Council of Trent
The Council of Trent, held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, was the 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation; the Council issued condemnations of what it defined to be heresies committed by proponents of Protestantism, issued key statements and clarifications of the Church's doctrine and teachings, including scripture, the Biblical canon, sacred tradition, original sin, salvation, the sacraments, the Mass, the veneration of saints. The Council met for twenty-five sessions between 13 December 1545 and 4 December 1563. Pope Paul III, who convoked the Council, oversaw the first eight sessions, while the twelfth to sixteenth sessions were overseen by Pope Julius III and the seventeenth to twenty-fifth sessions by Pope Pius IV; the consequences of the Council were significant in regards to the Church's liturgy and practices. During its deliberations, the Council made the Vulgate the official example of the Biblical canon and commissioned the creation of a standard version, although this was not achieved until the 1590s.
In 1565, a year after the Council finished its work, Pius IV issued the Tridentine Creed and his successor Pius V issued the Roman Catechism and revisions of the Breviary and Missal in 1566, 1568 and 1570. These, in turn, led to the codification of the Tridentine Mass, which remained the Church's primary form of the Mass for the next four hundred years. More than three hundred years passed until the next ecumenical council, the First Vatican Council, was convened in 1869. On 15 March 1517, the Fifth Council of the Lateran closed its activities with a number of reform proposals but not on the major problems that confronted the Church in Germany and other parts of Europe. A few months on 31 October 1517, Martin Luther issued his 95 Theses in Wittenberg. Luther's position on ecumenical councils shifted over time, but in 1520 he appealed to the German princes to oppose the papal Church, if necessary with a council in Germany and free of the Papacy. After the Pope condemned in Exsurge Domine fifty-two of Luther's theses as heresy, German opinion considered a council the best method to reconcile existing differences.
German Catholics, diminished in number, hoped for a council to clarify matters. It took a generation for the council to materialise because of papal reluctance, given that a Lutheran demand was the exclusion of the papacy from the Council, because of ongoing political rivalries between France and Germany and the Turkish dangers in the Mediterranean. Under Pope Clement VII, troops of the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sacked Papal Rome in 1527, "raping, burning, the like had not been seen since the Vandals". Saint Peter's Basilica and the Sistine Chapel were used for horses. This, together with the Pontiff's ambivalence between Germany, led to his hesitation. Charles V favoured a council, but needed the support of King Francis I of France, who attacked him militarily. Francis I opposed a general council due to partial support of the Protestant cause within France. In 1532 he agreed to the Nuremberg Religious Peace granting religious liberty to the Protestants, in 1533 he further complicated matters when suggesting a general council to include both Catholic and Protestant rulers of Europe that would devise a compromise between the two theological systems.
This proposal met the opposition of the Pope for it gave recognition to Protestants and elevated the secular Princes of Europe above the clergy on church matters. Faced with a Turkish attack, Charles held the support of the Protestant German rulers, all of whom delayed the opening of the Council of Trent. In reply to the Papal bull Exsurge Domine of Pope Leo X, Martin Luther burned the document and appealed for a general council. In 1522 German diets joined in the appeal, with Charles V seconding and pressing for a council as a means of reunifying the Church and settling the Reformation controversies. Pope Clement VII was vehemently against the idea of a council, agreeing with Francis I of France, after Pope Pius II, in his bull Execrabilis and his reply to the University of Cologne, set aside the theory of the supremacy of general councils laid down by the Council of Constance. Pope Paul III, seeing that the Protestant Reformation was no longer confined to a few preachers, but had won over various princes in Germany, to its ideas, desired a council.
Yet when he proposed the idea to his cardinals, it was unanimously opposed. Nonetheless, he sent nuncios throughout Europe to propose the idea. Paul III issued a decree for a general council to be held in Mantua, Italy, to begin on 23 May 1537. Martin Luther wrote the Smalcald Articles in preparation for the general council; the Smalcald Articles were designed to define where the Lutherans could and could not compromise. The council was ordered by the Emperor and Pope Paul III to convene in Mantua on 23 May 1537, it failed to convene after another war broke out between France and Charles V, resulting in a non-attendance of French prelates. Protestants refused to attend as well. Financial difficulties in Mantua led the Pope in the autumn of 1537 to move the council to Vicenza, where participation was poor; the Council was postponed indefinitely on 21 May 1539. Pope Paul III initiated several internal Church reforms while Emperor Charles V convened with Protestants at an imperial diet in Regensburg, to reconcile differences.
Unity failed betw
Ultramontanism is a clerical political conception within the Catholic Church that places strong emphasis on the prerogatives and powers of the Pope. The term's origins are in ecclesiastical language from the Middle Ages: when a non-Italian was elected to the papacy, he was said to be papa ultramontano, that is, a pope from beyond the mountains. Foreign students at medieval Italian universities were referred to as ultramontani; the word was revived but the meaning reversed after the Protestant Reformation in France, to indicate the "man beyond the mountains" located in Italy. In France, the name ultramontain was applied to people who supported papal authority in French affairs, as opposed to the Gallican and Jansenist factions of the indigenous French Catholic Church; the term was intended to be insulting, or at least to imply a lack of true patriotism. From the 17th century, ultramontanism became associated with the Jesuits. In the 18th century the word passed to Austria, where it acquired a much wider significance, being applicable to all the conflicts between church and state, the supporters of the Church being called ultramontanes.
In Great Britain and Ireland, it was a reaction to Cisalpinism, the stance of moderate lay Catholics who sought to make patriotic concessions to the Protestant state to achieve Catholic emancipation. In Canada, the majority of Canadian Catholic clergy despised the French Revolution and its anti-clerical bias and looked to Rome for both spiritual and political guidance. There were many laymen and laywomen who supported these ideals as key to preserving Canadian institutions and values. For this reason they were called ultramontanists; the ultramontanes distrusted both the Protestant anglophone and francophone politicians, but the Church found it easier to deal with British governors, who appreciated the role of the Church in containing dissent, than with the francophone liberal professionals who were secularists. According to Jeffrey P. von Arx,The threat to the Catholic Church and the papacy through the 19th century was real, the church’s reaction to that threat was understandable. Indeed, the church remained threatened on all sides.
On the left, secular liberals sought to reduce or eliminate the role of the church in public life and civil society. The more radical heirs of the revolution and the socialists and communists into whom they evolved remained committed to the church’s utter destruction, but the threat was from the nationalist right. Otto von Bismarck’s Kulturkampf was aimed directly at the Catholic Church, imposing state supervision of Catholic schools and seminaries and government appointment of bishops with no reference to Rome; the response was a condemnation of Gallicanism as heretical, e condemn and reject the opinions of those who hold that this communication of the supreme head with pastors and flocks may be lawfully obstructed. The Council asserted papal primacy. In July 1870, the it issued the Dogmatic constitution Pastor aeternus, defining four doctrines of the Catholic faith: the apostolic primacy conferred on Peter, the perpetuity of this primacy in the Roman pontiffs, the meaning and power of the papal primacy, Papal infallibility.
E teach and declare that, by divine ordinance, the Roman Church possesses a pre-eminence of ordinary power over every other Church, that this jurisdictional power of the Roman Pontiff is both episcopal and immediate. Both clergy and faithful, of whatever rite and dignity, both singly and collectively, are bound to submit to this power by the duty of hierarchical subordination and true obedience, this not only in matters concerning faith and morals, but in those which regard the discipline and government of the Church throughout the world." Von Arx compares this to "...the great empires and national states of the 19th century, which used new means of communication and transportation to consolidate power, enforce unity and build bureaucracies." "Cardinal Henry Edward Manning in Great Britain thought unity and discipline within the church were of the utmost importance in protecting the church and advancing its interests in a liberal, democratic state, so he was one of the strongest advocates of the ultramontane position."
The English bishops at the Council were characterized by their ultramontanism and described as "being more Catholic than the Pope himself". Other Christian groups outside the Catholic Church declared this as the triumph of what they termed "the heresy of ultramontanism", it was decried in the "Declaration of the Catholic Congress at Munich", in the Theses of Bonn, in the Declaration of Utrecht, which became the foundational documents of Old Catholics who split with Rome over the declaration on infallibility and supremacy, joining the Old Episcopal Order Catholic See of Utrecht, independent from Rome since 1723. As with previous pronouncements by the pope, Liberals across Europe were outraged by the doctrine of infallibility and many countries reacted with laws to counter the influence of the church; the term "ultramontanism" was revived during the French Third Republic as a pejorative way to describe policies that went against laïcité a concept rooted in the French Revolution. French philosopher Jacques Maritain, noted the distinction between the models found in France and the separation of church and state in the United States in the mid-twentieth century.
He considered the US model of
Würzburg is a city in the region of Franconia, northern Bavaria, Germany. Located on the Main River, it is the capital of the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia; the regional dialect is East Franconian. Würzburg lies about equidistant from Frankfurt am Nuremberg. Although the city of Würzburg is not part of the Landkreis Würzburg, it is the seat of the district's administration; the city has a population of around 130,000 people. A Bronze Age refuge castle stood on the site of the present Fortress Marienberg; the former Celtic territory was settled by the Alamanni in the 4th or 5th century, by the Franks in the 6th to 7th. Würzburg was the seat of a Merovingian duke from about 650, it was Christianized in 686 by Irish missionaries Kilian and Totnan. The city is mentioned in a donation by Duke Hedan II to bishop Willibrord, dated 1 May 704, in castellum Virteburch; the Ravenna Cosmography lists the city as Uburzis at about the same time. The name is of Celtic origin, but based on a folk etymological connection to the German word Würze "herb, spice", the name was Latinized as Herbipolis in the medieval period.
Beginning in 1237, the city seal depicted the cathedral and a portrait of Saint Kilian, with the inscription SIGILLVM CIVITATIS HERBIPOLENSIS. It shows a banner on a tilted lance in a blue field, with the banner quarterly argent and gules or and gules; this coat of arms replaced the older seal of the city, showing Saint Kilian, from 1570. The first diocese was founded by Saint Boniface in 742 when he appointed the first bishop of Würzburg, Saint Burkhard; the bishops created a secular fiefdom, which extended in the 12th century to Eastern Franconia. The city was the site of several Imperial Diets, including the one of 1180, at which Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, was banned for three years from the Empire and his duchy Bavaria was handed over to Otto of Wittelsbach. Massacres of Jews took place in 1147 and 1298; the first church on the site of the present Würzburg Cathedral was built as early as 788 and consecrated that same year by Charlemagne. The University of Würzburg was founded in 1402 and re-founded in 1582.
The citizens of the city revolted several times against the prince-bishop. In 1397, King Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia had visited the city and promised its people the status of a free Imperial City. However, the German ruling princes forced him to withdraw these promises. In 1400, the citizenry was decisively defeated by the troops of the bishop in the Schlacht von Bergtheim, the city fell under his control permanently until the dissolution of the fiefdom; the Würzburg witch trials, which occurred between 1626 and 1631, are one of the largest peace-time mass trials. In Würzburg, under Bishop Philip Adolf an estimated number between 600 and 900 alleged witches were burnt. In 1631, Swedish King Gustaf Adolf plundered the castle. In 1720, the foundations of the Würzburg Residence were laid. In 1796, the Battle of Würzburg between Habsburg Austria and the First French Republic took place; the city passed to the Electorate of Bavaria in 1803, but two years in the course of the Napoleonic Wars, it became the seat of the Electorate of Würzburg, the Grand Duchy of Würzburg.
In 1814, the town became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria and a new bishopric was created seven years as the former one had been secularized in 1803. In 1817, Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Bauer founded Schnellpressenfabrik Bauer. In the early 1930s, around 2,000 Jews had lived in Würzburg, a rabbinic center. Between November 1941 and June 1943 Jews from the city were sent to the Nazi concentration camps in Eastern Europe. On 16 March 1945, about 90% of the city was destroyed in 17 minutes by fire bombing from 225 British Lancaster bombers during a World War II air raid. Würzburg became a target for its role as a traffic hub. All of the city's churches and other monuments were damaged or destroyed; the city center, which dated from medieval times, was destroyed in a firestorm in which 5,000 people perished. Over the next 20 years, the buildings of historical importance were painstakingly and reconstructed; the citizens who rebuilt the city after the end of the war were women – Trümmerfrauen – because the men were either dead or still prisoners of war.
On a relative scale, Würzburg was destroyed to a larger extent than was Dresden in a firebombing the previous month. On 3 April 1945, Würzburg was occupied by the U. S. 12th Armored Division and U. S. 42nd Infantry Division in a series of frontal assaults masked by smokescreens. The battle continued until the final Wehrmacht resistance was defeated on 5 April 1945; the 2016 Würzburg train attack took place at the Würzburg-Heidingsfeld railway station on 18 July. Würzburg is located on both banks of the river Main in the region of Lower Franconia in Bavaria, Germany; the main body of the town is on the eastern bank of the river. The town is enclosed by the Landkreis Würzburg, but is not a part of it. Würzburg lies at an altitude of around 177 metres. Of the total municipal area, in 2007, building area accounted for 30%, followed by agricultural land, forestry/wood, green spaces, traffic and others; the centre of Würzburg is surrou
University of Würzburg
The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg is a public research university in Würzburg, Germany. The University of Würzburg is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in Germany, having been founded in 1402; the university had a brief run and was closed in 1415. It was reopened in 1582 on the initiative of Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn. Today, the university is named for Julius Echter von Maximilian Joseph; the University of Würzburg is part of the U15 group of research-intensive German universities. The university is a member of the Coimbra Group. Adolf-Wuerth-Center for the History of Psychology is a scientific institution of the University Its official name is Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg but it is referred to as the University of Würzburg; this name is taken from Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn, Prince-Bishop of Würzburg, who reestablished the university in 1582, Prince Elector Maximilian Joseph, the prince under whom secularization occurred at the start of the 19th century.
The university’s central administration, foreign student office, several research institutes are located within the area of the old town, while the new liberal arts campus, with its modern library, overlooks the city from the east. The university today enrolls 29,000 students, out of which more than 1,000 come from other countries. Although the university was first founded in 1402, it was short-lived; this was attributed to the instability of the age. Johannes Trithemius, well-known humanist and learned abbot of the Scottish monastery of St. Jacob, held the dissolute student lifestyle responsible for the premature decline of the city's first university. In the Annales Hirsaugiensis Chronologia Mystica of 1506 he cites bathing, brawling, inebriation and general pandemonium as "greatly impeding the academic achievement in Würzburg". Evidence of this is provided by the fatal stabbing of the university's first chancellor, Johann Zantfurt, in 1413, by a scholar's unruly assistant, or famulus, evidently the result of these influences.
Despite Egloffstein's thwarted first attempt at founding a university, the city still boasts one of the oldest universities in the German-speaking world on a par with Prague, Heidelberg and Erfurt. A university in Würzburg was refounded more than 150 years later. A "second founding" by Prince Bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn in 1582 offered the institution guaranteed autonomous self-government; the university was fiercely Roman Catholic and considered a "bastion of Catholicism in the face of Protestantism", words used in the university charter which prevented all non-Catholics from graduating from or receiving tenure at the Alma Julia. Echter intended it as a tool of Counter-Reformation. Over a century would pass before the university opened its doors to non-Catholics, in keeping with the spirit of Enlightenment encouraged by Prince Bishop Friedrich Karl von Schönborn's newly formulated students' charter of 1734; the resultant increase in religious tolerance enabled the summoning and subsequent appointment of the famous physician, Karl Kaspar von Siebold, under Schönborn's successor, Adam Friedrich von Seinsheim.
Shortly after his arrival in 1769, Protestant medical students were permitted to study for their doctorates at the university. Würzburg's increasing secularisation as a bishopric and its eventual surrender to Bavarian rule at the beginning of the 19th century resulted in the loss of the university's Roman Catholic character; the end of the city's status as a Grand Duchy under Ferdinand of Toscana in 1814 heralded the Alma Julia's ideological transition to the non-denominational establishment which endures to this day. This new inclusiveness towards professors and students alike was instrumental in the resultant upturn in all areas of research and education in the 19th century. Since the university has borne the name of its second and most influential founder known as the Julius-Maximilians-Universität of Bavaria; the many medical accomplishments associated with the university from the mid- to late-19th century were inextricably linked with achievements in the affiliated field of natural science, notably by Schwab, the eminent botanist, the zoologist, the celebrated chemist and Boveri, the biologist.
Their progress culminated in the discovery of x-rays by physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, first winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, in 1895. Röntgen's discovery, which he dubbed a "new kind of ray", is regarded as the university's greatest intellectual achievement, a scientific development of huge global import. Röntgen's successors, namely Wilhelm Wien, Johannes Stark and the chemists Emil Fischer and Eduard Buchner number among the succession of Nobel Prize winners to lecture at the university, a tradition which endures in the modern-day example of Klaus von Klitzing. After World War II, the free state of Bavaria invested a fortune in the rebuilding and renovation of the university buildings, damaged by Allied bombing. Restoration of Echter's "Old University", current home to the faculty of law, continues today; the eventual rebuilding of the Neubaukirche affiliated to the legal faculty and razed to the ground in 1945, marked the end of the city's extensive reconstruction process. In 1970 it was decided that the church, one of the most important examples of 16th century vaulted architecture in southern Germany, should fulfill a dual function as a place of worship and
Fulda is a city in Hesse, Germany. In 1990, the town hosted the 30th Hessentag state festival. In 744 Saint Sturm, a disciple of Saint Boniface, founded the Benedictine monastery of Fulda as one of Boniface's outposts in the reorganization of the church in Germany, it served as a base from which missionaries could accompany Charlemagne's armies in their political and military campaigns to conquer and convert pagan Saxony. The initial grant for the abbey was signed by Carloman, Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia, the son of Charles Martel; the support of the Mayors of the Palace, of the early Pippinid and Carolingian rulers, was important to Boniface's success. Fulda received support from many of the leading families of the Carolingian world. Sturm, whose tenure as abbot lasted from 747 until 779, was most related to the Agilolfing dukes of Bavaria. Fulda received large and constant donations from the Etichonids, a leading family in Alsace, from the Conradines, predecessors of the Salian Holy Roman Emperors.
Under Sturm, the donations Fulda received from these and other important families helped in the establishment of daughter-houses near Fulda. After his martyrdom by the Frisians, the relics of Saint Boniface were brought back to Fulda; because of the stature this afforded the monastery, the donations increased, Fulda could establish daughter-houses further away, for example in Hamelin. Meanwhile, Saint Lullus, successor of Boniface as archbishop of Mainz, tried to absorb the abbey into his archbishopric, but failed; this was one reason that he founded Hersfeld Abbey — to limit the attempts of the enlargement of Fulda. Between 790 and 819 the community rebuilt the main monastery church to more fittingly house the relics, they based their new basilica on the original 4th-century Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, using the transept and crypt plan of that great pilgrimage church to frame their own saint as the "Apostle to the Germans"; the crypt of the original abbey church still holds those relics, but the church itself has been subsumed into a Baroque renovation.
A small, 9th-century chapel remains standing within walking distance of the church, as do the foundations of a women's abbey. Rabanus Maurus served as abbot at Fulda from 822 to 842. Prince-abbot Balthasar von Dernbach adopted a policy of counterreformation. In 1571 he called in the Jesuits to found a college, he insisted. Whereas his predecessors had tolerated Protestantism, resulting in most of the citizenry of Fulda and a large portion of the principality's countryside professing Lutheranism, Balthasar ordered his subjects either to return to the Catholic faith or leave his territories; the foundation of the abbey Fulda and its territory originated with an Imperial grant, the sovereign principality therefore was subject only to the German emperor. Fulda became a bishopric in 1752 and the prince-abbots were given the additional title of prince-bishop; the prince-abbots ruled Fulda and the surrounding region until the bishopric was forcibly dissolved by Napoleon I in 1802. The city went through a baroque building campaign in the 18th century, resulting in the current “Baroque City” status.
This included a remodeling of the Stadtschloss by Johann Dientzenhofer. The city parish church, St. Blasius, was built between 1771–85. In 1764 a porcelain factory was started in Fulda under Prince-Bishop, Prince-Abbot Heinrich von Bibra, but shortly after his death it was closed down in 1789 by his successor, Prince-Bishop, Prince-Abbot Adalbert von Harstall; the city was given to Prince William Frederick of Orange-Nassau in 1803, was annexed to the Grand Duchy of Berg in 1806, in 1809 to the Principality of Frankfurt. After the Congress of Vienna of 1814–15, most of the territory went to the Electorate of Hesse, which Prussia annexed in 1866. Fulda lends its name to the Fulda Gap, a traditional east-west invasion route used by Napoleon I and others. During the Cold War, it was presumed to be an invasion route for any conventional war between NATO and Soviet forces. Downs Barracks in Fulda was the headquarters of the American 14th Armored Cavalry Regiment replaced by the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment.
The cavalry had as many as 3,000 soldiers from the end of World War II until 1993. Not all of those soldiers were in Fulda proper, but scattered over observation posts and in the cities of Bad Kissingen and Bad Hersfeld; the strategic importance of this region led to a large United States– and Soviet military presence. Cuno Raabe:1946–1956 Alfred Dregger: 1956–1970 Wolfgang Hamberger: 1970–1998 Alois Rhiel: 1998–2003 Gerhard Möller: 2003–2015 Heiko Wingenfeld: 2015– Fulda station is a transport hub and interchange point between local and long distance traffic of the German railway network, is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 2 station, it is on the Hanover–Würzburg high-speed railway. Fulda is on the Bundesautobahn 7. Bundesautobahn 66 starts at the interchange with the BAB 7
Oratory of Saint Philip Neri
The Congregation of the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri is a pontifical society of apostolic life of Catholic priests and lay-brothers who live together in a community bound together by no formal vows but only with the bond of charity. They are referred to as Oratorians; this "Congregation of the Oratory" should not be confused with the French Oratory, a distinct congregation, the Society of the Oratory of Jesus, founded by Pierre de Bérulle in 1611 in Paris. Founded in Rome in 1575 by St. Philip Neri, today it has spread around the world, with over 70 Oratories and some 500 priests; the post-nominal initials used to identify members of the society are "C. O.". The abbreviation "Cong. Orat." is used. Unlike a religious institute or a monastery, the Oratorians are made up of members who commit themselves to membership in a particular, self-governing local community without taking vows, an unusual and innovative arrangement created by St. Philip. An oratory must have a minimum of four members, two being ordained, in order to be founded.
If a group of men seeks to establish an oratory, they may apply to do so, going through the proper diocesan channels. The Congregation of the Oratory was founded by St. Philip Neri in the city of Rome; the first Oratory received papal recognition in 1575. The new community was to be a congregation of secular priests living under obedience but bound by no vows. Speaking of Neri, whom he called, "the saint of joy", Pope John Paul II said, "As is well known, the saint used to put his teaching into short and wise maxims:'Be good, if you can'.... He did not choose the life of solitude. Like Jesus, he was able to enter into the human misery present in the noble palaces and in the alleys of Renaissance Rome."The core of St. Philip's spirituality focused on an unpretentious return to the lifestyle of the first Disciples of Christ; the object of the institute is threefold: prayer and the sacraments. Up to 1800 the Oratory continued to spread through Italy, Spain, Portugal and other European countries. Under Napoleon I the Oratory was in various places despoiled and suppressed, but the congregation recovered and, after a second suppression in 1869, again revived.
A few houses were founded in Vienna. There are eighty six Congregations of the Oratory throughout the world; each Community is autonomous, but there is a Confederation which facilitates contact with the Holy See. As such, the Congregation of the Oratory functions more like a monastic federation than like a religious institute. Three documents govern the Oratory; the first is the "General Statutes" of the Congregation, which are guidelines to be followed throughout the world. The second is the "Particular Statutes"; the third document is the "Constitutions", which establish general norms, outline the relationship between the Congregation and the Holy See. As the Oratory is a confederation, there is no central authority such as is found within the Dominicans, Franciscans, or Jesuits; the definitive foundation of an Oratorian Congregation is done by the Roman Pontiff directly, which makes a Congregation what is called a "Pontifical Right" foundation. The Confederation elects one of its own to represent the interests of the Congregations to the Holy See.
This person, known as Procurator General, resides in Rome at the Procura General. Frederick William Faber described the Oratorian charism as "a spirituality of everyday life"; the Oratory founded by St Philip Neri is a society of priests and brothers who live together under a Rule without taking religious vows. Hence, Oratorians are free to resign their membership in the Congregation without canonical impediment or ecclesiastical dispensation. An Oratorian resides in an Oratory community of his choosing and is permanently stable, i.e. he is not subject to transfer to other Oratories or communities. Oratorians have what is called'stability,' which means they are committed as members of the community of a particular Oratory, though a member may move if there is a serious enough reason; as there is no vow of poverty, Oratorians may keep their possessions, those who can afford to do so are expected to contribute to the support of the house. It is possible for an ordained secular priest to join the Community if he feels called to a more recollected life in community than is possible in a diocesan presbytery, however the Constitutions do not permit anyone, a solemnly professed religious to join the Congregation.
Neither is it customary to admit anyone over the age of forty five. Unlike the members of some religious institutes, Oratorians are not bound by a rule to pray in common, though this is something that Oratorians consider important, they com
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich is a public research university located in Munich, Germany. The University of Munich is Germany's sixth-oldest university in continuous operation. Established in Ingolstadt in 1472 by Duke Ludwig IX of Bavaria-Landshut, the university was moved in 1800 to Landshut by King Maximilian I of Bavaria when Ingolstadt was threatened by the French, before being relocated to its present-day location in Munich in 1826 by King Ludwig I of Bavaria. In 1802, the university was named Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität by King Maximilian I of Bavaria in his as well as the university's original founder's honour; the University of Munich has since the 19th century, been considered as one of Germany's as well as one of Europe's most prestigious universities. Among these were Wilhelm Röntgen, Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn and Thomas Mann. Pope Benedict XVI was a student and professor at the university; the LMU has been conferred the title of "elite university" under the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
LMU is the second-largest university in Germany in terms of student population. Of these, 8,671 were freshmen while international students totalled 7,812 or 15% of the student population; as for operating budget, the university records in 2015 a total of 660.0 million euros in funding without the university hospital. The University was founded with papal approval in 1472 as the University of Ingolstadt, with faculties of philosophy, medicine and theology, its first rector was Christopher Mendel of Steinfels, who became bishop of Chiemsee. In the period of German humanism, the university's academics included names such as Conrad Celtes and Petrus Apianus; the theologian Johann Eck taught at the university. From 1549 to 1773, the university was influenced by the Jesuits and became one of the centres of the Counter-Reformation; the Jesuit Petrus Canisius served as rector of the university. At the end of the 18th century, the university was influenced by the Enlightenment, which led to a stronger emphasis on natural science.
In 1800, the Prince-Elector Maximilian IV Joseph moved the university to Landshut, due to French aggression that threatened Ingolstadt during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1802, the university was renamed the Ludwig Maximilian University in honour of its two founders, Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria and Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria; the Minister of Education, Maximilian von Montgelas, initiated a number of reforms that sought to modernize the rather conservative and Jesuit-influenced university. In 1826, it was moved to the capital of the Kingdom of Bavaria; the university was situated in the Old Academy until a new building in the Ludwigstraße was completed. The locals were somewhat critical of the number of Protestant professors Maximilian and Ludwig I invited to Munich, they were dubbed the "Nordlichter" and physician Johann Nepomuk von Ringseis was quite angry about them. In the second half of the 19th century, the university rose to great prominence in the European scientific community, attracting many of the world's leading scientists.
It was a period of great expansion. From 1903, women were allowed to study at Bavarian universities, by 1918, the female proportion of students at LMU had reached 18%. In 1918, Adele Hartmann became the first woman in Germany to earn the Habilitation, at LMU. During the Weimar Republic, the university continued to be one of the world's leading universities, with professors such as Wilhelm Röntgen, Wilhelm Wien, Richard Willstätter, Arnold Sommerfeld and Ferdinand Sauerbruch. During the Third Reich, academic freedom was curtailed. In 1943 the White Rose group of anti-Nazi students conducted their campaign of opposition to the National Socialists at this university; the university has continued to be one of the leading universities of West Germany during the Cold War and in the post-reunification era. In the late 1960s, the university was the scene of protests by radical students. Today the University of Munich is part of 24 Collaborative Research Centers funded by the German Research Foundation and is host university of 13 of them.
It hosts 12 DFG Research Training Groups and three international doctorate programs as part of the Elite Network of Bavaria. It attracts an additional 120 million euros per year in outside funding and is intensively involved in national and international funding initiatives. LMU Munich has a wide range of degree programs, with 150 subjects available in numerous combinations. 15% of the 45,000 students who attend the university come from abroad. In 2005, Germany’s state and federal governments launched the German Universities Excellence Initiative, a contest among its universities. With a total of 1.9 billion euros, 75 percent of which comes from the federal state, its architects aim to strategically promote top-level research and scholarship. The money is given to more than 30 research universities in Germany; the initiative will fund three project-oriented areas: graduate schools to promote the next generation of scholars, clusters of excellence to promote cutting-edge research and "future concepts" for the project-based expansion of academic excellence at universities as a whole.
In order to