 1812 he was Captain of the Commander of the town of New Castle. According to Scharf, Bennett “was placed in control of measures to be taken at New Castle and the battery, erected close to the town, he was made colonel of the militia and soon had a well-disciplined force of infantry and artillery.” But all did not go well for the veteran soldier.
Brigadier General and Whig political rival John Stockton brought Bennett to a courts martial for failing to perform his duty. The charges were not proved, the ever-popular Bennett was acquitted. In the mid 19th century politics in Delaware were divided between the majority Whigs and minority Democrats; the Whigs were the party in opposition to U. S. President Andrew Jackson, his political successors and their policies, they were for good banks and a protective tariff. As the primary heirs to the old Federalist Party in Delaware, their greatest strength was among the old stock, agricultural population in Kent and Sussex County. Conversely, the Democrats were in support of Jacksonian policies, found their strength in New Castle County and among Quakers, Ulster-Scots and the more recent immigrants. Bennett speculated in various businesses, including the ferry service across the Christiana River at Wilmington and the Governor Bedford house on the Strand in New Castle, which he turned into a hotel.
He served as treasurer of New Castle County from 1806 to 1832. Having never sought political office he was drafted by the Democrats, desperate to break the Federalist/Whig stranglehold on the governorship. In spite of his venerable veteran status, he was elected governor in 1832 by only 54 votes, defeating U. S. Senator Arnold Naudain, the Whig candidate. Serving from January 15, 1833 until his death in office on July 11, 1836, Bennett was the oldest person to start a term as governor in Delaware, he was the first governor elected under the Delaware Constitution of 1831 and, the first elected to a four-year term. For years Delaware's governors had pleaded with the General Assembly to reform the state's penal system. Carol Hoffecker in Democracy in Delaware relates how Bennett continued the effort, asking the General Assembly in 1835 to "abolish imprisonment for debt, the pillory, which yet remains a stigma to our county towns, a disgrace to the statutes of the state in an age otherwise characterized
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration. From 1801 to 1825, the new party controlled the presidency and Congress as well as most states during the First Party System, it began in 1791 as one faction in Congress and included many politicians, opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves Republicans after republicanism, they distrusted the Federalist tendency to centralize and loosely interpret the Constitution, believing these policies were signs of monarchism and anti-republican values. The party splintered in 1824, with the faction loyal to Andrew Jackson coalescing into the Jacksonian movement, the faction led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay forming the National Republican Party and some other groups going on to form the Anti-Masonic Party.
The National Republicans, Anti-Masons, other opponents of Andrew Jackson formed themselves into the Whig Party. During the time that this party existed, it was referred to as the Republican Party. To distinguish it from the modern Republican Party, political scientists and pundits refer to this party as the Democratic-Republican Party or the Jeffersonian Republican Party; when the modern Republican Party was founded in 1854, it deliberately chose to name itself after the Jeffersonians. In response, contemporary Democrats embraced the name Democratic-Republican to reinforce their party's claim to the party's pre-Jacksonian history. Modern Democratic politicians continue to claim Jefferson as their founder; the party arose from the Anti-Administration faction which met secretly in the national capital to oppose Alexander Hamilton's financial programs. Jefferson denounced the programs as leading to subversive of republicanism. Jefferson needed to have a nationwide party to challenge the Federalists, which Hamilton was building up with allies in major cities.
Foreign affairs took a leading role in 1794–1795 as the Republicans vigorously opposed the Jay Treaty with the United Kingdom, at war with France. Republicans saw France as more democratic after its Revolution while the United Kingdom represented the hated monarchy; the party denounced many of Hamilton's measures as unconstitutional the national bank. The party was weakest in the Northeast, it demanded states' rights as expressed by the "Principles of 1798" articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that would allow states to nullify a federal law. Above all, the party stood for the primacy of the yeoman farmers. Republicans were committed to the principles of republicanism, which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical tendencies of the Hamiltonian Federalists; the party came to power in 1801 with the election of Jefferson in the 1800 presidential election. The Federalists—too elitist to appeal to most people—faded away and collapsed after 1815. Despite internal divisions, the Republicans dominated the First Party System until partisanship itself withered away during the Era of Good Feelings after 1816.
The party selected its presidential candidates in a caucus of members of Congress. They included James Madison and James Monroe. By 1824, the caucus system had collapsed. After 1800, the party dominated most state governments outside New England. By 1824, the party was split four ways and lacked a center as the First Party System collapsed; the emergence of the Second Party System in the 1820s and 30s realigned the old factions. One remnant followed Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren into the new Democratic Party by 1828. Another remnant, led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, formed the National Republican Party in 1824 while some remaining smaller factions formed the Anti-Masonic Party, which along with some National Republican groups developed into the Whig Party by 1836. Most remaining National Republicans would soon after go on to be a part of the Free Soil and modern Republican parties in the 1840s and 1850s. Congressman James Madison started the party among Representatives in Philadelphia as the "Republican Party".
He, Jefferson and others reached out to include state and local leaders around the country New York and the South. The precise date of founding is disputed, but 1791 is a reasonable estimate and some time by 1792 is certain; the new party set up newspapers that made withering critiques of Hamiltonianism, extolled the yeoman farmer, argued for strict construction of the Constitution, favored the French Revolution opposed the United Kingdom and called for stronger state governments than the Federalist Party was proposing. The elections of 1792 were the first ones to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis. In most states, the congressional elections were recognized—as Jefferson strategist John Beckley put it—as a "struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest". In New York, the candidates for governor were a Federalist. Four states' electors voted for Clinton and one for Jefferson for Vice President in opposition to incumbent John Adams as well as casting their votes for President Washington.
Before 1804, electors cast two votes together wi