Benjamin Harrison V
Benjamin Harrison V was an American planter and merchant from Charles City County, Virginia, a revolutionary leader, a Founding Father of the United States. He received his higher education at the College of William and Mary and was a representative to the Virginia House of Burgesses for Surry County and Charles City County, he was a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1777 and a signer of the Declaration of Independence during the Second Continental Congress. He served as Virginia's fifth governor from 1781 to 1784, his direct descendants include two Presidents: his son William Henry Harrison and his great-grandson Benjamin Harrison. Harrison was the oldest of ten children born to Benjamin Harrison IV and Anne Carter, a grandson of Robert Carter I; the first Benjamin Harrison is said to have arrived in the colonies around 1630. British historian F. A. Inderwick contends that Benjamin IV is descended from Thomas Harrison, a participant in the regicide of Charles I, but this is disputed.
Benjamin IV and Anne built the manor house at Berkeley Plantation in Virginia, he served as a Justice of the Peace and represented Charles City County in the Virginia House of Burgesses. Benjamin V was described in his youth as "tall and powerfully built", with "features that were defined, a well-shaped mouth above a strong pointed chin", his brother Carter Henry became a leader in Cumberland County. Brother Nathaniel settled in Prince George County, became sheriff, was elected to the House of Burgesses. Brother Henry fought in the French and Indian War and settled at Hunting Quarter in Sussex County. Brother Charles joined the rose to the rank of brigadier general. Harrison's father was struck by lightning while shutting an upstairs window on July 12, 1745 at age 51, he and daughter Hannah were killed. Benjamin inherited the bulk of his father's estate, including the family home Berkeley and a number of surrounding plantations, he assumed ownership and responsibility for the manor house's equipment and numerous slaves.
His siblings inherited another six plantations and slaves, as the father chose to depart from the tradition of leaving the entire estate to the eldest son. Harrison's father prohibited any splitting of slave families in the distribution of his estate. Harrison followed his father in representing the counties of Charles City and Surry in the House of Burgesses, he served as a county justice, he was among the first signers in 1770 of an agreement among Virginia lawmakers and merchants boycotting British imports until the British Parliament repealed its taxes on tea. He joined in sponsoring a bill which declared that laws were illegal if Parliament passed them without the consent of the colonists; the Boston Tea Party occurred in 1773 and the British Parliament enacted punitive measures which Colonists called the Intolerable Acts. Harrison and 88 members of the Virginia Burgesses signed a new association on May 24, 1774 condemning the action of the Parliament, they invited other colonies to convene a Continental Congress.
Harrison was selected on August 5, 1774 as one of seven delegates to represent Virginia at the Congress. He set out that month, leaving his home state for the first time, arrived in Philadelphia on September 2, 1774 for the First Continental Congress. Harrison gravitated to the older and more conservative of his fellow delegates in Philadelphia, was more distant with the New Englanders and the more radical John and Samuel Adams. John Adams described Harrison in his diary as "another Sir John Falstaff", "obscene", "profane", "impious", but he recalled Harrison saying that he was so eager to participate in the Continental Congress that "he would have come on foot." Their dislike for one another was due to differences in personality and party factionalism. The First Congress concluded in October with finalization of a Petition to the King, signed by all delegates including Harrison, requesting the King's attention to the colonies' grievances and restoration of harmony with the crown; the Second Continental Congress convened in May 1775.
Harrison resided in a house in north Philadelphia during the Congress with Peyton Randolph and George Washington. He remained there alone after Washington assumed command of the Continental Randolph died. Harrison was in attendance to the session's end in July 1776, serving as Chairman of the Committee of the Whole in the Congress, he presided over the final debates on the Lee Resolution offered by Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee, he presided over the debates and amendments to the final Declaration of Independence. The Committee of Five presented Jefferson's draft of the Declaration on June 28, 1776, the Congress resolved on July 1 that the Committee of the Whole should discuss its content; the Committee amended it on July 2 and 3 adopted it in final form on Thursday, July 4. Harrison duly reported this to the Congress, who unanimously resolved to have the Declaration engrossed and signed by those present. Harrison was known for his sense of humor. Elbridge Gerry had taken Harrison's place at the table to sign the Declaration, the rotund Harrison quipped: "I shall have a great advantage over you, Mr. Gerry, when we are all hung for what we are now doing.
From the size and weight of my body I shall die in a few minutes and be with t
Edenton, North Carolina
Edenton is a town in and the county seat of Chowan County, North Carolina, United States, on Albemarle Sound. The population was 5,004 at the 2010 census. Edenton is located in North Carolina's Inner Banks region. In recent years Edenton has become a popular retirement location and a destination for heritage tourism. Edenton was the birthplace of Harriet Ann Jacobs, an enslaved African American who escaped and fled to the North, she spoke publicly as an abolitionist. Her memoir, a slave narrative published under a pen name of Linda Brent, was entitled Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. In 1658 adventurers from the Jamestown area drifted through the wilderness from Virginia and found a location on the bank 36.044°N 76.613°W / 36.044. Edenton Colony was the first permanent European settlement in what is now the state of North Carolina. Edenton was established in 1712 as "the Towne on Queen Anne's Creek", it was known as "Ye Towne on Mattercommack Creek" and still as "the Port of Roanoke". It was renamed "Edenton" and incorporated in 1722 in honor of Governor Charles Eden who had died that year.
Edenton served as the second capital of the Province of North Carolina, from 1722 to 1743, with the governor establishing his residence there and the population increasing during that period. William Byrd II, who visited the town in March 1729, provides a description of Edenton in his The History of the Dividing Line: This town is Situated on the north side of Albermarle Sound, there about 5 miles over. A Dirty Slash runs all along the Back of it, which in the Summer is a foul annoyance, furnishes abundance of that Carolina plague, musquetas. There may be most of them Small, built without Expense. A Citizen here is counted Extravagant. Justice herself is but indifferently Lodged, the Court-House having much the Air of a Common Tobacco-House. I believe this is the only metropolis in the Christian or Mohametan world where there is neither Church, Mosque, nor any other Place of Publick Worship of any Sect or Religion whatsoever. What little Devotion there may be is much more private than their vices.
A landmark in women's history occurred in Edenton in 1774. Fifty-one women in Edenton, led by Penelope Barker, signed a protest petition agreeing to boycott English tea and other products, in what became known, decades as the Edenton Tea Party; the Edenton Tea Party is the first known political action by women in the British American colonies. In fact it so shocked London that newspapers published etchings depicting the women as uncontrollable, her home, the Barker House, is open seven days a week, without a fee, is considered by many as Edenton's living room. Joseph Hewes, a resident of Edenton and successful owner of a merchant marine fleet, was appointed the first Secretary of the Navy in 1776. John Adams said that Hewes "laid the foundation, the cornerstone of the American Navy." Hewes signed the United States Declaration of Independence. James Iredell of Edenton, was at 38 the youngest member of the first United States Supreme Court, he was appointed by George Washington. His son James Iredell, Jr. served as the Democratic-Republican governor of North Carolina and became a United States senator.
His home may be toured through the Historic Edenton Visitors Center. Easy sea access halted with a 1795 hurricane. Completion of the 1805 Dismal Swamp Canal took business elsewhere by diverting shipping to Norfolk, Virginia. Locals rejected construction of a lack that impeded the local economy. Supreme Court Justice James Wilson, a signer of both the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution, died in Edenton on August 21, 1798, at age 55, while riding his judicial circuit. In 1862, during the Civil War, the Albemarle Artillery was recruited at Edenton by a local attorney named William Badham, Jr, its guns were cast from bronze bells taken from courthouse and churches in the Edenton area. Known as the Edenton Bell Battery, its four howitzers were named the Columbia, St. Paul, Fannie Roulac, Edenton. Two of the guns, the St. Paul and Edenton, have been returned to Edenton and can now be seen at Edenton's waterfront park. Edenton enjoyed an economic revival beginning in 1890 led by lumbering, an 1898 cotton mill, a 1909 peanut-processing plant.
Edenton is the home of the 1886 Roanoke River Lighthouse. The lighthouse is called a screw-pile design because of its original support system; each piling was screwed into the river or sound bottom so they would not pull out in heavy storms and hurricanes. The Roanoke River Lighthouse, now located at Edenton, is believed to be the last extant example in the United States of a rectangular frame building built for a screw-pile base; the lighthouse was in commission from 1887 until 1941. Edenton is home including the Cupola House, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970, a designation accorded the 1776 Chowan County Courthouse. The courthouse is still used for official court events; the city is home to the oldest house still in existence in North Carolina, constructed in 1719 before the establishment of the city. Edenton achieved international notoriety for the Little Rascals Day Care sexual abuse case, the subject of journalist Ofra Bikel's award-winning trilogy of documentaries: Innocence Lost, Innocence Lost: The Verdict, Innocence Lost: The Plea.
Edenton is located in southern Chowan County at 36°3′43″N 76°36′21″W. It sits at the north end of Edenton Bay, just north of the confluence of the Chowan River and Roanoke River which forms Albemarle Sound
John Penn (North Carolina politician)
John Penn was a signer of both the United States Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation as a representative of North Carolina. Penn was born near Port Royal in Caroline County, Virginia, an only child of Moses Penn and Catherine Penn, he attended at common school for two years. At age 18, after his father's death, Penn read law with his uncle, Edmund Pendleton, he became a lawyer in Virginia in 1762. In 1774, Penn moved to the North Carolina area, where he practiced law. On July 28, 1763, Penn married Susannah Lyne; the couple had three children. Their daughter, married John Taylor of Caroline, a political leader from Virginia. Penn was elected to the North Carolina Provincial Congress and elected by that body to the Continental Congress in 1775, serving until 1780. For the 1776 signing of the Declaration of Independence, he was part of the North Carolina delegation that included Joseph Hewes and William Hooper. In 1777, Penn was one of the state's signers of the Articles of Confederation.
Penn served on the Board of War until 1780, when he retired to once again practice law. He served as receiver of taxes for North Carolina in 1784; when Penn died in 1788, he was buried in Granville County. Penn was re-interred in Guilford Courthouse National Military Park in 1894, alongside fellow congressional delegate, Hooper; the remains of his home site in Granville County, with his original grave and a nearby slave cemetery, are maintained by the local DAR chapter. The naval ship USS John Penn was named in his honor. An historical highway marker honoring Penn was the first one erected by the State of North Carolina Biography by Rev. Charles A. Goodrich, 1856 Biography and portrait at USHistory.org
Christ Church Burial Ground
Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia is an important early-American cemetery. It is his wife, Deborah. Four other signers of the Declaration of Independence are buried here, Benjamin Rush, Francis Hopkinson, Joseph Hewes and George Ross. Two more signers are buried at Christ Church just a few blocks away; the cemetery belongs to Christ Church, the Episcopal church founded in 1695 and place of worship for many of the famous Revolutionary War participants, including George Washington. The burial ground is located at 5th and Arch Streets, across from the Visitors Center and National Constitution Center; the Burial Ground was started in 1719, it is still an active cemetery. The Burial Ground is open to the public for weather permitting; when the Burial Ground is closed, one can still view Benjamin Franklin's gravesite from the sidewalk at the corner of 5th and Arch through a set of iron rails. The bronze rails in the brick wall were added for public viewing in 1858 by parties working at the behest of the Franklin Institute, which assumed the responsibility of defending Franklin's historic ties to Philadelphia after prominent Bostonians criticized the city's maintenance of the grave and erected a Franklin statue there.
Leaving pennies on Franklin's grave is an old Philadelphia tradition. Other famous people buried at Christ Church Burial Ground include: John Andrews, D. D. 4th Provost of the University of Pennsylvania Michael Woolston Ash, congressman Samuel John Atlee, delegate to the Continental Congress Benjamin Franklin Bache, grandson of Benjamin Franklin and publisher of the Aurora newspaper Sarah Franklin Bache, daughter of Benjamin Franklin Commodore William Bainbridge, Naval hero of War of 1812, captain of "Old Ironsides" Francis Biddle, United States Attorney General James Biddle, Commodore in the United States Navy Thomas Bond, co-founder of Pennsylvania Hospital Major General George Cadwalader, Civil War general John Cadwalader and judge Matthew Clarkson, mayor of Philadelphia Joseph Clay, United States Congressman Tench Coxe, Continental Congressman John Dunlap, printer of the Declaration of Independence Lewis Evans and surveyor Tench Francis, Jr. David Franks, aide-de-camp for General Benedict Arnold during the American War of Independence Samuel Hardy, Continental Congressman Michael Hillegas, first Treasurer of the United States Thomas Hopkinson, father of Francis Hopkinson, president of the Philosophical Society, one of the founders of the Library Company John Inskeep, mayor of Philadelphia Major William Jackson, Revolutionary War officer, secretary of the Constitutional Convention Thomas Lawrence, five-time mayor of Philadelphia Charles Mason, surveyor, laid out the Mason–Dixon line in 1763 George A. McCall, United States Army brigadier general and prisoner of war during the American Civil War William M. Meredith, Secretary of the Treasury Philip Syng Physick, known as the "Father of Modern Surgery" John Hare Powel, Pennsylvania State Senator and Agriculturalist Elizabeth and Samuel Powel Henry C. Pratt prominent Philadelphia businessman and builder of Lemon Hill House.
Matthew Pratt American "Colonial Era" portrait painter. Benjamin Rush, signer of the Declaration of Independence and founder of Dickinson College, known as "The Father of American Psychiatry" Annis Boudinot Stockton, poet Philip Syng, created the Syng inkstand, early co-founder of several organizations with Benjamin Franklin Henry Tazewell, U. S. Senator Commodore Thomas Truxtun, commander of the Constellation William Tuckey, composer John Goddard Watmough, U. S. Congressman Charles Willing, three term Mayor of Philadelphia Anne Willing Francis wife of Tench Francis, Daughter of Charles Willing Official website Official Map of Christ Church Burial Ground Christ Church Burial Ground at Find a Grave
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
Quakers called Friends, are a Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, Society of Friends or Friends Church. Members of the various Quaker movements are all united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "the light within", or "that of God in every one"; some may profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. There are Nontheist Quakers whose spiritual practice is not reliant on the existence of gods. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers worldwide. In 2017, there were 377,557 adult Quakers, with 49% in Africa. Around 89% of Quakers worldwide belong to the "evangelical" and "programmed" branches of Quakerism—these Quakers worship in services with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, coordinated by a pastor.
Around 11% of Friends practice waiting worship, or unprogrammed worship, where the order of service is not planned in advance, is predominantly silent, may include unprepared vocal ministry from those present. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry; the first Quakers lived in mid-17th-century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England; the Quakers the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some of these early Quaker ministers were women, they based their message on the religious belief that "Christ has come to teach his people himself", stressing the importance of a direct relationship with God through Jesus Christ, a direct religious belief in the universal priesthood of all believers.
They emphasized a personal and direct religious experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity and the light of God. In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, teetotalism; some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays and Friends Provident. In 1947, the Quakers, represented by the British Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. During and after the English Civil War many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man, George Fox, was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and non-conformists, he had a revelation that "there is one Christ Jesus, who can speak to thy condition", became convinced that it was possible to have a direct experience of Christ without the aid of an ordained clergy.
In 1652 he had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that "the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered". Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, Barbados preaching and teaching with the aim of converting new adherents to his faith; the central theme of his Gospel message was. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, after centuries of apostasy in the churches in England. In 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to Fox's autobiography, Bennet "was the first that called us Quakers, because I bade them tremble at the word of the Lord", it is thought that Fox was referring to Isaiah 66:2 or Ezra 9:4. Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing Fox's admonition, but became accepted and is used by some Quakers. Quakers described themselves using terms such as true Christianity, Children of the Light, Friends of the Truth, reflecting terms used in the New Testament by members of the early Christian church.
Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680. But the dominant discourse of Protestantism viewed the Quakers as a blasphemous challenge to social and political order, leading to official persecution in England and Wales under the Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Act 1664; this was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689. One modern view of Quakerism at this time was that the relationship with Christ was encouraged through spiritualisation of human relations, "the redefinition of the Quakers as a holy tribe,'the family and household of God'". Together with Margaret Fell, the wife of Thomas Fell, the vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and an eminent judge, Fox developed new conceptions of family and community that emphasised "holy conversation": speech and behaviour that reflected piety and love. With the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for wom
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –